Smart Grid, Smart Cities R510 Case Study - Redflow Limited

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Nov 21, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Case Study


Utility
-
Owned Smart Grid


Smart Grid, Smart Cities

Trial

1

March



31

May

201
2




1
1

July

2012

REDFLOW LTD.


Smart Grid, Smart Cities Trial
Case Study

11/10/2012


Page
ii


Background


The Australian Government has chosen Ausgrid to lead a $100
million initiative across five sites in
Newcastle, Sydney and the Upper Hunter regions (see

Figure
1
).

Smart Grid, Smart City

creates a
testing

ground

for new energy
supply technologies.

At least

30,000 households will participate in
the project over three years.


The demonstration project gathers information about the benefits and costs of different smart grid
technologies in an Australian setting. Building a smart g
rid involves transforming the traditional
electricity network by adding a chain of new, smart technology. It includes smart sensors, new back
-
end IT systems, smart meters and a communications network.

RedFlow has won the bid to supply 61 energy storage sy
stems (ESS) to Ausgrid for installation in
Newcastle, Scone and Newington in Sydney. 40 of these were installed in Newcastle in late 2011
and early 2012, with the other 20 ESS installed in Scone in April 2012. One ESS has also been
operational in Newingt
on since 2010 as part of the ongoing Smart Home sub
-
project. The 40
systems in Newcastle have been operating since February 2012 and have been feeding into the grid
during peak demand periods. The 20 systems in Scone have been operational since mid
-
May 2
012.


Figure
1
: The locations and highlights of the Smart Grid, Smart City Trial

[1]

RedFlow’s ESS are based on its core zinc bromide module (ZBM) flow battery technology. Each ESS
contains one ZBM, battery management system (BMS), remote terminal unit (RTU), inverter and 3G
modem for communications. All components are housed in a metal enclosure installed near
customer houses on private property.


40 RedFlow ESS

20

RedFlow ESS

1

RedFlow ESS

REDFLOW LTD.


Smart Grid, Smart Cities Trial
Case Study

11/10/2012


Page
iii


Summary


Increases in both general and peak electricity demand, the integration of intermittent and
distributed generation, and d
evelopments in communications technology have all enabled, as well
as necessitated a more advanced electricity network. This moves away from the traditional uni
-
directional grid, with central generation and one
-
way communications. As such, utilities have

seen
Smart Grids

as an answer to the need for greater grid capacity, as well as allowing transmission and
distribution infrastructure upgrade deferral. According to the Electric Power Research Institute
(EPRI), a Smart Grid “integrates and enhances other

necessary elements including traditional
upgrades and new grid technologies with renewable generation, storage, increased consumer
participation, sensors, communications and computational ability”
[2]
.

The use of energy storage in Smart Grids can provide utilities with many benefits, including
improved operational efficiency and increased value of distributed generation, thereby improving
customer satisfaction
[3]
. This is done through the time
-
shifting of electricity from low demand, as
well as times of high distributed generation output, to high demand times.

However,

despite the many benefits of energy storage, existing proven technologies are either
inappropriate for Smart Grid applications (in the case of lead acid batteries), or are physically
impossible to implement on a large scale in a variety of areas (in the c
ase of pumped hydro or
compressed air energy storage (CAES)). As such, new and advanced technologies are emerging to
satisfy this new market. These must be trialed and tested to ensure that they are both reliable and
align with the needs of utilities.

As

such, the Australian Government has initiated, and is currently funding the Smart Grid, Smart
Cities (SGSC) Trial. It aims to test several hypotheses about many types of Smart Grid technology. In
particular, the Trial aims to quantify the following seve
n benefits of energy storage:

1.

Reduction in peak demand


energy storage as a cost
-
effective and reliable alternative to
network capacity expansion

2.

Improvement in network reliability/voltage/power factor/power quality


cost
-
effectiveness and value of
energy storage

3.

Energy supply during peak price events


net benefit to retail sector

4.

Minimisation of customers’ energy bills


with innovative tariffs e.g. time of use together
with energy storage.

5.

Combined benefit between consumer, retail and network sect
ors

6.

Investigation of large capacity (~1MVA) storage


extra cost and other benefits compared
to smaller capacity storage

7.

Intermittent generation support


optimisation of renewable energy sources value

RedFlow has been selected as one of several advanced e
nergy storage companies to supply energy
storage systems (ESS) for the trial to test these seven benefits of energy storage to Smart Grids. The
ESS supplied for the Trial by RedFlow are the zinc
-
bromide module (ZBM)
-
based R510 model (see
Appendix
B



R510
Product Brochure
). These systems are rated at 5kW, 10kWh, and comprise one
ZBM, inverter, 3G modem for communications, battery management system (BMS), remote termin
al
unit (RTU) and other power electronics housed in a metal enclosure (see
Figure
8
).

REDFLOW LTD.


Smart Grid, Smart Cities Trial
Case Study

11/10/2012


Page
iv



Figure
2
: Components of RedFlow's R510 ESS

61 R510 ESS have been installed and commissioned on separate residential properties as part of the
SGSC Trial.


The ESS have

been staggered in their installations, with all systems operational since
mid
-
May 2012. The operational results and benefits of RedFlow’s ZBM
-
based ESS were analysed,
and the lessons learnt presented. This produced the following key conclusions:



Over th
e period between 1 March and 31 May 2012, the R510 ESS installed for the SGSC trial
have outputted a total of 14.334MWh to the grid at an average efficiency of 58.03%. This is
shown in the graph below in
Figure
12
.


Figure
3
: Total grid import and export over the trial period with average monthly efficiency

0
20
40
60
80
100
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
March
April
May
%

kWh

SGSC ESS Grid Interaction

Grid Import (kWh)
Grid Export (kWh)
Efficiency (%)
ZBM

Inverter


SMA Sunny Backup

Enclosure

1850 H x 971 L x 567 W

Power

Electronics

Including BMS, RTU,
3G Modem

REDFLOW LTD.


Smart Grid, Smart Cities Trial
Case Study

11/10/2012


Page
v




The use of RedFlow’s ESS reduces the traditional peak seen by the grid by 10
-
15% when
used
in a ratio of approximately 1 ESS for 16 customers during cooler months

(see
Figure
4
)
.


Figure
4
: Results from the Melinda Avenue feeder in

Newcastle show a reduction in peak demand of over 15% with the
use of RedFlow's ESS during traditional peal times



The use of RedFlow’s ESS transforms the traditional
evening
peak seen by the grid to a
trough when used in a ratio of approximately 1 ESS for 1 customer during cooler months
(see
Figure
5
).



Figure
5
: Results from the Scone feeder
in mid
-
June
show a
transformation from peak to trough with the use of
R
edFlow's ESS during traditional peak times



Research and Development already und
ertaken by RedFlow shows that its kW
-
scale ESS
can
be scaled up to MW
-
scale systems (see
Figure
6
).

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
12:00 AM
3:00 AM
6:00 AM
9:00 AM
12:00 PM
3:00 PM
6:00 PM
9:00 PM
12:00 AM
Power (kVA)

Power on Miranee Road Recloser

Energy Storage in Use


Grid
-
Feed
Period

45kW





Grid Charge

Period

28kW

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
3:40
PM
4:10
PM
4:40
PM
5:10
PM
5:40
PM
6:10
PM
6:40
PM
7:10
PM
7:40
PM
8:10
PM
8:40
PM
9:10
PM
9:40
PM
10:10
PM
Grid Power (kW)

Grid
-
Feed
Period


Monday 9 April 2012

Real Power (kW) with Storage
Real Power (kW) without Storage
Peak Reduction

15.19%

65 Residential Customers

4 R510 ESS







Grid Charge
Period

12kW

13

Residential
Customers

15

R510 ESS

REDFLOW LTD.


Smart Grid, Smart Cities Trial
Case Study

11/10/2012


Page
vi



Figure
6
: RedFlow's M90 90kW, 180kWh ESS

was installed at the University of Queensland in late May 2012



RedFlow’s ESS perform well when integrated with intermittent solar generation, as well as
more reliable fuel cell distributed generation



Figure
7
: The SGSC trial in Newcastle has integrated

a total of 200kW of solar and 50kW of Blue Gen fuel cell generation

with 40 RedFlow ESS

3 Solar

12
Solar

2
Solar

15
Solar

5
Solar

3
Solar

REDFLOW LTD.


Smart Grid, Smart Cities Trial
Case Study

11/10/2012


Page
vii


Contents


Background

................................
................................
................................
................................
.............

ii

Summary

................................
................................
................................
................................
................

iii

Contents

................................
................................
................................
................................
................

vii

List of Figures

................................
................................
................................
................................
.......

viii

1

Introduction

................................
................................
................................
................................
....

1

2

Operation

................................
................................
................................
................................
........

5

2.1

Newcastle

................................
................................
................................
................................

5

2.2

Scone

................................
................................
................................
................................
.......

5

2.3

Newington

................................
................................
................................
...............................

5

3

Results

................................
................................
................................
................................
.............

6

3.1

Newcastle

................................
................................
................................
................................

6

3.1.1

Peak Demand Reduction

................................
................................
................................
.

6

3.1.2

Reliability

................................
................................
................................
.........................

8

3.2

Scone

................................
................................
................................
................................
.......

9

3.2.1

Peak Demand Reduction

................................
................................
................................
.

9

3.2.2

Reliability

................................
................................
................................
.......................

10

3.3

Newington

................................
................................
................................
.............................

10

3.3.1

Load Following

................................
................................
................................
..............

10

3.3.2

Reliability

................................
................................
................................
.......................

11

4

Lessons Learnt

................................
................................
................................
...............................

12

4.1

Newcastle

................................
................................
................................
..............................

12

4.2

Scone

................................
................................
................................
................................
.....

12

4.3

Newington

................................
................................
................................
.............................

13

5

Conclusions

................................
................................
................................
................................
...

14

6

References

................................
................................
................................
................................
....

15

Appendix A


List of Abbreviations

................................
................................
................................
.......

16

Appendix B


R510

Product Brochure

................................
................................
................................
...

17

Appendix C


List of Trial Sites

................................
................................
................................
...............

20

Appendix C1


List of Newcastle Sites

................................
................................
..............................

21

Appendix C2


List of Scone Sites

................................
................................
................................
.....

23

Appendix D


Cycle
Profiles

................................
................................
................................
..................

24

Appendix E


Newcastle Reduction in Peak Demand

................................
................................
...........

25


REDFLOW LTD.


Smart Grid, Smart Cities Trial
Case Study

11/10/2012


Page
viii


List of Figures


FIGURE 1: THE LOCATI
ONS AND HIGHLIGHTS O
F THE SMART GRID, SM
ART CITY TRIAL [1]

II

FIGURE 2: COMPONENTS

OF REDFLOW'S R510 ES
S

IV

FIGURE 3: TOTAL GRID

IMPORT AND EXPORT OV
ER THE TRIAL PERIO
D WITH AVERAGE MONTH
LY EFFICIENCY

IV

FIGURE 4: RESULTS FR
OM THE MELINDA AVENU
E FEEDER IN

NEWCASTLE SHOW A RED
UCTION IN PEAK
DEMAND OF OVER 15% W
ITH THE USE OF REDFL
OW'S ESS DURING TRAD
ITIONAL PEAL TIMES

V

FIGURE 5: R
ESULTS FROM THE SCON
E FEEDER IN MID
-
JUNE SHOW A TRANSFOR
MATION FROM PEAK TO
TROUGH WITH THE USE
OF REDFLOW'S ESS DUR
ING TRADITIONAL PEAK

TIMES

V

FIGURE 6: REDFLOW'S
M90 90KW, 180KWH ESS

WAS INSTALLED AT THE

UNIVERSITY OF QUEENS
LAND IN LATE
MAY 2012

VI

FIGUR
E 7: THE SGSC TRIAL
IN NEWCASTLE HAS INT
EGRATED A TOTAL OF
200KW OF SOLAR AND 5
0KW OF
BLUE GEN FUEL CELL G
ENERATION WITH 40 RE
DFLOW ESS

VI

FIGURE 8: COMPONENTS

OF REDFLOW'S R510 ES
S

2

FIGURE 9: INSTALLATI
ON OF AN ESS IN NEWC
ASTLE

2

FIGURE 10: THE LOCAT
IONS OF THE REDFLOW
ESS IN NEWCASTLE, WI
TH THE FUEL CELL GEN
ERATION
CONNECTED TO EACH FE
EDER

3

FIGURE 11: THE R510
ESS INSTALLED AT THE

SMART HOME IN NEWING
TON, SYDNEY

4

FIGURE 12: TOTAL GRI
D IMPORT AND EXPORT
OVER THE TRIAL PERIO
D WITH AVERAGE MONTH
LY EFFICIENCY

6

FIGURE 13: A TYPICAL

FEED
-
IN CURVE FOR THE 4 E
SS ON THE MELINDA AV
ENUE FEEDER

6

FIGURE 14: THE REDUC
TION IN PEAK DEMAND
SEEN BY THE GRID (4P
M
-
10PM) IN MAY ON THE
MELINDA
AVENUE FEEDER

7

FIGURE 15: REDUCTION

IN PEAK DEMAND SEEN
BY THE MELINDA AVENU
E FEEDER DURING TRAD
ITIONAL
PEAK TIMES

7

FIGURE 16: THE PEAKS

CAUSED BY AUTOMATIC
HOT WATER SYSTEMS ON

THE MELINDA AVENUE F
EEDER

8

FIGURE 17: AVAILABIL
ITY OF ZBMS AND ESS
IN NEWCASTLE

8

FIGURE 18: AVERAGE P
OWER ON THE SCONE RE
CLOSER 14 TO 18 MAY
(BEFORE REDFLOW ESS
COMMENCED
FULL OPERATION)

9

FIGURE 19: AVERAGE P
O
WER ON THE SCONE REC
LOSER 18 TO 22 JUNE
(WITH REDFLOW ESS OP
ERATIONAL)

9

FIGURE 20: AVAILABIL
ITY OF ZBMS AND ESS
IN SCONE

10

FIGURE 21: THE ESS C
AN DYNAMICALLY FOLLO
W THE LOAD, AND ANY
SUDDEN CHANGES TO GE
NERATION

10


REDFLOW LTD.


Smart Grid, Smart Cities Trial
Case Study

11/10/2012


Page
1


1


Introduction


Increases in both general and peak electricity demand, the integration of intermittent and
distributed generation, and developments in commu
nications technology have all enabled, as well
as necessitated a more advanced electricity network. This moves away from the traditional uni
-
directional grid, with central generation and one
-
way communications. As such, utilities have seen
Smart Grids

as

an answer to the need for greater grid capacity, as well as allowing transmission and
distribution infrastructure upgrade deferral.

According to the Electric Power Research Institute
(EPRI), a Smart Grid “integrates and enhances other necessary elements
including traditional
upgrades and new grid technologies with renewable generation, storage, increased consumer
participation, sensors, communications and computational ability”
[2]
.

The use of energy storage in Smart Grids can provide utilities with many benefits, including
improved operational efficiency and increased value of distributed generation, thereby im
proving
customer satisfaction
[3]
. This is done through the time
-
shifting of electricity from low demand, as
well as times of high distributed generation output, to high demand times.

However, despite the many benefi
ts of energy storage, existing proven technologies are either
inappropriate

for Smart Grid applications

(in the case of lead acid batteries), or
are physically
impossible to implement on a large scale in a variety of areas (in the case of pumped hydro or
c
ompressed air energy storage (CAES)). As such, new and advanced technologies are emerging to
satisfy this new market. These must be trialed and tested to ensure that they are both reliable and
align with the needs of utilities.

As such, the Australian
Government has initiated, and is currently funding t
he Smart G
rid, Smart
Cities (SGSC) Trial
.

It aims to test several hypotheses about many types of
Smart Grid technology
. In
particular, the Trial aims to quantify the following seven benefits of energy s
torage:

8.

Reduction in peak demand


energy storage as a cost
-
effective and reliable alternative to
network capacity expansion

9.

Improvement in network reliability/voltage/power factor/power quality


cost
-
effectiveness and value of energy storage

10.

Energy supply during peak price events


net benefit to retail sector

11.

Minimisation of customers’ energy bills


with innovative tariffs e.g. time of use together
with energy storage.

12.

Combined benefit between consumer, retail and network sectors

13.

Investigati
on of large capacity (~1MVA) storage


extra cost and other benefits compared
to smaller capacity storage

14.

Intermittent generation support


optimisation of renewable energy sources value

RedFlow has been selected as one of several advanced energy storage c
ompanies to supply energy
storage systems (ESS) for the trial to test these seven benefits of energy storage to Smart Grids. The
ESS supplied for the Trial by RedFlow are the zinc
-
bromide module (ZBM)
-
based R510 model

(see
Appendix
B



R510
Product Brochure
)
. These systems are rate
d

at 5kW, 10kWh
output, and
comprise one ZBM, inverter,

3G modem for communications,
battery management
system (BMS),

remote terminal unit

(RTU) and other power electronics housed in a metal enclosure (see
Figure
8
).

REDFLOW LTD.


Smart Grid, Smart Cities Trial
Case Study

11/10/2012


Page
2



Figure
8
: Components of RedFlow's R510 ESS

61 R510 ESS have been installed
(see
Figure
9
)
and commissioned
on separate residential properties
as part of the SGSC Trial. This includes 40 systems in Newcastle (see
Figure
10
), which were installed
throughout late 2011 and early 2012. All systems were operational by February 2012, and
operate
on four different charge/discharge cycles with the aim of reducing the peak load seen by the grid in
th
ese suburban areas. They are also integrated with solar and fuel cell distributed generation.


Figure
9
: Installation of an ESS in Newcastle

ZBM

Inverter


SMA Sunny Backup

Enclosure

1850 H x 971 L x 567 W

Power
Electronics

Including BMS, RTU,
3G Modem

REDFLOW LTD.


Smart Grid, Smart Cities Trial
Case Study

11/10/2012


Page
3



Figure
10
: The locations of the RedFlow ESS
in Newcastle,
with

the
fuel cell
generation connected to each feeder

Twenty

systems
were installed
in Scone (
a

map cannot be given for privacy reasons
)
in early 2012,
and were operational by May 2012. These
systems are located at fringe
-
of
-
grid areas, and are being
used to test islanding aspects of a Smart Grid, as well as integration with wind turbines.


REDFLOW LTD.


Smart Grid, Smart Cities Trial
Case Study

11/10/2012


Page
4


One

R510 ESS

(see
Figure
11
)
has also been

in operation
since October 2011
in
Ausgrid’s Smart
Home, located in the suburb of Newing
ton in Western
Sydney.

It was installed as an upgrade to an
existing RedFlow lead
-
acid system that was installed in mid
-
2010, with a ZBM installed in late 2010
to augment the lead acid storage. This ESS originally operated on a daily charge/discharge cycle,
which was followed

by a zero import/export from the grid mode with the installation of the R510.
This has recently been modified to a hybrid cycle including both forced charge/discharge, as well as
dynamic load following.



Figure
11
: The R510 ESS

installed at the Smart Home in Newington, Sydney

This Case Study provides an overview and analysis of the performance of RedFlow’s R510 ESS in their
Smart Grid applications. It will cover the period of 1
March

to 21 May 2012. It has been divided into
th
e sections of Operation, Results and Lessons Learnt. Each section addresses the three locations of
Newcastle, Scone and Newington separately.

Appendix A contains a list of abbreviations used in this Case Study.

Appendix B contains a Product Brochure for R
edFlow’s R10, outlining key specifications of the ESS.

Appendix C contains a list of all sites testing energy storage in the SGSC trial

(see Appendix D for an
explanation of schedule profiles)
.

Appendix D contains a list of charge and discharge schedule p
rofiles.

Appendix E contains a large graph of peak reduction data from Newcastle.



REDFLOW LTD.


Smart Grid, Smart Cities Trial
Case Study

11/10/2012


Page
5


2

Operation

2.1

Newcastle

The 40 R510 ESS installed in Newcastle were located in suburban ar
eas, which generally experiences

a very high standard of power quality. However,
in
relation to the

installation of further embedded
generation (e.g. fuel cells and extra solar panels),
the value and capabilities of energy storage in
meeting these non
-
traditional challenges to the grid were tested.


As such, the ESS were set to charge fro
m and discharge into the grid at set times every weekday.
The ESS did not operate at all (apart from discharging in the early hours of each Saturday) on
weekends. This time schedule was varied between four different profiles: Profile A, Profile B, Profil
e
C and Profile D (see Appendix D). 10 ESS operated on each profile (see Appendix C1).

The efficiency and
reliability of the R510 ESS in reducing the peak demand seen by the grid was
tested. The results of this are presented in Section
3.1
.


2.2

Scone

The 20 R510 ESS installed in Scone were located in fringe of grid areas, which generally experiences a
lesser standard of power quality than those areas in Newcastle. A
s such, the islanding abilities of the
ESS were tested, as well as their ability to limit peaks seen by the grid.

The ESS did not operate at all (apart from discharging in the early hours of each Saturday) on
weekends. This time schedule was varied between two different profiles: Profile E and Profile F, (see
Appendix D). 6 ESS operated on Profile E, and 14 ESS oper
ated on Profile F (see Appendix C1).


2.3

Newington

The R510 ESS installed in Newington is located in a suburban area, which generally experiences a
very high standard of power quality.

While the ESS at Newington has operated under several types
of cycles, it

is currently operating under
Profile G (see Appendix D). When it is in the load following
mode, the ESS discharges power to the household load if the generation from the solar panels and
the fuel cell in insufficient, and charges from any excess generati
on that exceeds the household load.

The efficiency and reliability of the R510 ESS in reducing the peak demand of the Smart Home seen
by the grid was tested. The results of this are presented in Section
3.3
.





REDFLOW LTD.


Smart Grid, Smart Cities Trial
Case Study

11/10/2012


Page
6


3

Results

Over the period between 1 March and 31 May 2012, the R510 ESS installed for the SGSC trial have
outputted a total of 14.334MWh to the grid at an average efficiency of 58.03%. This is shown in the
g
raph below in
Figure
12
.


Figure
12
: Total grid import and export over the trial period with average monthly efficiency


3.1

Newcastle

3.1.1

Peak
Demand Reduction

The ESS installed in Newcastle have
had significant impact on the peak demand seen by the grid.
Analysis has shown that during the cooler Autumn months, a ratio of 4 ESS to 65 residential
customers produced reductions of peak demand seen by the grid
during the traditional peak period
(betwe
en the hours of 4pm and 10pm on weeknights)
by
an average of 5.39% in May. This is with 4
ESS operational for most of the month (1 ESS recommenced operation on 10 May after being out of
service since the start of th
e month), and therefore a ratio

of appro
ximately 1 ESS for 16 customers.
A typical output curve of the cumulative ESS is shown in
Figure
13
.


Figure
13
: A typical feed
-
in curve for the 4 ESS on the Melinda Avenue feeder

0
20
40
60
80
100
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
10000
March
April
May
%

kWh

SGSC ESS Grid Interaction

Grid Import (kWh)
Grid Export (kWh)
Efficiency (%)
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
4:00 PM
5:00 PM
6:00 PM
7:00 PM
8:00 PM
9:00 PM
10:00 PM
Grid Feed Power (kW)

Power Fed into the Grid by 4 ESS

3 ESS on Profile A
feed in 9kW total

1

ESS on Profile
B

fee
d
s

in
3
kW

3 ESS on Profile A
are almost flat

REDFLOW LTD.


Smart Grid, Smart Cities Trial
Case Study

11/10/2012


Page
7


However, the irregularity of this curve results in only very small peak reductions when peaks occur
arou
nd 7pm, or after 9pm. The variability in peak reduction can be seen in
Figure
14
.


Figure
14
: The reduction in peak demand seen by the grid (4pm
-
10pm) in May on the Melinda Avenue feeder

Despite this, the ESS have been capable of achieving peak reduction of about 15
% (see
Figure
15
).
A
grid peak demand graph for the week of Monday 9 April 2012
, showing similar results,

is given
in

Appendix E
.


Figure
15
: Reduction in
peak demand seen by the Melinda Avenue feeder during traditional peak times

However, in this particular area of Newcastle, many homes are fitted with automatic hot water
systems that are set to charge at 11pm. As can be seen in
Figure
16
, this causes a much larger peak
than that seen during traditional peak periods, when the ESS are discharging into the grid.
Therefore, while the ESS are effectively reducing the trad
itional evening peak, they are not
addressing the actual peaks see by the grid.

0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Reduction in Peak Demand (%)

Reduction in Peak Demand (4pm to 10pm) in May

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
3:40
PM
4:10
PM
4:40
PM
5:10
PM
5:40
PM
6:10
PM
6:40
PM
7:10
PM
7:40
PM
8:10
PM
8:40
PM
9:10
PM
9:40
PM
10:10
PM
Grid Power (kW)

Grid
-
Feed
Period


Monday 9 April 2012

Real Power (kW) with Storage
Real Power (kW) without Storage
Peak Reduction

15.19%

65 Residential Customers

4 R510 ESS

Peak occurs at
times of low ESS
feed
-
in power

REDFLOW LTD.


Smart Grid, Smart Cities Trial
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Page
8



Figure
16
: The peaks caused by automatic hot water systems on the Melinda Avenue feeder

This highlights the importance of thorough load profiling prior to setting ch
arge/discharge profiles
for residential ESS aimed at reducing peaks in demand seen by the grid. In the case of the Newcastle
ESS involved in the SGSC trial,

this would have raised two main issues. Firstly, the ESS should be
discharging between about 11p
m and 2am to reduce the true peak caused by the hot water systems.
Furthermore, the discharge profiles should be more appropriately staggered to achieve
a smoother
collective output curve, that discharges more power during times when the load curve is nor
mally
highest. These measures would aid in reducing the peak demand seen by the grid even more than
the significant reductions already provided by the ESS.

3.1.2

Reliability


As the ZBM is still an emerging technology, the reliability of the R510 is an important aspect of
evaluating its value in Smart Grid applications of energy storage. As can be seen in
Figure
17
, the
vast majority of ZBMs were available for operation throughout the study period, showing that ZBM
failure is not the main cause for making ESS unavailable.


Figure
17
: Availability of ZBMs and ESS in

Newcastle

0
20
40
60
80
100
1-Mar
13-Mar
25-Mar
6-Apr
18-Apr
30-Apr
12-May
24-May
%

Percentage of Newcastle ZBM and ESS Available

Newcastle ZBM Available
Newcastle ESS Available
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
12:00 AM
6:00 AM
12:00 PM
6:00 PM
12:00 AM
6:00 AM
12:00 PM
6:00 PM
12:00 AM
kW

Effect of Hot Water Systems

Real Power (kW) with Storage
Real Power (kW) without Storage
Peak Reduction
shown
in
Figure
15

65 Residential Customers

4 R510 ESS

43.29% increase
of traditional
evening peak

Monday 9 April

Tuesday 10 April

REDFLOW LTD.


Smart Grid, Smart Cities Trial
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9


3.2

Scone

3.2.1

Peak Demand Reduction

The ESS installed in Scone have had significant impact on the peak demand seen by the grid. This is
due in part to the high ratio of ESS to customers (just over 1 ESS per customer) in this semi
-
rural
area. Analysis
has shown that during the cooler Autumn and Winter months, the usual evening peak
seen by the grid (see
Figure
18
) is transformed into a noticeable trough with the use

of RedFlow’s
ESS (see
Figure
19
).


Figure
18
: Average power on the Scone recloser
14 to 18 May (before
RedFlow ESS commenced full operation)


Figure
19
: Average power on the Scone recloser 18 to 22 June (with RedFlow ESS operational)

However, it can also be
seen that peaks occur very late at night, and in the early morning due to
automatic off
-
peak hot water systems turning on.

However, these hot water system peaks are not
significantly larger in magnitude than the traditional morning and evening peaks.

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
12:00 AM
3:00 AM
6:00 AM
9:00 AM
12:00 PM
3:00 PM
6:00 PM
9:00 PM
12:00 AM
Power (kVA)

Power on Miranee Road Recloser


No Energy Storage in Use

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
12:00 AM
3:00 AM
6:00 AM
9:00 AM
12:00 PM
3:00 PM
6:00 PM
9:00 PM
12:00 AM
Power (kVA)

Power on Miranee Road Recloser

Energy Storage in Use


Grid
-
Feed
Period

45kW





Grid Charge

Period

28kW







Grid Charge
Period

12kW

13

Residential
Customers

15

R510 ESS

13

Residential
Cu
stomers

REDFLOW LTD.


Smart Grid, Smart Cities Trial
Case Study

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10


3.2.2

Reli
ability

As the ZBM is still an emerging technology, the reliability of the R510 is an important aspect of
evaluating its value in Smart Grid and islanding applications of energy storage. As can be seen in
Figure
20
, the vast majority of ZBMs were available for operation throughout the study period,
showing that ZBM failure is not the main cause for making ESS unavailable.


Figure
20
: Availability of ZBMs and ESS in Scone

3.3

Newington

3.3.1

Load Following

Results, such as those presented in
Figure
21
, show that the R510 ESS can charge and discharge
ac
cording to the needs of the load, as well as discharge when interruptions to normal generation
occur. This is known as load following.


Figure
21
: The ESS can dynamically follow the load, and any sudden changes to generation

0
20
40
60
80
100
4-Apr
11-Apr
18-Apr
25-Apr
2-May
9-May
16-May
23-May
30-May
%

Percentage of Scone ZBM and ESS Available

Scone ZBM Available
Scone ESS Available
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
12:00
AM
2:00
AM
4:00
AM
6:00
AM
8:00
AM
10:00
AM
12:00
PM
2:00
PM
4:00
PM
6:00
PM
8:00
PM
10:00
PM
Power (kW)

Blue Gen Fuel Cell Outage Performance

InvPwrAt [kW]
Blue Gen Power
Total Usage
Fuel cell
outage

ZBM discharges
to satisfy load

ZBM discharges in preparation to strip

REDFLOW LTD.


Smart Grid, Smart Cities Trial
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11


3.3.2

Reliability

The R510 at Newington was installed on 5 October 2011. It engaged in daily operation until 20
December, when it was shut down because its ZBM’s health was deteriorating and a fault was
expected to soon occur. Soon after, the resident family m
oved out of the Smart Home and Ausgrid
suspended the operation of most of the Smart Home’s elements while it underwent upgrades and
maintenance. The R510 ESS was kept shut down until late March when the ZBM was replaced. After
a series of calibration and
test cycles, the ESS was shut down again until the new resident family
moved into the Smart Home on 28 April, at which point the ESS recommenced operation. It has not
exp
erienced a fault since this time
.

At the end of May 2012, the new ZBM installed at th
e Smart Home had undertaken 48 cycles (of less
than 100% depth of discharge due to the shortage of excess generation from the Smart Home to
charge the ZBM), and outputted 87.23kWh.





REDFLOW LTD.


Smart Grid, Smart Cities Trial
Case Study

11/10/2012


Page
12


4

Lessons Learnt


4.1

Newcastle

The 40 systems in Newcastle were the first R5
10s to be installed on a large scale for RedFlow. As a
result of this, and early operation, the following important points were observed for future work in
the area.



The use of specialist installers, O’Donnell Griffin (ODG), has been highly beneficial in
the roll
-
out of ESS to Newcastle. This brought expertise to the project that RedFlow did not have,
and will be used in future large
-
scale trials.

Small issues with Newcastle installations shaped
changes to the process during Scone installations.



RedFlow
needs to have unlimited access to data sent from each ESS. In the case of the SGSC
project, Ausgrid kept data on their machines, which made it highly difficult and time
-
consuming for RedFlow to acquire and analyse data from systems for both monitoring and

improvement purposes.



An average of 76.14% of t
he ESS installed for the SGSC Trial were available for operation
over this study period. While this can be improved, the average of 96.65% availability of
ZBMs over the same time period means that most ESS f
aults were not due to ZBM failures.
Instead, it was elements of the ESS, and in particular the analogue looms that caused most
ESS faults.



This shows the reliability of the core ZBM product, as well as the need for specialist system
integrators to be involved in the design and manufacturing of future ESS.



It is important to carry out appropriate load and distributed generation analyses prior

to
project commencement. In the case of Newcastle, this would have shown the large peaks
caused by the automatic hot water systems. In response to this, and in addressing the true
peaks in the Newcastle area, the discharge period of the ESS should be sh
ifted, or hot water
systems should begin charging at staggered times.



The ESS have been installed at suitable ratios (1 ESS for every
16

customers) to the number
of customers in respective areas to achieve reductions in peak demand seen by the grid by
abou
t 5
-
10
%. However,
reductions could be improved with different discharge profiles.
Regardless,
the number of ESS may need to be increased to see the same peak reduction
results during the summer months.


4.2

Scone

The following lessons were also noted for the

installation and operation of the 20 ESS in Scone.



The use of specialist installers, O’Donnell Griffin (ODG), has also been highly beneficial in the
roll
-
out of ESS to Scone.



RedFlow needs to have unlimited access to data sent from each ESS. In the case
of the SGSC
project, Ausgrid kept data on their machines, which made it highly difficult and time
-
consuming for RedFlow to acquire and analyse data from systems for both monitoring and
improvement purposes.

REDFLOW LTD.


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13




An average of 79.57% of the ESS installed for the

SGSC Trial were available for operation
over this study period. While this can be improved, the average of 92.24% availability of
ZBMs over the same time period means that most ESS faults were not due to ZBM failures.



This shows the reliability of the
core ZBM product, as well as the need for specialist system
integrators to be involved in the design and manufacturing of future ESS.


4.3

Newington

The R510 ESS, as well as previous ESS, installed at the Newington Smart Home have produced the
following lesso
ns learnt from installation and operation.



The 5kW, 10kWh rating
of
the R510 ESS is appropriate for
the needs of the Smart Home
household load

(approximately 15kWh/day), and would still be suitable for slightly higher
loads
.



Large and continuous loads, suc
h as the EV
,
are often too large for the ESS to sustain without
requiring power from the grid.



The
re is a

need for a fuel cell or other similar reliable form of embedded generation to back
-
up solar generation
in off
-
grid or minimum grid import Smart Grid a
pplications.



The effectiveness of the R510 in conjunction with embedded generation
to load follow and
greatly reduce

grid import to below 8% of the time.




REDFLOW LTD.


Smart Grid, Smart Cities Trial
Case Study

11/10/2012


Page
14


5

Conclusions


Overall, this project has shown that
ZBMs in R510 ESS are a suitable type of energy
storage to use in
Smart Grid applications
.

The ZBM is reliable and effective in reducing peak demand seen by the grid,
as well as in islanding applications.

Overall,
RedFlow has learnt many valuable lessons over the course of the
SGSC Trial
, and will use
these to improve upon their technology

and installation procedures

for future
Smart Grid ESS
designs
. These have included:



The
benefits of using specialist installers to carry out large
-
scale installations of ESS
.



The
importance of complete access to tria
l data for monitoring and analysis
.



The ZBM is a reliable product, and was by far not the main cause of ESS failures.



The subsequent need for specialist system integrators to be involved in the design and
manufacturing of future ESS
.





REDFLOW LTD.


Smart Grid, Smart Cities Trial
Case Study

11/10/2012


Page
15


6

References


[1]

Ausgri
d. (2011) “Program

Trial Areas,” Ausgrid. [Online
]. Available:
http://www.smartgridsmartcity.com.au/About
-
Smart
-
Grid
-
Smart
-
City/~/media/Microsites/SGSC/Files/PDFs/Smart%20Grid%20Smart%20City%20project%20trial
%20map.pdf

[2]

Electrical Power Research Institute
(EPRI), “Estimating the Costs and Benefits of the Smart Grid:
A Preliminary Estimate of the Investment Requirements and the Resultant Benefits of a Fully
Functioning Smart Grid,” EPRI, Palo Alto,
CA
, Final Report 1022519, Mar. 2011.

[3]

M. Dean. (2012, Jun.

20
)
.

Smart Grid growth to spur demand for energy storage

[Online
].
Available:
http://www.pennenergy.com/index/power/display/3319716882/articles/pennenergy/power/gr
id/2012/june/
-
smart_grid_growth.html



REDFLOW LTD.


Smart Grid, Smart Cities Trial
Case Study

11/10/2012


Page
16


Appendix A


List of Abbreviations





BMS


-


Battery Man
agement System



CAES


-


Compressed Air Energy Storage



EPRI


-


Electric Power Research Institute



ESS


-


Energy Storage System



RTU


-


Remote Terminal Unit



SGSC


-


Smart Grid, Smart Cities



ZBM


-


Zinc Bromide Module





REDFLOW LTD.


Smart Grid, Smart Cities Trial
Case Study

11/10/2012


Page
17















Appendix
B



R510
Product Brochure














REDFLOW LTD.


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Case Study

11/10/2012


Page
18



REDFLOW LTD.


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Case Study

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19



REDFLOW LTD.


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Case Study

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20











Appendix C


List of Trial Sites

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21


Appendix C1


List of Newcastle Sites

Site
Number

ZBM #
(Class)

Cabinet ID

Date of
Commissioning

Schedule

Status

Comments

159

195

R510
-
A1
-
DE13
-
159

17 November 2011

Profile A

Operational

Leak 1 Trip

160

184

R510
-
A1
-
DE14
-
160

17 November 2011

Profile A

Operational


161

319(A+)

R510
-
A1
-
DE15
-
161

17 November 2011

Profile A

Operational

2 ZBM Replacements

162

194

R510
-
A1
-
DE22
-
162

17 November 2011

Profile A

Not
Operational


163

318 (A+)

R510
-
A1
-
DE17
-
163

17 November 2011

Profile A

Operational

ZBM Replacement

164

339 (A+)

R510
-
A1
-
DE18
-
164

17 November 2011

Profile A

Operational

ZBM Replacement

Previous SMA Fault

165

346

(
A+
)

R510
-
A1
-
DE19
-
165

17 November 2011

Profile A

Unknown Fault

ZBM Replacement

Q4 Switching

166

304

(
A+
)

R510
-
A1
-
DE20
-
166

17 November 2011

Profile A

Not Operational

System Noise

ZBM
Replacement

167

300 (A+
)

R510
-
A1
-
DE21
-
167

17 November 2011

Profile A

Operational

ZBM Replacement

168

311

(
A+
)

R510
-
A1
-
DE22
-
168

17 November 2011

Profile A

Operational

Analog Loom

Fixed

ZBM Replacement

169

341

(
A+
)

R510
-
A1
-
DE23
-
169

17 November 2011

Profile B

Not Operational

System Noise

ZBM Replacement

170

30
1 (
A+
)

R510
-
A1
-
DE24
-
170

17 November 2011

Profile B

Operational

ZBM Replacement

171

297

(
A+
)

R510
-
A1
-
DE25
-
171

17 November 2011

Profile B

Not
Operational

ZBM replacement

172

309

(
A+
)

R510
-
A1
-
DE26
-
172

17 November 2011

Profile B

Operational

ZBM Replacement

173

307

(
A+
)

R510
-
A1
-
DE27
-
173

17 November 2011

Profile B

Operational

ZBM Replacement

174

226

(B)

R510
-
A1
-
DF01
-
174

21 December 2011

Profile B

Operational


175

317

(
A+
)

R510
-
A1
-
DF02
-
175

21 December 2011

Profile B

Operational

ZBM Replacement

176

238 (A)

R510
-
A1
-
DF03
-
176

21 December 2011

Profile B

Operational

Leak1 Trip and Battery Voltage Fail

177

240 (A)

R510
-
A1
-
DF04
-
177

12 December 2011

Profile B

Not Operational

BC Firmware Upgrade Required

178

233 (A)

R510
-
A1
-
DF05
-
178

12
December 2011

Profile B

Operational

Incorrect Installation

179

329

(
A+
)

R510
-
A1
-
DF06
-
179

12 December 2011

Profile C

Not Operational

Previous RTU Fault

ZBM Replacement

REDFLOW LTD.


Smart Grid, Smart Cities Trial
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22


Site
Number

ZBM #
(Class)

Cabinet ID

Date of
Commissioning

Schedule

Status

Comments

180

235 (A)

R510
-
A1
-
DF07
-
180

21 December 2011

Profile C

Not Operational

System Noise

18
1

244 (A)

R510
-
A1
-
DE08
-
181

12 December 2011

Profile C

Operational

Previous Analog Loom Failure

182

237 (A)

R510
-
A1
-
DF09
-
182

12 December 2011

Profile C

Operational

Incorrect Installation

183

234 (A)

R510
-
A1
-
DF10
-
183

12 December 2011

Profile C

Not
Operational


184

295

(
A+
)

R510
-
A1
-
DF11
-
184

21 December 2011

Profile C

Operational

Incorrect Installation

ZBM Replacement

Previous Analog Loom Fault

185

186 (A)

R510
-
A1
-
DF12
-
185

12 December 2011

Profile C

ZBM Fault

RTU Lost Comms with BC

186

305

(A
+
)

R510
-
A1
-
DE13
-
186

12 December 2011

Profile C

Operational

ZBM Replacement

187

239 (A)

R510
-
A1
-
DF14
-
187

21 December 2011

Profile C

Operational


188

245 (B)

R510
-
A1
-
DF15
-
188

12 December 2011

Profile C

Operational

Previous Analogue Loom Fault

189

257 (A)

R510
-
A1
-
DG01
-
189

21 December 2011

Profile D

Not
Operational


190

349

(
A+
)

R510
-
A1
-
DG01
-
190

21 December 2011

Profile D

Operational

ZBM Replacement

191

264 (A)

R510
-
A1
-
DG01
-
191

21 December 2011

Profile D

Operational


192

350

(
A+
)

R510
-
A1
-
DG01
-
192

21
December 2011

Profile D

Not
Operational

ZBM Replacement

193

249 (A)

R510
-
A1
-
DG01
-
193

21 December 2011

Profile D

Unknown Fault

Mains Fail, Needs AS Board
Replacement

194

248 (A)

R510
-
A1
-
DG01
-
194

21 December 2011

Profile D

Operational


195

303 (A+)

R510
-
A1
-
DG01
-
195

21 December 2011

Profile D

Operational

ZBM Replacement

196

330

(
A+
)

R510
-
A1
-
DG01
-
196

21

December 2011

Profile D

Battery Controller
Fault

Amp Lockout Failure

ZBM Replacement

197

263 (A)

R510
-
A1
-
DG01
-
197

21 December 2011

Profile D

Operational


198

331

(
A+
)

R510
-
A1
-
DG01
-
198

21 December 2011

Profile D

Operational

ZBM Replacement




REDFLOW LTD.


Smart Grid, Smart Cities Trial
Case Study

11/10/2012


Page
23


Appendix C
2



List of
Scone

Sites

Site
Number

ZBM #
(Class)

Cabinet ID

Date of Commissioning

Schedule

Status

Comments

199

261 (A+)

R510
-
A1
-
D
G01
-
19
9

29 March 2012

Profile F

Operational


200

262 (A+)

R510
-
A1
-
DG01
-
20
0

29 March 2012

Profile E

Operational

ZBM Replacement

20
1

348 (A+)

R510
-
A1
-
DG01
-
20
1

29 March 2012

Profile F

Operational

ZBM Replacement

20
2

265 (A+)

R510
-
A1
-
D
G01
-
20
2

4 April 2012

Profile F

Operational


20
3

343 (A+)

R510
-
A1
-
DH01
-
20
3

28 March 2012

Profile F

Operational

ZBM Replacement

20
4

271 (A+)

R510
-
A1
-
DH01
-
204

29 March 2012

Profile E

Operational


20
5

258

(
A+
)

R510
-
A1
-
DH01
-
205

4 April 2012

Profile F

Operational


20
6

272

(
A
)

R510
-
A1
-
DH01
-
206

4 April 2012

Profile F

Operational

Previous Analog Loom Fault

20
7

342 (A+
)

R510
-
A1
-
DH01
-
207

29 March 2012

Profile E

Operational

ZBM Replacement

20
8

267

(
A+
)

R510
-
A1
-
DH01
-
208

4 April 2012

Profile F

Operational


20
9

340

(
A+
)

R510
-
A1
-
DH01
-
209

29 March 2012

Profile E

Operational

ZBM Replacement

21
0

185

(
A
)

R510
-
A1
-
DH01
-
210

30 March 2012

Profile F

Operational

Previous ZBM Fault

21
1

344

(
A+
)

R510
-
A1
-
DH01
-
211

28 March 2012

Profile F

Operational

ZBM Replacement

21
2

282

(
A
)

R510
-
A1
-
DH01
-
212

28 March 2012

Profile F

Operational

Previous Battery Controller Fault

21
3

313

(
A+
)

R510
-
A1
-
DH01
-
213

28 March 2012

Profile F

Operational

ZBM
Replacement

21
4

284

(A)

R510
-
A1
-
DH01
-
214

29 March 2012

Profile E

Operational


21
5

347

(
A+
)

R510
-
A1
-
DH01
-
215

28 March 2012

Profile F

Not Operational

ZBM Replacement

Grid Fault

21
6

281

(A)

R510
-
A1
-
DH01
-
216

28 March 2012

Profile F

Operational

Previous Battery Controller Fault

21
7

2
78

(A)

R510
-
A1
-
DH01
-
217

29 March 2012

Profile E

Operational


21
8

276

(A)

R510
-
A1
-
DH01
-
218

30 March 2012

Profile F

Operational






REDFLOW LTD.


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Case Study

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Page
24


Appendix D


Cycle Profiles


Profile

Days of the Week Active

Time

Power

Profile A

Charge

Monday to Friday

2am to 8am

2kW

Discharge

4pm

to 2am

3kW

Profile B

Charge

Monday to Friday

2am to 8am

2kW

Discharge

7pm to 2am

3kW

Profile C

Charge

Monday to Friday

2am to 8am

2kW

Discharge

5pm to 2am

5kW

Profile D

Charge

Monday to Friday

2am to 8am

2kW

Discharge

7pm to 2am

5kW

Profile E

Charge

Monday to Friday

8am to 2pm

2kW

Discharge

5pm to 2am

3kW

Profile F

Charge

Monday to Friday

1am to 7am

2kW

Discharge

6pm to 1am

3kW

Profile G

Charge

Monday, Wednesday, Friday,
Sunday

2am to 7am

2kW

Load Follow

7am to 11pm

Load Following

Discharge

11pm to 2am

4.5kW






REDFLOW LTD.


Smart Grid, Smart Cities Trial
Case Study

11/10/2012


Page
25


Appendix E


Newcastle Reduction in Peak Demand



0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
12:00 AM
4:00 AM
8:00 AM
12:00 PM
4:00 PM
8:00 PM
12:00 AM
4:00 AM
8:00 AM
12:00 PM
4:00 PM
8:00 PM
12:00 AM
4:00 AM
8:00 AM
12:00 PM
4:00 PM
8:00 PM
12:00 AM
4:00 AM
8:00 AM
12:00 PM
4:00 PM
8:00 PM
12:00 AM
4:00 AM
8:00 AM
12:00 PM
4:00 PM
8:00 PM
12:00 AM
4:00 AM
8:00 AM
12:00 PM
4:00 PM
8:00 PM
12:00 AM
4:00 AM
8:00 AM
12:00 PM
4:00 PM
8:00 PM
12:00 AM
4:00 AM
8:00 AM
Grid Power (kW)

Effect of Storage on Peak Reduction
-

April 2012

Real Power (kW) with Storage
Real Power (kW) without Storage

Friday

6

April

Peak Reduction

17.78%

Peak Reduction

15.19%

Peak Reduction

14.78%

Peak Reduction

14.85%

Peak Reduction

14.13%

Saturday

7 April

Sunday

8

April

Monday

9

April

Tuesday

10

April

Wednesday

11

April

Thursday

12

April

Friday

13

April

65 Residential Customers

4 R510 ESS Operating