Gender mainstreaming in ground

obnoxiouspotpieManagement

Nov 8, 2013 (4 years and 1 day ago)

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Gender mainstreaming in ground
water management

A presentation by N. Neseni

Purpose of the presentation


To highlight the key cross cutting issues of
gender , ground water management


To create awareness and interest among water
professionals, researchers , managers and
planners so that they may consider these
issues not just as “other consideration” but as
key to realization of ground water
management goals and objectives.


Why gender matters in water
management


Dealing with water scarcity, competition for
water and pollution, the water manager has to
find a way to fulfill the needs and reduce the
impacts.


Poor women and men are affected and
impacted on by water, economically, socially
and environmentally

The IWRM has three pillars

Environmental sustainability

Environmental sustainability means assuring the capacity of

nature to support life. Within the context of IWRM this means a

healthy water cycle, adequate water for nature, and less water

pollution. Forests and wetlands, among other ecosystems, help

regulate water flow and quality. Wise efforts to manage water

resources sustainably and ensure long
-
term water availability

must include integrated actions to protect ecosystems and

ensure environmental sustainability. On contrary, poor

management of water resources will result in largely negative

and often irreversible changes to the environment. Long
-
term

water availability requires that ecosystems are able to continue

to regulate water quality and quantity

Economic efficiency

Economic efficiency Water is vital for economic
and social
development and is indispensable
to sustain and increase urban and rural
livelihood activities. Given increasing water
scarcity, the choice as to how each drop
should be allocated and managed becomes
central to maximizing social and economic
benefits and ensuring sustainability.

Economic efficiency

This effort also includes
sectoral

and cross
sectoral

actions for cleaner production,
water reuse and recycling recognizing that
freshwater is a limited resource, and
investment in water projects must be viable.
Economic efficiency also refers to financial
sustainability to build, operate and maintain
the diverse projects and facilities required to
improve water access and assure water
quality and quantity over the long
-
term
through cost recovery and payment systems.


Social equity

Social equity Water is a basic human need. It is also a
central part
of the basic rights all people are entitled
to under the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.
When considered in this light, social equity is
embedded in actions that support the sustainable
management and use of water resources. Social
equity requires that a fair share of water benefits and
responsibilities be transmitted to women and men,
poor and rich, young and old.

Social equity

This means fair opportunities to access, use and

control water resources, as well as equitable

acceptance of responsibility for the negative

side effects produced so as to avoid placing

higher burdens on the poor or disadvantaged

members of society.


In its scarcity

the poor men and
women bear the heaviest losses

In its abundance national infrastructure is destroyed
placing heavy burden on social budgets

In its poor quality, down stream users often
poor quality

Due to poor management poor men and women bear
the burden and pay price in health

Defining gender


Can you please write on a piece of paper what
it is that you have wished to do had you been
the opposite sex.


What stops you from doing that ?


Discuss what seems to be emerging

Defining Gender


Most of the barriers that stop us are social
rather than biological. Society has
expectations of how we should behave
because of our sexual orientation.


Consequently we are trained through
socialization to behave in a certain manner
because we were born with male of female
organs.

Defining gender


sex vs. gender

Sex

Biological


Given by birth

Therefore


cannot be changed

Example


Only women can give birth

Only men can produce sperms
and Impregnate



Gender

Cultural


Learned through socialization

Therefore


Can be changed


Example


women and men can work as water
managers, latrine builders, drillers,
planners


Women and men can take care of the
sick, elderly and children


Defining gender Contd


`
Gender can thus be defined as “
socially determined attributes,
roles, activities and responsibilities
connected to being male or female
in a society.”


gender attributes vary from society
to society,


are largely influenced by such
factors as class, religion, ethnicity
etc.



are not static and change over
time being influenced by factors
such as social, economic and
political influences


Global commitments

Importance of gender has been recognized
globally:


UN conference on water at Mar del Plata 1997


IDWSS decade 1981
-
90


Conference on water and environment Dublin
1992


Agenda 21


International Decade for action on water and
life 2005
-
2015


Gender overview


MDGS


CEDAW


Members states have various
strategies on gender
mainstreaming


SADC has the
RISDP,ECOWAS,OAU,

NEPAD,AMCAO


However…. All countries
characterised by gender
disparities …. Political, economic,
social and cultural spheres.

Why its necessary to consider cross
cutting issues

“Anyone who can solve
the water challenges in
this world deserves a
double Nobel prize “
Prof. Andreas Sollozi
-
Nargi Rector UNESCO
IHE 11
th

symposium
Victoria Falls 2010


Women in development (WID)

Gender and development (GAD)

1
Approach

Views women as centre of the problem

An approach to development of men and
women

2 The focus

women

Relations between men and women

3 The problem

Exclusion of women form dev. process

Unequal relations of power preventing
equitable dev. & full part.

4 The goal

More efficient and just dev.

Equitable and sustainable dev with women
and men as decision makers

The solution

Integrate women into existing dev process

Empower disadvantaged & transform
unequal relations

6 The strategies

Women’s projects

Women’s components

Integrated projects

Increase women's productivity

Increase women’s ability to look after the
H/H

Identify and address practical needs

Address women’s and men’s strategic
needs

Address strategic interest of the poor

Gender issues


Access and control over resources


Literacy and access to education


Access to and control over land


Capital or financial services


Skilled and unskilled work


Paid and unpaid labour


Gender budgets


Decesion making (water using vs
decesion making community


Technology and participation

Water is a finite and valuable resource essential to sustaining life,
development and the environment



Linking HIV, AIDS and gender to IWRM

Gender

When a resource is finite there is competition and it
is the poor and weak who often loose out

Water and land are also intrinsically linked and
women while they till the land have little control
over that land and therefore over water resources,
allocation, charges etc

Women traditionally are custodians of water and
environment and their role has positive effects on
sustainable use. Sidelining them leads to negative
usage

Women play a central part in the provision, management
and safeguarding of water

Women need capacity to be able to participate


An enabling environment that allows them to participate such as
timing of meetings,

venue of meeting


Other facilities that allow them to continue with their care giving
role


Participation is also influenced by environment, complexity of
technology

Issues such as language have an impact on who participates and
at what level

of participation

Water has an economic


value in all its competing uses and
should be recognized as an economic
& social
good


Gender

Women largely use water for social issues in which it is difficult
to attach a monetary value and yet is important for health and
perpetuation of humanity.


Commoditization of water may sideline the poor men and
women


Delineation of water into domestic and productive use is
artificial at local level. Women who often are care givers will
want to conduct domestic and productive activities within a
convenient distant to homestead

Water development and management should be based on
participatory approach involving users, planners and policy makers
at all levels

gender

There is a clear decision making group in IWRM and water
using group

Instruments for participatory planning not in place.

Stakeholder participation is a concept that is nice and generally
agreed on. The practical approach where there are log frames,
timelines means in reality it is not

applied. SADC has produced
guidelines on stakeholder participation



Women and poor are often multi tasking making participation

difficult

Gender mainstreaming


Know the difference between Gender equality and gender
equity

equality of opportunity and equity of outcomes:


equality of opportunity: this means that women , infected
should have equal rights and entitlements to human, social,
economic and cultural development, and an equal voice in
civic and political life

equity of outcomes:
this means that the exercise of these rights
and entitlements leads to outcomes which are fair and just.

Gender Analysis

Gender analysis

-

a methodology to identify the roles and
responsibilities of the various members of the
household, their access and control over
resources, benefits under prevailing
institutional norms and mechanisms.


Different gender policies and strategies


Gender aware policies


Gender neutral policies


Gender redistribute policies


Gender blind policies


Malawi Case Study


In the 1980s the Malawian gvt designed an
innovative system of community mgt for water
supply to low income h/holds.


H/holds in 50 districts received water, but water
bills were not paid.


Taps were opened at inappropriate times.



Water committees seldom met.


Investigations showed that, prior to this project,
local men had had little or nothing to do with
water mgt.


Malawi example


However, when the externally driven project was
initiated, the men took control & the women took
a back seat.


Tap committees were made up of 90% men,
many of whom were away most of the time.


Efforts were made to integrate women into the
process & guidelines for 60% women were set
for tap committees.


Consultation with women was done separately,
& male & female extension officers were used.



The Result


Payment of water bills increased.


Women became active & long serving
members of tap committees.


Special training courses were organised
for women in leadership, problem solving,
financial mgt, hygiene & sanitation, &
operation & maintenance.


Tap committees met regularly &
attendance was good.



Malawi example


Hygiene & sanitation improved. Taps were
opened & closed to the satisfaction of
users.


There are many such examples of the
benefits of gender sensitive policies giving
rise to significant benefits at the local level.

Benefits of Gender Mainstreaming


Benefits arising from a gender sensitive
approach generally lists five major areas
of benefit:


efficiency,


effectiveness,


equity,


sustainability &



development at large.


Addressing gender for sustainable development

Processing:
food,
diseases,
ecosystem
balance


Assimilative
capacity

Sink for
wastes

Manufactured
financial capital

Human
capital

Social
capital

society

Environmen
t natural
capital

Livelihoods


Food


Fuel


Freshwater


soil

Gender mainstreaming tools


Harvard framework


POP framework


Moser framework

-

Basically looking at who does what? who
benefits who makes decisions? who pays the
price?

HAVARD ANALYTICAL FRAMEWORK


Aim is to demonstrate that there is an economic
case for allocating resources to men and women
thus planners will design more efficient projects
and improve productivity. It looks at roles and
responsibilities, access and control, influencing
factors.


PEOPLE ORINTED PLANNING FRAMEWORK


Similar to Harvard analytical framework

Aim is to ensure that there is equitable distribution of
resources and services

Was adapted by UN for refugee situations to ensure
that there is efficient use of donor resources and
promote appropriate targeting.

Influenced by:


Change


Participation socio
-
demographic analysis

Uses activity profile and use and control of resources

WHERE
AND WHEN
ARE THEY
USEFUL

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS

Both frameworks are useful for micro level analysis
especially for data collection and analysis. More useful for
projects rather than programmes. Can be used at any
stage of the project cycle.



TRAINING

Can be used in training to demonstrate the complexity of
people’s lives


WHERE
AND WHEN
ARE THEY
USEFUL

AS GENDER NEUTRAL ENTRY POINTS

Can be used for opening dialogue about gender
disparities with those who do not want to acknowledge
gender issues. The power dynamics are based on fact
and not theory.



IN COMMUNICATION



The gender framework relies on economic argument for
most efficient allocation of resources. The language is
similar to that of economists and this may be useful in
talking to people influenced by economic efficiency.


MOSER FRAMEWORK


At the heart of this is ‘gender planning”
and the assumption is that planning is
not only a technical but both political
and technical in nature, that there is
conflict in planning, it is transformatory
and that it is a debate.

3 categories of this framework;

Women’s Triple Role, practical and
strategic gender needs, categories of
WID/GAD matrix



TRIPPLE ROLE:PRODUCTIVE, REPRODUCTIVE, COMMUNITY
MANAGEMENT


STRATEGIC AND PRACTICAL NEEDS



WID/GAD
-

DISTINGUSHING BETWEEN THE AIMS
OF THE PROGRAMME



WELFARE APPROCAH
-

acknowledging women in their
reproductive role, passive beneficiaries of development
programmes/projects



EQUITY
-

USED BY UN FOR PROMOTING EQUALITY
(76
-
850 Direct state intervention to promote involvement
of women in development tries to meet strategic needs of
women through political and economic autonomy. Seen
as threatening more on feminism and mostly western
-

alienates men.

ANTI POVERTY


aim is to see that poor women move
out of their poverty by increasing their productivity.
Problem is women’s poverty and not that of
subordination. Tries to meet practical gender needs of
raising incomes.



EFFICIENCY
-

Ensure that development is more efficient
and effective by harnessing women’s economic
contribution. It assumes women’s participation as gender
equity. That women’s time is elastic.



EMPOWERMENT


empower women through
supporting their own initiatives thus fostering self
-
reliance. Women’s experiences influenced by factors

such as class, age, religion. Seeks to meet both practical
and strategic gender needs.



Use of the tool


PLANNING


TRAINING


Why does it appeal?



Moves planning beyond
technical

Challenges inequality

Talks to planners in their own
language


Practical and strategic gender needs a good way of assessing
impact.

Triple role makes all work visible


Distinguishes between policy approaches



BUT DOES IT MATER
WHICH TOOL YOU USE

NOOOO
-

LARGELY
DEPENDS ON
OBJECTIVES