Sustainable resource management: A Pressure-State-Response ...

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Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Sustainable resource management:

A Pressure
-
State
-
Response framework

for sustainability in the urban
environment

Ian Boothroyd

Golder Kingett Mitchell (Golder Associates Ltd.), Auckland;

and School of Geography, Geology and Environmental Science,
University of Auckland.


and


Maree Drury

EnviroVentures Ltd., Auckland

Urbanisation


> 85% of New Zealanders live in urban areas


Nearly 72% live in the 16 largest urban environments
(Statistics NZ 2006)


> one million people (>30% of New Zealand’s
population) living in Auckland (< 2% of New Zealand’s
land area).


Housing, commercial and roading intensification within
towns and cities.


Growing demand for lifestyle living in areas surrounding
urban centres (i.e., peri
-
urban development).


Increasing pressure on the existing, and often already
limited or highly
-
modified natural resources.


While at the same time demanding increasing service
from these ecosystems (i.e., for stormwater runoff or
wastewater disposal).


Urban sustainability involves creating better
places to live, work and play, while solving
problems caused in and by our settlements
(MFE 2003).




New Zealand’s urban areas have not received
the attention they need to promote sustainable
urban environments and infrastructures

(PCE
2002).

Urban Sustainability

Driving Forces


In urban areas, community well
-
being is at
the heart of sustainability initiatives.


Examples:


The overarching principle of the Greater Christchurch
Urban Development Strategy is
sustainable prosperity.


The Auckland Regional Growth Strategy aims (amongst
four key goals) to sustain
strong and supportive
communities.


Generic issues identified for sustainable urban living

(adapted from Greater Christchurch Urban Development Strategy and Auckland Regional Growth Strategy)



Drawing a defined boundary between urban and rural areas.


Maintaining

the character of communities.


Preserving
, creating and linking urban and rural open space including parks

and recreational areas.


Protecting outstanding landscapes.


Protecting

the quality and quantity of groundwater and surface water

resources.


Protecting

and
enhancing

ecological systems.


Reducing and preventing air, land and water pollution.


Maintaining a secure and productive resource base, including minimizing the

loss of productive land.


Provision

of more transport options, including walking, cycling and public

transport.


Moving goods and people efficiently, making effective use of transportation

and service corridors.


Ensuring

good stewardship of land, sites and structures with cultural heritage

value.


Ensuring adequate, affordable and appropriate housing.


Sustainable Catchment
Planning


Most catchment planning has provided
little focus on the social
-
emotional
context of sustainable management.



On average New Zealanders consider
our environment to be moderate to
good.



Improving the state of our urban
waterways and environment are high
priorities for urban dwellers.

Sustainable
Catchment
Planning

The Pressure State Response (PSR) framework


B
ased

on

the

concept

that

human

activities

exert

pressures

on

the

environment,

changing

the

quality

and

quantity

of

natural

resources




These

changes

alter

the

state

of

the

environment





The

human

responses

to

these

changes

include

organised

behavior,

which

aims

to

reduce,

prevent

or

mitigate

effects

on

the

environment




OECD

Model

Perception of

the state of the

environment

State

of the environment

and natural resources

Global

National

Regional

Local

Pressures

on the environment

Responses

by Society

Direct pressures

Biological stresses

Indirect pressures

Human activities

Natural events

Central
G
overnment

Local Government

Policies & actions

Community sector

Individual/households

Attitudes & actions

Pressures

Information



Pressure
-
State
-
Response framework for environmental reporting

in New Zealand (from MFE 1997).


What does PSR provide management



A means of quantifying pressures on the environment, thereby
providing a way of measuring change, and the impact of policies and
programmes.


Means of quantifying and measuring change in state


Means of determining whether pressures and state are related, and
whether management intervention has been worthwhile.


Where to focus intervention.


State of the environment reporting.




Is it a cause
-
effect relationship?


Establishing cause
-
effect may be impossible in complex multi
-
component ecosystems.


Can we separate pressure, condition and response indicators?


Alignment between pressures and ecological health

indicators is good.


Estuarine sediment better water quality indicator than surface

water parameters (long
-
term changes).


Quantifiable pressure and state indicators developed with

threshold values (long
-
term changes).


Monitoring programme designed to detect changes in state

related to pressures.


The outcomes clearly show a relationship between increasing

urbanization and a loss of sustainability, as measured by

various water, sediment and ecological quality indices.

Effectiveness

of PSR:


Auckland streams


Management

objectives

and/or

anticipated

outcomes

State

of the

Environment

Building blocks

Standard methods

Standard criteria

Interpretation

Relationship
with

Stream types

Training

QA/QC

Response
change

Pressure

Land use

Tools

Record of implementation of works and services

Plan implementation

Non regulatory programmes

Indicators

Measurement

Im
ple
me
nta
tio
n

Indicators

Estuarine sediment

con
tamination

Water quality (clarity,

ammonia, temperature, pH,

nutrients, heavy metals)

Habitat

Macroinvertebrate

biotic indices

Riparian vegetation

% Imperviousness
SMU

Volume of

WWOF m
3
/km
2

Annual vehicle
/count/SMU


Number of
SW outlets
>375mm i.d /km
2

%Land area of SMU
with stormwater

treatment

%Continuous riparian
margin & % riparian
margin > 10m.

Building blocks

Standard methods

Standard indicators

Interpretation

Standard thresholds

QA/QC

Co
m
mu
nic
ati
on

Fish

Source: EVA et al. 2003


Disadvantages of PSR


Static framework.


Minimises significance of natural
pressures.


Ignores societal perceptions and desires.


Assumes cause
-
effect?


Rarely a single unifying indicator or
response.

PSR:

Natural vs Human

influence indicators


Long
-
term vs Short
-
term


Scale

Socio
-
economic
-
environmental
frameworks


Benefits:

1.

There is an explicit link to the goal of pursuing human and ecosystem
well
-
being together.


2.

It recognises that people are part of the environment/ecosystem
although for the purposes of analysis they are held separately.


3.

It stresses that what has to be managed is human activity/behaviour.


4.

Portray and assess benefits achieved by what people do to the
ecosystem, and what the ecosystem provides to human/societal well
-
being.


Existing PSR anthropogenic focus


No natural pressure indicators


Two parallel systems


environmental and social

PSR enhancements?


Natural capital

which includes the natural environment, ecosystem
services, all aspects of nature and those resources which we take from the
environment and use either in their raw form or in a production process.



Produced economic capital

which include all products that are harvested
or manufactured, physical infrastructure that has been constructed, cultural
and intellectual property, and financial resources.



Human capital

which includes all community members, their age structure,
physical/mental well being, education, knowledge, skills, capacity to
contribute through production, decision making, developments/use of
technology, social interaction, innovation etc.


Enhancement of individual and collective wellbeing:


Economic outcomes comprise ‘material well being’ and ‘productivity’


Social outcomes comprise ‘physical well being and health’, ‘safety’, ‘place in
the community’, ‘emotional well being and mental health’, ‘intimate
relationships’ ‘culture and recreation’.

PSR enhancements?


Framework needs to incorporate:


major economic (e.g., transport, energy),


social (e.g., housing) and


environmental (e.g., ecosystem enhancement) drivers



Incorporate concepts of resilience, adaptability and
diversity



As sustainable development initiatives shift focus from
the responsive and corrective approach to a more causal
approach, there is likely to be more integration of
resources and planning for sustainable development.



Ecosystem health may be tied to an
ecosystem’s ability to use stress
(pressures) creatively (i.e., resilience,
adaptability, diversity) than its ability
to resist stress (pressures)
completely.

Acknowledgements


We thank Annabel Barnden and Roland Payne for
assistance with the collation of literature and search of
websites for additional material on urban sustainability.


Bruce Williamson and Geoff Mills for discussion and
debate on PSR framework.


MFE for funding Auckland SOE report.