Enhancement of Distribution Networks through utilization of Smart Grid

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Nov 21, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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Enhancement of Distribution Networks
through
utilization of Smart Grid

BSc, MSc, MIEEE, MIET
Khaled Al Wannan

Dubai electricity & Water Authority (DEWA)

Email:
khaled.alwannan@dewa.gov.ae


Abstract
-
As Today's grids confront serious
environmental, financial, technical and operational
challenges, numerous researches have concluded that
today's grids must be modernized using state
-
of
-
the
-
art
technologies to significantly improve the
reliability,
efficiency, security and quality of power supply.

Additionally, these new grids take in account the
concerns about the environment by relying more on
environmentally friendly energy at the distribution
system. Moreover, this proposed grid must

be more
consumer
-
interactive, allowing the customer to control
and monitor the amount of power consumption through
smart meters. This grid is named future grid, grid wise,
intelligent grid or Smart Grid and the latter term is
more commonly used.

Although
the Smart Grid is
expected to be beneficial not only to the utility but also
to the customers and the ecosystem, it is complex and
vulnerable, due to


the fact that the modernization of
current grids affects the electrical power system at all,
including ge
neration, transmission and distribution
systems as well as customers’ loads.

This Paper
describes and examines Smart Grid technologies and
their benefits and challenges from the perspectives of
both Distribution Network Operator (DNO) and
customer,
focusin
g on the distribution
system
technologies. These technologies are Advanc
ed Metering
Infrastructure

(AMI)
, including smart meters with bi
-
directional real
-
time communication, distribution
automation, distribution energy resources, involving
renewable distri
bution generation and storage devices,
Plug
-
in
Electric Vehicles
. In addition, this paper
highlights the progress of Dubai Electricity and Water
Authority (DEWA) towards the idea of Smart Grid.


I.

INTRODUCTION

In recent years, the demand on power electricity has
dramatically grown due to a substantial increase in
urban sprawl and different human activities, resulting
in overloaded grids,
leading to a lower reliability,
stability and quality of power supply.

Also
, present
grids face serious environmental (e.g. global
warming), financial (e.g. constructing new
transmission lines) and operational challenges (e.g.
matching load demand with power generation).

Consequently, numerous researches such as
Electrical
Power
Research Institute (
EPRI
)
,
Intelligrid, Grid
Wise and many others funded by governments and
private utilities [1], [2] have been launched in order to
overcome the aforementioned problems. These
researches have concluded that today's grids must be
modernize
d using state
-
of
-
the
-
art technologies to
significantly improve the reliability, efficiency,
security, and quality of the delivered power.
Additionally,
new grids

consider

the environment

by
using wider renewable generation, especially at the
distribution system to
significantly reduce

the carbon
footprint

[3], [4]
-
[6]. Moreover, this proposed grid
must be more consumer
-
interactive [1], [3], [5], [7],
allowing the customer to control and monit
or the
amount of power consumption through the modern
technologies [1], [8], [9]. This grid is named future
grid, grid wise, intelligent grid, or Smart Grid [3], [5],
and the latter term is more commonly used.

Although the Smart Grid is expected to be bene
ficial
not only to the utility but also to the customers and
the ecosystem, it is complex and vulnerable [7], due
to the fact that the modernisation of current grids
affects the electrical power system at all, including
generation, transmission, distributi
on systems, and
loads [4], [10] as well as the grid's regulations and
standards [1], [6]. Some of these challenges are very
similar to those of conventional grids
[
7].

II.

SMART GRID VS TODAY’S GRID


Fig.1 [1
0
] illustrates today's power system
infrastructure, in which the power flow is mainly a
unidirectional from the
centralised power plants to the
commercial, industrial, and residential loads via high
voltage transmission system. Also, the current grid is
pre
dominantly characterised with one
-
way
information

flow.

Nevertheless, Fig.2 depicts [1
0
]
Smart Grid infrastructure, which is characterised by
bi
-
directional power flow and two
-
way real
-
time
communication, storage devices, Advanced Metering
Infrastructure (
AMI), allowing new functionalities
and technologies to emerge such as Efficient Demand
Response (DR), Accommodation of large number of
Renewable Energy Resources (RER), especially at the
distribution system and Plug
-
in Electric Vehicles
(PEVs). Consequentl
y, Smart Grid will greatly
enhance reliability, security, efficiency and quality of
power supply, and also give an added value to

both
environment and society [11
].

Fig. 1.
Infrastructure of
t
oday’s grid

[10]



Fig. 2. Infrastructure of Smart Grid with its main
technologies

[
10]


Table I

highlights the difference between the
characteristics of con
ventional grid and Smart Grid
[11
]
.

from table I, Smart Grid can be defined as
a

modernization of the electricity
delivery system so it
monitors, protects and automatically optimizes the
operation of its interconnected elements


from the
central and distributed generator through the high
-
voltage network and distribution system, to industrial
users and building automa
tion systems, to energy
storage installations and to end
-
use consumers
including their thermostats, electric vehicles,
applian
ces and other household devices


[11
].


III.

SMART GRID TECHNOLOGIES

As stated earlier, Smart Grid can be a reality through
modernisati
on of all power system ingredients using
several modern technologies. According to EPRI
[
11
], Smart Grid technologies can be generally
divided into two categories: Transmis
sion System
technologies and
distribution system technologies
including customer
technologies (e.g. PEVs
, Home
Area Network (HAN
).

In this context, it is important
to stress that Smart Grid benefits are not only highly
relied on the modern technologies, but also they are
significantly linked with the integration of these
modern technol
ogies [5], [6]. For instance, efficient
AMI deployment

allows successful implementation
of
PEVs and RER.


TABLE I

SMART GRID VS CONVENTIONAL GRID

Conventional Grid

Smart Grid

One
-
way power flow

Two
-
way power flow

Unidirectional
Communication

Bidirectional
Communication

No/inefficient Demand
Response (passive
customer)

Efficient Demand
Response (interactive
customer)

Centralised power
generation

Accommodation of a wide
range of Distributed
Renewable Generation
(DRG) and storage
options

Fossil fuel based power
generation

More environmentally
friendly generation

Manual operation

Automated operation
(Self
-
healing)

Prediction operation (e.g.
Matching of supply and
demand based on forecast
and historical
information

Real
-
time operation (e.g.
Matching of supply and
demand based on Real
-
time information)

Conventional household
appliances

Smart appliances


A.

Transmission System Technologies

There are many Smart Grid technologies at the
transmission systems such as High Voltage DC
(HVDC) Transmission and Flexible AC Transmission
Systems (FACTS) controllers. HVDC and FACTS
controllers are
based on high power semiconductor
devices, which are nor
mally coexist in the same
system, playing a pivotal role in controlling power
flow and maintaining system stabi
lity at the same
time [12], [13
].

At present, All Gulf Cooperation
Coun
c
il (GCC) countries are interconnected
by
HVDC Technology, except O
man
,
which will be
interconnected soon. This interconnection
give
s many
benefits to GCC countries' power system [14], [15]
.


B.

Distribution Technologies

1
.

Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI)

B.1.1. Structure of AMI

AMI is the key technology of Smart Grids’
technologies as its effective implementation leads to a
successful integration with other technologies such as
DRG and PEVs.

Fig.3

d
epicts

[16
] the structure of AMI where the
major components include smart meter,
two
-
way
real
-
time

robust communication systems and Home Area
Network (HAN) with in
-
home display.

In this
structure the utility back office can send
real
-
time

controlling signals to customer'
s

appliances via smart
meters. These signals are sent to smart met
ers through
a wired or wireless communication technology (
Fig.

4
) and then the smart meter dispatch these signals to
the HAN to control energy consumption. This control
is automatically achieved by Smart Device Controller
(SDC), which acts as Home Energy
Management
System (HEMS) that has been previously
programmed per customer preferences. HAN
interconnects all smart appliances includ
ing smart
chargers of PEVs and h
ome DRG, which can be
controlled by HEMS through wired or wireless
communication (
Fig.

4
). M
oreover, utility can directly
control all smart appliances or the high
-
power
-
consumption appliances such as smart chargers, and


Fig. 3. Structure of AMI

[16]





Fig. 4. Information flow in AMI system

air conditioners (A/C) through
direct connection
with
AMI [17
].

Likewise, utility back office can collect
real
-
time

abundant unprecedented information about the energy
consumption, validat
ion customers participating in
d
emand response programs, DRG, smart charging of
PEVs, and update cus
tomer database a
ccordingly
[18
].

B.1.2
.

Benefits

of AMI

These benefits are broadly categorised into eight
groups as thoroughly described below.



B.1.2.a. Metering

services

Today’s meters, installed at customer side, are utilised
only to record consumption energy periodically for
billing purposes, where this data is manually collected
by regularly visiting the properties. However, Utility,
via AMI system, can remotely collect

the
real
-
time

consumption data and bil
l the customer accordingly
[19
], resulting in efficient billing process (e.g.
accurate and real
-
time readings). Also, in
conventional grid, the connection and disconnection
of electricity are also done by visiting the

properties,
whilst AMIs can be remotely used to disconnect or
connect the customers instant
ly through certain
software [1
]
[4], [19], [20
]
. AMI use will also
considerably reduce the undesirable disconnections
[
21
]. In addition to saving human resources (m
eter
readers), this will significantly decrease customer
complaints, thereby highly e
nhancing customer
satisfaction.
In fact, customer satisfaction is a
strategic objective of any private and public utility
where the higher the satisfaction the higher the
revenues. Also, remote disconnection can be very
useful in emergency situations (e.g. fire, flood,
earthquake, etc.). This can be achieved via a call from
police or
civil defend through a specific agreements.


B.1.
2.b
.
Efficient Load Shedding Control

Load
shedding schedules are applied at contingency
situations (e.g. high drop in the frequency due to
imbalance of supply and demand), which is mostly
performed b
y tripping the entire feeder [21
], [
22
].
However, individual homes can be interrupted
through a cer
tain agreement between the customer
and the utility in which the utility gives incentives to
participating customers. This preserve electricity
service to critical loads (e.g. hospitals) as well as VIP
loads.

B.1.
2.c
.
Protection from electricity thefts

Today’s meters can be manipulated via breaking
seals, turning them upside down or replacing the
standar
d meter with nonstandard one [21
], whereby
these thefts can be noticed either visually by the meter
readers when visiting the properties or can be
conclu
ded via low consumption [
2
1]. Nonetheless,
AMIs
allow

the utility to detect manipulation
remotely by sending an instant “manipulation” alarm
to the utility

via a mean of communication [21
], [
23
],
[24], [25
]
. Moreover, the use of nonstandard meters
can be d
etected easily as each smart meter has a
unique number registered at the util
ity in the customer
database [21], [23
].


B.1.2.d. Automating Distribution system

B.1.2.d.
1Outage Detection, Isolation and Restoration:

In traditional grid, the outages are
mainly reported to
the utility call centre by the customers via phone calls
so that the operational team will locate and isolate the
fault and then redistribute the power to the interrupted
customers. This process is relatively slow as long
time is needed
to locate the fault.

In contrast, Smart Grid will employ sensors for
outages detection and then the outages will be
reported back to the utility back office via some
strategically located AMIs in near
real
-
time

[
20
]
.

The outages will be monitored through the Outage
Management System (OMS), providing extremely
accurate information about the outages in terms of
their causes and locations, and then the fault is
remotely isolated
[20]
, resulting in efficient operation
(e.g
. quicker redistribution of power supply to the
interrupted customers) and rapid maintenance,
thereby increasing customer satisfaction.

In addition, this will significantly improve the
electrical power distributi
on reliability indices [23],
[21
] such as
S
ystem Average Interruption Duration
Index (SAIDI), Customer Average Interruption
Duration Index (CAIDI) and other indices, which are
thoroughly ex
plained in IEEE Std 1366
-
2003 [2
6].
Enhancement of these indices highly
attracts external
investments as power

system reliability is one of the
critical indicators for the investors.

B.
1.2.d.2.

Planned outages Notifications


Today’s utilities issue a Notice of Interruption Supply
(NIS) to be handed to the customers prior to the
interruption, informing them with
the details of the
interruption (such as duration of the outage), whereas
in Smart Grid this NIS can be sent to customer’s in
-
home display via AMI system [21
]. The acceptance of
the NIS message by the customer will send back an
acknowledgement message to t
he utility back office
(OMS) confirming receiving it and updating customer
database. This results in increasing customer
satisfaction while decreasing human, financial and
natural resources.

B.1.2.e. Successful implementation of other Smart
Grid
technologies:

B.1.2.e.1.
Controlling Distributed Generators (DG) by
utilities:

One of the technical challenges of the DG,
encountered by present grids, is islanding mode,
which is occurred when the Distributed Generator
(DG) is solely supplying distribution

network partly
with power

due to a particular fault [27
]. This
condition causes many technical problems to utility
e.g. low fault current of distributed generator, which
may not be detected by exist
ing protection scheme
.

Moreover, islanding can put the sa
fety of
maintenance staff at risk as they may think that the
circuit is dead, whilst actually it is alive because of
the islanding mode.

In Smart Grid, each DG will be connected to AMI
system and each DG will have a registered unique
number in customer da
tabase so that the utility can
verify each DG status in the distribution network
when islanding occurs and can shut down islan
ded
generators via AMI system [23
]. Besides, utility can
inform customers with Islanded generators to
investigate the reason be
hin
d the islanding occurrence
[21
]. As a consequence, this will dramatically reduce
catastrophic incidents to islanding and support utility
to comply with safety standards such as Occupational
Health and Safety (OHASA) 18001.

B.1.2.e.2.
Smart
-
Charging of
PEVS:

As today’s grid does not have the means to overcome
the expected technical challenges of PEVs
emergence, PEVs will cause huge stresses on power
distribution network.

In Smart Grid, utility, via AMI, can control smart
charging points and even interrup
t charging when
system reliability is jeopardised. The interruption is
applied first on the customers who have an incentive
agreement with the utility. Also, AMI system can
allow “net metering” in customer premises of the sum
of the energy consumed from
utility and energy
supplied to the utility by customer's DRG and PEVs
bat
teries discharging when Vehicle
-
to
-
Grid

(V2G)

feature is
available in the near future [21
].

B.1.2.f.
Asset Management optimisation:

B.1.2.f.1.
Asset operations management

In present distribution system, many distribution
circuits run near their rated values, causing rapid
deterioration of the distribution
equipment
s

due to
overload. In fact, this situation could be worse with
the penetration of PEVs. In Smart Grid, however,

utility can monitor the devices in real
-
time through
AMI, so that actions can be taken to alleviate this
overload

(e.g. direct load shedding) [21
].


B.1.2.f.2.
Maintenance optimisation

Maintenance refers to “
Ensuring that physical assets
continue to do
what thei
r users want them to do”
[28
].
There are many types of maintenance strategies
such as traditional preventive maintenance, hybrid of
predictive and preventive maintenance and Reliability
Centered Maintenance (RCM). In fact m
any utilities
including
DEWA has migrated from traditional
preventive maintenance towards Reliability Centred
Maintenance (RCM) approac
h (latest maintenance
approach),
defined as


a process used to determine
maintenance requirements of any physical asset in
its operating context


[28
]. In other words, what the
user wants from the asset is directly linked with the
function of the asset i.e. operational dut
y (e.g. some
assets
operate

near their rating capability whereas
others run at half of their capability) and
environmental duty
(e.g. some
assets

operate

in harsh
environmental conditions). This approach aims to
optimise the time
-
directed maintenance and predictive
maintenance (Condition monitoring) by selecting the
most cost effective
task with best maintenance task

frequency. Thi
s can redirect utility resources towards
the most critical equipments whose failures leads to
catastrophic consequences on system reliability,
safety and environment.

As AMI will provide abundant unprecedented
real
-
time

information to the utility such as
real
-
time

information about heavily loaded equipments, this
will significantly support RCM implementation and
establish a vital
real
-
time

database about operational
duty of the assets that can be utilised to study and
co
nclude the failure patterns in a specific distribution
system. Further benefits would include increased
system and equipment reliability, better asset
management decision (replacement vs
.

refurbishment), safety improvement, prevention of
environment from
any damage and others.

B.1.2.g.
Power Quality Management:

AMI can monitor and report voltage, phase angle and
frequency of powe
r supply back to the utility [21
].
Also, AMI can detect the customers that pollute the
distribution networks with harmonics and
penalise
them accordingly. Harmonics increase the stresses
and losses in the distribution equipments and harm
m
otors and other appliances [29
]. The huge collected
real
-
time

data from AMI regarding power quality
factors, including harmonics, leads to much e
asier
investiga
tion of power quality issues [23
]. A further
problem is the three phase imbalance, which can be
detected and investigated easily by collected data
from AMI. Three Phase imbalance rapidly degrades
the three phase motors as it creates negative

sequence
current that opposes the positive sequence (i.e.,
oppose
the normal motor rotation) [30
].



B.1.2.h.
Demand Response (DR):

This is an important characteristic of Smart Grid
resulting from adopting AMI. According to the U.S.
d
epartment of
Energy
,

DR

refers to

changes in
electric usage by end
-
use customers from their normal
consumption patterns in response to changes in the
price of electricity over time, or to incentive payments
designed to induce lower electricity use at times of
high who
lesale market prices or when system

reliability is jeopardised


[31
]. In other words,
u
tilities can give different types of incentives to push
customers to alter their present habits of energy use in
order to mitigate energy consumption in peak demand
or
in situations where system reliability is in danger.
In fact, customers can alter their normal energy
consumption via two scenarios: decreasing their
demand at high network demand periods without
shifting it (e.g. turn off A/C); shifting the demand
from hi
gh to low network demand p
eriods (e.g.
washing time) [32
]. DR can be divided into two
cate
gories as follows:



B.1.2.h.1.

First generation of DR:

Demand response program is not a new concept as it
has been applied since 1980's by some U.S. utilities
by
offering customers $10 during hot summer season
to allow utility fitting switches in A/C that can be
remotely switched off by sending Very High
Frequency (VHF) signal during peak demands [
3
1].
The utilities have been concluded that these
programmes are ine
fficient due to frauds. In fact, the
deficiency of this program stems from the fact that the
communication system is unidirectional where the
utility cannot verify each customer who participates
in this program in
real
-
time

[31
].


B.1.2.h.2.
Second
generation of DR (dynamic tariff
signals):

In contrast to first generation, AMI with bi
-
directional
communication offers the utility an unprecedented
feature of
real
-
time

validation of each participating
customer in

the demand response program [31
].

In ot
her words,

AMI enables the customers to flexibly
interact with utility, whereby utility can send dynamic
real
-
time
energy tariffs to the customers
depending
upon the peak demand (higher prices) and off
-
peak
demand (lower prices), allowing customers to have

choices of continuously check and control their
consumption at higher and lower prices
[1], [8], [9]
,

[1
6
],

Consequently, the customers can adapt their daily
habits and lifestyles to avoid the costliest power
consumption times, for example, the customers will
have the choice to turn
-
off the
high
-
power
-
consumption

appliances (e.g. A/C) or changing
appliances cool
ing cycles (e.g. A/C, refrigerator)
during peak demand periods, thereby controlling and
reducing the cost of the electricity bill
[1],[2],[7], [8]
,
[20
].
In case of HAN, HEMS can automatically take
the decision regarding power consumption use
[8].

Also, in
centive agreement can be signed between
customer and utility, in which the utility can directly
control the power consumption (including
interruption) of individual customers. EPRI, however,
argues that the utility control of power consumption is
not
a par
t of the demand response

[21
].

B.1.3. Deployment of AMI in Dubai

In response to DEWA vision of supporting
sustainability
, DEWA has

started adopting AMI

in
order to obtain the AMI
benefits stated earlier. A pilot
project bega
n with mounting 200 smart meters
(electricity and water) between 2005 and 2007 to
thoroughly investigate the functionality of AMI
system.
After the A
MI

benefits had been
demonstrated it was decided to start the project by
dividing it into three stages. Stage one

(2010
-
2013)

aims to install
up to
6
0,000

smart meters

(electricity
and water)
.

Stage two (2013
-
onwards) is to install
only smart meters with bi
-
directional communication
for all new connections
. Stage 3 will

coincide
with
stage

two, concerning

the replacement

of
all
tradition
al

meters
by

smart meters
by the end of 2020.

The current communication medium, used in AMI
system, is based on PLC and
GPRS while in stage
one other communication technologies will be
examined such as WiFi, Fibre Optic
s

and others.
Lastly, the billing software is SAP
-
based.


2
.

Communication Technologies

Fig. 4

shows the AMI structure where the
bidirectional communication between the ut
ility
&

smart meters
,
smart meters & HEMS

and
HEMS &
smart appliances
,
represents the crucial part of AMI
system.

There are several types of wired and wireless
communication
technologies, where each type has its
pros and cons. Table

II
, reproduced from

[
23], [24],
[25], [33
]
-
[36]
, illustrates the main communication
technologies
used in AMI in terms of type
,
application,

major advantages and
disadvantages.


B.2.1.
Communication Requirements

Irrespective of the type of the communication
technology used in AMI system, it is important to
ensure that the communication technology meets the
following
requirements

including, but not limited to:

Security
: C
ommunication medi
um shall withstand
cyber attacks to avoid any attempt to fabricate billing
information and
illegal
access to customer
database

[37], [3
8].

Availability
: C
ommunication medium shall be
always available to ensure bidirectional information
flow at all times and conditions between utility and
customer appliances
and d
i
stribution a
utomation [37
].
The availability can be highly improved due to
adoption diverse communication technologies of
wired and wireless e.g. PLC

and cellular
communication
[34
].

Quality of the signal
: Signal quality depends upon
many factors such as distance, weathe
r condition and
interference [23
]. Therefore, a detailed study must be
carried out to address the above factors to choose best
communication medium
that suit th
e location to
ensure best
signal

quality
.

3
.

Distribution Automation (DA)

Fig. 5

shows
DA

functionality
of Smart Grid t
hat can
be accomplished b
y the integration of substation
automation, feeder automation and

customer
’s
appliances

automation [2]
, [40
].

The
communication
protocol is based on IEC 61850 or IEC 60870
-
5
-
101/104 where the former will supersede the latter in
the future

[41
].

Substation automation
can be

achieved by Supervisory Control and Data
Acquisition (SCADA) system
, whereas customer
automation

can be

accomplished

by AM
I including
HAN and

HEMS. Feeder automation
can be done
v
ia
remotely controlled switches

(automated

switches
)
,
and remotely controlled voltage and
VAR

on feeders,
(which can also be achieved via strategically lo
cated
AMIs as
previously explained [42
])
. Feeder
automation increases

the efficiency of the electric
service via voltage and
VAR

control, and
reduces

power outage duration (customer minutes l
ost
)
through fault location [43
].

Voltage and VAR control aims to keep

voltage and power factor within the
acceptable
standardised limits.

B.3.1.
Volt Control:

Voltage control can be achieved by installing sensors
at the end of the feeder to monitor voltage drop and
raise the voltage to a standard value using on
-
line tap
changer at primary power distribution substations
[44
]. Distributed generators can lead to vo
ltage rise
,

which can be overcome by sensors at the connection
point to monitor and then reduce the voltage to
the
standard value [45
].



Fig.
5. Distribution automation in Smart Grid

B.3.2.
VAR Control

VAR control is achieved by using sensors at the
capacitor banks to monitor and control the reactive
power remotely.
VAR co
ntrol is important to preserve
p
ower factor near to

the

unity to decrease losses in the
network by remotely switching shunt capacitors

(leading reactive power)

[44], [45]
.


B.3.3.
Fault Detection, Isolation and Restoration (FDIR)

In traditional grid, the outages are mainly reported to
the utility call centre by the customers via phone
calls
. Operation
al

team

will
then
locate and isolate the
fault and
redistribute the power to the interrupted
customers. This process is relatively slow as
the time
needed to locate the fault is usually long.

In contrast, Smart Grid will employ sensors for
outages detection and diagnosis
and then the outages
will be rep
orted back to the utility. The
fault

isolation
is achieved

by remote switching, then the power
supply is

redistributed to
customers with minimum
customer

minutes loss time
[
2
]
, [44], [45]
. Also,
this
enhances

reliability
ind
ices

such as SAIDI and
CAIDI.

B.3.4.
Automation project
s

in DEWA:

In 2011, DEWA incorporated an automation system
based on IEC 60870
-
5
-
104

for
ten

secondary
substations (i.e. 11/0.4kV and 6.6/0.4kV) as a pilot
project to examine its performance. These substations
underwent frequent failures

(hazardous areas and
frequent thefts
)

and therefore they were selected in
order to alleviate
the
consequences
of their
failures.
Six substations are
only monitored and
the other four
substations, which are more critical, will be fully
automated
,

i.e. monitoring and controlling.

The
following signals are obtained from the secondary
substations in this pilot project

to be examined:


Overheating

of
Low Voltage Distribution Board
(LVDB)

and transformer, overloading of LVDB and
transformer, smoke detection in LVDB, earth copper
theft, fuse trip
/Circuit breaker

of R
ing
M
ain
U
nit
(RMU) types
, SF
6

leakage from RMU, status of Earth
Fault Indictor (EFI). These signals are
sent

via GPRS
communication technology. The automation of the
secondary substations will lead to significant benefits
to DEWA, environment

(
e.g.
monitoring RMU SF
6

gas)
and safet
y of DEWA staff and public

(e.g.
detection of LVDB smoke)
. The reliability indices
can be highly improved along w
ith customer minutes
loss (CML)
as a result of automation of EFI status
signal that helps operation
al

team to rapidly locate the
fault, isolate

and then redistribute the power supply to
the interrupted customers.

Also, this system can
prevent thefts of earth copper and increase DEWA
revenues.

In the near future DEWA will start to
mount same system in 100 substations yearly
,

starting
with the most

critical
ones.
























































TABLE II

COMPARISON BETWEEN DIFFERENT COMMUNICATION
TECHNOLOGIES

























Communication
Technology/protocol

Type

Applications

Standard

Suggested by

Pros

Cons

WiFI

Wireless

• HAN (HEMS)

&
Smart Appliances

IEEE 802.11


[35], [36]

• Simple support
IP addressing

• Cheap

• higher
bandwidth
comparing to
Zigbee

• Privacy and
security

ZigBee

Wireless

• HAN (HEMS) &
Smart Meters

• HAN (HEMS) &
Smart Appliances

IEEE
802.15.4

[25], [34],
[35],

• Simple

• Cheap

•Interference
with WiFi
signal

• low data rate
and limited
distance

Power Line
Communication (PLC)

Wired

• HAN (HEMS) &
Smart Meters




IEEE 643
-
2004 [104]

[23]
-
[25],
[34], [39]

• High data rate
(up to 3Mb/s)

• Low
Cost
(using existing
power cables )

• Signal
attenuation
(limited
distance)

Cellular Network
Communication (GSM
or GPRS)

Wireless

• Smart Meters &
Utility Back Office



[23], [24] [34]

• efficient at
long distances

• Low cost
(using existed
communication
structure)

• powerful
security of data
transfer

• signal
unavailability
due to severe
weather
conditions
(e.g. storms)

4
.

Renewable Generation

Mass distributed generation of renewable energy,
such as wind and solar generation is one of the smart
grid technologies and
characteristics that leads to
many benefits to environment (e.g. a significant
reduction of CO
2

and other harmful gases emissions),
utility (e.g. reduction in the peak demand,
optimisation of assets use that leads to reduced
stress
es

on all HV equipments)
and customers who
have

Photovoltaics (
PV
)

units (e.g. balancing
electricity bill).

This paper highlights the solar
generation, which represents a promising technology
in Arab countries due to the high level of sun
radiation compared to the global levels, a
s

depicted in
Fig.6

[46
], [
47
].

There are t
wo types of solar technologies; PV

and
Concentrating Solar Thermal (CST) or also named
Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) [
48
]. Photovoltaics
converts

sunlights directly into electricity regardless
of the sunlight te
mperature [4
9
],[5
0
], whereas CSP
depends on the temperature as CSP concentrates the
sunlight using mirrors to heat up a fluid (mainly
water) to drive a steam turbine, resulting in indirect
generation of electricity [
48
], [5
0
]. Both Technologies
have quite
different benefits over each other in terms
of the efficiency, cost, maturity, application,
environmental conditions, reception of sunlight an
d
operating temperature [48
].


F
ig. 6.
Distribution of total
sun’s
energy received by earth over the
year

[
46
],
[
47
]
.


Based on the technology used in the PV modules, the
efficiency of PV ranges from 6 to 16% at 25°C (the
standard temperature) [
48
], [4
9
], which is
considerably lower than the CSP efficiency
that varies
from 16 to 30
%

[
48
], depending on the used
technology. Regarding the operating temperature, PV
technology, unlike CSP and opposite to an incorrect
common belief, is affected by a number of factors,
particularly the high temperatures (above 25°C), as
they lead to a sharp drop in PV efficiency [4
9
].

In
spite of its lower efficiency, PV is more mature
technology with a total global installation of around
40 GW as per the end of 2010, a more than 69%
increase compared to 2009, when 97% of total sola
r
power was generated from PV [51], [52
].

In marked
con
trast, the global CSP installation grew steadily
from 950 MW to 1095 MW between 2009 and 2010
(i.e. just over 15% increase).

Besides, CSP technology is far costly comparing to
PV due to the extra components required to
concentrate sunlight along with the
fluid medium
needed to drive the steam turbine and more
impor
tantly it needs lots of space [48
]. Also, CSP
exploits only the direct sunlight, while PV utilises
direct and reflected sunlight

[49].

Thus, sky clarity is
required for effective CSP.


B.
4
.1.
Photovoltaic (PV) Technology


Photovoltaic solar cells can be broadly divided into
two categories [4
9
]; crystalline silicon solar cell and
thin film silicon solar cell, where the two types have
significant differences regarding the efficiency,
environmenta
l condition and the operating
temperature. The Crystalline silicon efficiency,
ranging from 11
-
16 per cent, is double the efficiency
of thin film technology (6
-
8 per cent) at the normal
conditions (clear sky at
25°C

temperature) [
49
].
Nevertheless, crystal
line silicon is highly affected by
the high operating temperatures, resulting in a great
efficiency reduction in comparison to thin film [4
9
].
Furthermore, unlike thin film, the environmental
conditions such as sky clearness highly mitigate the
performanc
e of crystalline.

B.4.2. Application of Phot
ovoltaic

Generally, there are two kinds of PV installation
systems, stand alone PV systems, which is also
referred to off grid systems, and grid connected PV
systems, which is also named grid tied systems [4
9
],
[
53], [54
].


B.4.2.a. Standalone PV systems:

These systems are mainly used to supply electricity to
houses at rural areas, and also utilised for an
extensive array of applications in both urban and rural
areas such as w
ater pumping

[4
9
], irrigation of gras
s
and plants in the roundabouts and road
separators,

lighting of streets and walkways, remote
telecommunications equipments [4
9
], [
54
] as well as
traffic warning signs
[
55
],

in addition to speed radars.

B.4.2.b
.

Grid connected PV systems:

These are
the vast majority of both types of PV
systems, with around 95% [4
9
] of the total
applications

in 2010
. PV offers many significant
benefits to the utility, customers, environment and
society. Grid connected PV systems are run in parallel
with the
grid

suppl
y feeder, which, according to
International Energy Agency
(
IEA
)

and
European
P
hot
o
voltaic Industry Association (
EPIA
)
,

can
normally be classified as follows [4
9
], [
56
]:


o

Building Integrated Photovoltaics (BIPV
)

BIPV refers to the rooftop
-
, ground
-

or fa
c
ade
-
mounted incorporated installations at the residential,
comme
rcial and industrial properties
.


Table

III

shows the installation types

of BIPV

with
their common nominal power range in Watt Peak
(Wp
) [56], [57
], calculated at 1000W/m
2
/Year at 25
o
c
( accor
ding to IEEE 13
74
-
1998 & IEEE Std 1262
-
1995) [58
], [
59
].

o

Utility based Photovoltaics Farms (plants)

B.4.2.
b
.
1

Structure of grid
-
tied PV

Systems

Fig.7

[54
] depicts the typical arrangement of grid
-
tied
PV system, where (1) and (2) denote the PV modules
and
inverter, respectively. The purpose of the inverter
is not only to convert DC voltage to a standard AC
voltage at a standard frequency, but also to include a
protection DC unit to isolate the PV modules (it can
also be as a separate device) [4
9
]. The energy
consumption meter, along with the PV system's
energy generation meter are represented by (4) and
(3), respectively. Instead, in Smart G
rid, AMI with
one smart meter can perform the functions of
components (3) & (4)

(net metering)
. This syste
m
allows the customer to sell the surplus generated
electricity to the grid; on the other hand, when the
customer demand cannot be met by the PV supplied
electricity, the required electricity can be fed from the
grid. In other words, this is a bi
-
direction
al power
flow system, which can be incorporated with smart
meter with two way real
-
time communication system
to ach
ieve a major characteristic of Smart G
rid
technology.






TABLE I
II

PV INSTALLATION TYPES WITH RESPECT TO POWER
RANGE (W
P
)


Installation
Type


Sector


Residential

˂
10kWp


Commercial

10kWp


100kWp


Industrial

100kWp
-
1000kWp


Utility

˃
1000kWp


Roof top
or fa
c
ade
mounted









Ground
-

Mounted









Fig. 7.
Structure of
grid
-
connected

PV app
lication [
54
]


B.4.2.b.2.
PV
installations: Fast facts

Fig.8, 9
, 10
, reproduced from European Photovoltai
c
Industry Association (EPIA) [
6
0], [61
], illustrate

the
cumulative installed grid
-
connected Photovoltaic in
(MW) for different countries for the period 2009 to
2011, in which, th
e countries showed a significant
difference in their PV generation. In 2011, Germany
was the world's leading producer of PV power at
just
under
25GW, with Italy second at 12.5GW, followed
by Spain and USA at 4.2GW. However, in 2011, Italy
newly added the l
argest proportion of PV systems in
the globe at just over 9GW, which is 20 per cent more
than Germany that newly added almost 7.5
GW in the
same year. The total cu
mulat
ive

PV installation
worldwide approximately trebled, from about 23 GW
in 2009 to more than 67GW in 2011.
APEC refers to
Au
stralia, South Korea, Thailand
and
Taiwan
.


Table

IV

[62], [63], [64
] shows the cumulative
installed grid
-
connected Photovoltaic in (MW)

for
different Arabic countries between 2009 and 2010,
where NA indicates that is no available data. The
Arab's generation of PV technology is considerably
low comparing to other countries depicted
in below
Pie charts
. For instance, the cumulative PV
insta
llation in European countries was around 16GW
in 2009 although the annual mean insolation in
Europe is relatively low (e.g. the yearly energy of sun
irradiation of the world's leading country of PV
installation, Germany, is only 1050kW/h namely, the
annual

mean insolation is (1050/8760)*1
000
=120W/m
2

as shown in Fig.

6
), where the annual
mean insolation is defined as the average amount of
power per unit area, received
by the sun over the
entire year

[4
9
]
.
In marked contrast, the annual
average
insolation in

most of the Arab

countries more
than doubled of Germany, ranging from 200W/m
2

to
300W/m
2

in most of the
North African Countries,
whilst the total PV systems in Ara
b c
ountries were
0.0336 GW (this number is not confirmed due to
the
lack of data) in 2009, w
hich is negligible.

Fig. 8. World’s cumulative PV installation (MW) in 2011

is

67
350





Fig. 9. World’s cumulati
ve PV Installation (MW) in 2010

is

39529


Fig.
10
. World’s cumulative PV installation

(MW) in 2009
is
22900













TABLE
IV

ACCUMULATED PV INSTALLATION IN ARAB COUNTRIES

Arab's
Country

Accumulated PV
installation (MW)
2009

Accumulated PV
installation (MW) 2010

Morocco

6

NA

Algeria

23

NA

Tunisia

1.4

NA

Egypt

3

NA

Jordan

0.2

NA

UAE

10 at Abu Dhabi

11MW (
1MW added at
Masdar

city
)

Other Arab
countries

NA

NA

Total

33.6

NA


B.4.2.b.3.
Future of PV
/CSP

Arab
countries have announced/launched several
ambitious projects to generate electricity
using

PV
/CSP technologies
, which will be accomp
lished
during the next decade.
In 2010, IEA reported that
Saudi Arabia will launch a project of
5GW of power
generation by PV,
which is due to be completed in
2020's [
65
].
Morocco
announced

that a 2GW of
power generation
using

PV or CSP will be fully
installed in 2015 [
52
]. Saudi Arabia

aims to export
PV electricity to other Gulf countries
[65
]; on the
other hand, Europe will import electricity from the
Morocco and other
North African c
ountri
es

[56
].
Egypt announced a
comprehensive
plan

for 20%
renewable electricity, 2 % from CSP & PV; l
ikewise,
Jordan announced 300MW of PV to be completed in
2015 and a
dditional 300MW of PV in 2020 [52
].
Also,
in the
United Arab Emirates
,
MASDAR and
Abu Dhabi Water and E
lectricity Authority
(ADWEA)

revealed

a project of 2.3 MW of PV
mounted on
the rooftop

of some government

and
private buildings in Abu Dhabi
[66
], whilst

Dubai
targets 5% of electricity generation
using

PV
and CSP
technologies

by 2030, which will be operated by
Dubai Electricity and

Water Authority (DEWA).

Algeria has an objective to produc
e 170MW and
2.1MW from CSP and PV, respectively by 2015,
whereas

Oman has recently set up a renewable energy

policy, involving PV systems [52
].


B.4.2.b.4.
Required Policies

Despite the fact that these projects are ambitious,
EPIA (2011) expects that the global cumulative PV
installed capacity will be between
0.13TW and

approximately 0.2TW in 2015 [60
].

In fact, t
hese figures show

that the gap between Arab

countries and other

developed countries is
substantially increasing due
to

many obstacles
encounter the PV technology in Arab countries. These
obstacles are stemmed from
the
lack or absence of
policies and strategies that support renewable energy
[
56], [62
] including solar e
nergy.

Although few Arab

countries have
some sort of
policies to support
renewable energy, they are limited and ineffective.
For example,
m
ost of the PV
/CSP

generation projects
that have been recently
announced

as aforementioned
are only focusing on the gr
ound
-
mounted PV system
(
utility scale
),

nevertheless
, in

order to significantly
increase the penetration of PV technology and
compete
with
other developed countries, the
customers must participate in electricity generation

(a
characteristic of Smart Grid
)
through

installing solar
cells on the rooftop of their
properties
. Actually, this
need
s

a strategic political decision to establish a
policy that oblige the owners of new building
including, houses, hospitals, schools, u
niversities,
malls, government

premi
ses and others to install PV.
This policy must have clear acts
,
showing
how

much
power shall be generated by PV technology
comparing to the area of the new building and other
factors. Consequently, this will highly support the
(BI
PV) leading to sharply inc
rease

the
cumulative PV
capacity of Arab

countries. Furthermore, Feed
-
in
Tariff (FiT) policies must be set up to enable the
customer to sell their excessive electricity to the grid

(a characteristic of Smart Grid)
. This tariff must be
high at the beginning

to encourage customers to
invest in this technology.

Besides, these policies w
ill
attract the PV manufacturers to open factories in Arab

countries (
emerging

markets), resulting in a steep
reduction in the cost of the PV installation, and also
there will b
e a further inherent reduction in the cost,
arising from maturity of PV technology.

A
s the installation of PV cost will be reduced, the FiT
must also be reviewed and reduced. In other words,
depending on the country’s target of PV installation,
the FiT is reviewed, causing a decrease or increase
in
the FiT
(in case the target has or has

no
t
been
achieved) [
56
].

The
governmental

role shall not be ignored, as
legislative authorities

have a crucial role to give
incentives and subsidies to the customers who want to
install and generate electricity from PV, especially for
residential

customers. For instance,
to support the
penetration of PV technology
,

government
s

shall
consider

exem
ption the PV technology from taxes.
They can

also encourage
banks to give
-
out
loan
s

with
low interests
.

In 2010, EPIA [56
] pointed out that the best plac
e to
install PV farms (
utility scale) is desert

due to their
low population and high solar radiation. This point
must be taken in consideration as the vast majority of
Arab

lands are deserts,
which
can be described as the

New O
il
"
,
particularly

the Sahara desert in North
African which
enjoys
a h
igh level of annual
insolation.

Besides, the Arabic media has an important role
to
play
in this “National Arabic Project”

of utilising the
New Oil
, with
collaboration

of Arab governments and
utilities to
increase awareness
among Arab

population
s

about the PV technology. Moreover, the
current
advertising campaigns must give technical
information in friendly way
showing

how electricity
is generate
d from solar energy and illustrating
some
facts about PV
capacity in the world
.

The customer
-
interaction in electricity generation and the
accommodation of more renewable distributed
generation will
simultaneously support the smart grid
idea

as both are major characteristics of smart grid.

More details

on
the
PV
-
related
policies
in the
developed countries

can be found in

[
56], [62
].


B.4.2. Benefits of PV in Arab Countries
:

PV has many benefits to the utility, customer,
environment and society. The customer can export its
surplus electricity to balance
their
electricity bill,

leading

to
a
significant
reduction
at

peak demand and
stresses in the overall electricity networks, in addition
to optimizing asset use. Also, PV technology declines
the losses as it is generated near the
distribution loads
while the
a
cco
mmodation of
wide
range of PV at the
distribution level will
considerably

reduce CO
2

emissions and other harmful gases. EPIA

[56
]

said
that “30 full time equivalent Jobs are created for each
MW”. Also, other private companies are required to
install PV system
s

for
household

customers, ensuring
further employment vacancies. Furthermore, PV will
enhance electricity system security as
the Middle East
area is unstable. An example of this is Jordan,
which

has experienced

a crisis in its
electri
c
ity

generation
since Egypt revolution in 2011. As Egypt has been
the only source for the gas needed to power the
generation
plants and
the frequen
t bombing
the
gas
pipelines,

forced

Jordan
to
operate the
generation

plants by oil
,

which cost
s

Jordan around
$6.65
m
illion
daily, and trebles
the

ele
ctricity tariff [67
].

Therefore,
non
-
oil producing

Arab countries

must
highly

invest in PV
/CSP

technologies

to secure their
electrical power system and continue economica
l
development without any cease m
ay

result from
increasing oil prices
and other political situations in
the Middle
East. On the other hand, oil producing
Arab

countries must

also

s
ignificantly invest in the
solar technologies to contribute to a sustainable policy
that would save oil resources

for more
generation
s to
come
.
Surprisingly, Saudi Arabia burns more than
1.2

million barrels per day fo
r electricity generation

[68].
These in
vestments

can
be achieved by

overcome

the
technical challenges of PV and benchmark
with

some
developed countries to establish policies, which will
result in high penetration of PV technology.
Lastly,
PV can be recycled so it is friendly after scrapping it
and during the running
operation

[56
].

B.4.3. PV
in

Dubai

Dubai has policies that support renewable generation
and environment including PV technology. This
section will highlight Dubai and DEWA PV
/CS
P

projects, for both standalone and grid
-
connected
applications. Taking standalone projects first, i
n line
with decree issued by His Highness

Sheikh
Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum,

UAE Vice
President, Prime Minster,

DEWA and Dubai
Municipality have established the specifications and
regulations of “Green
Building” at

the end of 2010.

This policy will become compulsory by the end of
2013,
aiming
at reducing

energy and water
consumptio
n for new buildings in Dubai [69
].


Section 5 Chapter4 (504) [69
] is
about renewable

energy e.g. clause 5.4.02 indicates that all new
buildings owners, exceeding a particular limit of
power density for outdoor lighting applications, are
obliged to supply the additional required electricity

from a renewable source such as PV systems.

In response to Dubai renewable policy, Dubai
municipality have incorporated PV technology for
small applications such as irrigation of plants and
grass in the rou
ndabouts and road
separators

[70
]
. In
addition
, new speed ra
dars in Dubai are powered by
PV.

Moreover,
in

2009, a sophisticated standalone PV
project was completed to power 1380 outdoor
lighting bulbs in Motor City Green Community
located in Dubai, which is the biggest in Middle East
and North Africa, with a

cost of around $2.4 million
[71
]. The bulbs used in

this project were not the
common 100W lights but rather using Light Emitting
Diode (LED) with 15W rated power, which ease the
installation of P
V modules as they only require

an
area of a forth square meter
.

This k
ind of application
leads to greenhouse gas

emission reduction,
electricity saving and almost zero running cost. Also,
this system needs no cables, trenching, back fill, and
others. Besides, it saves monthly ele
ctricity bill of
around $4850 in case
100W

bulbs

were used
for 12
hours daily
.

Regarding

g
rid
-
tied PV systems, in response to Dubai
Integrated Energy Strategy 2030 that has been set up
for sustainable development in Dubai, H.H Sheikh
Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum
announced
in
the beginning of 2012 a huge project of 1GW (utility
scale) grid
-
connected
solar

systems, with a cost of
$3.27 billion, called "Mohammed Bin Rashid Al
Maktoum Solar Park". This project is s
ituated in Seih
Al Dahal on
Dubai
-
Al Ain Road. As per Dubai
Integra
ted Energy Strategy 2030, Dubai's targets 1%
and 5% of its total

expected

generation from solar
energy by 2020 and 2030, respectively, making the
overall renewable generation from solar energy to be
around 1GW in 2030.
This project is a combination of
PV a
nd CSP technologies with 200 MW of PV and
800MW
of
CSP
, as depicted in Fig.

11
. The
Annual
mean insolation

of the project location exploited by
PV and CSP technologies are just over 240W/m
2

and
230W/
m
2
,

respectively.

This project

will be carried out in phases, where the
first phase will be completed in the mid of 2013,
supplying 10MW (extendable to
2
00MW in the
future),
using PV thin film technology with land
usage of 0.375
-
0.5625 km
2
. This project will be
managed and operated by
DEWA.

In this project, the
PV cells will be cleaned by a robot in the absence of
the sun.

Besides,
In March 2012,
the Dubai
-
based
ABB
factory submitted

to DEWA

a study of mounting
grid
-
connected PV system of 30
-
80kWp (
commercial

scale)
on

the rooftop of th
e factory
. The study was
submitted

for approval,
as grid
-
connecting
renewable
systems
to
the

distribution network
of DEWA is

not
allowed as per clause 504.02 of "Grid building"
policy.

If
approved,
the project

will be the first BIPV
in Dubai,
opening t
he
doors

for

deploying more
similar systems
.


Also, DEWA is reviewing bes
t market practices for
(FiT)

to

establish regulations and specifications that
will significantly increase the penetration of PV at the
residential
and commercial
scale.

The draft of FiT
policy was completed in April 2012, whilst it is
expected to be
effective

by

2013
.


In addition to the rooftop
-
mounted PV systems, the
writer suggests that
other

installation

types should be

ado
pted in Dubai,
as shown in Fig. 12
. These
installation
s suit Dubai building architectural style
and the emirate's modern
highways.

Fig. 1
1
.
Prototype

of

Mohammed Bin Rashid Al Maktoum Solar
Park
”,

with a capacity of 1GW



Fig.
12
. (a) PV facade in Manchester (a); (b) PV array
along
a
highway in Germany
[49]









5
.

Plug
-
in Electric Vehicles (PEVs)


The most important customer's technology in the
"smart grid" is
the
e
-
car. According to EPRI [
72
]
,

this
term includes Plug
-
in Hybrid Electric Vehicles
(PHEVs), and Plug
-
in Electric Vehicles (PEVs). In
addition to the battery, PHEVs has a combustion
engine to be used when the battery is fully depleted.
However, PEVs has only a battery that can be simpl
y
recharged from any socket of external electricity
source (plugged
-
in to the grid)

or from dedicated
Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE
)
. This
technology must be well addressed as it may
significantly raise the peak demand, and increase the
stresses
on the power distribution network, despite its
numerous benefits to the environment, customer,
and
non
-
oil producing economics.

Hence, numerous
researches have
suggested several s
cenarios to avoid

the

aggravation of the present peak demand.


B.
5.1.
Background of PEVs:

There are many commercially available PEVs with
various battery sizes

and different
Japanese

and
American
brands

[
72
].
Most
Batteries

may vary
between
16kWh

and 24
Wh
. Similar to the traditional
vehicles, PEVs travelling distance depends

upon
many factors such as, ambient temperature, weight of
the car (number of the passengers), and driving style,
in addition to the battery size [
73
]. For example,
Nissan states that Nissan
-
Leaf can transport for
around
160km

in the normal conditions [
73
]. The
battery can also be recharged in different times based
on the charging facility provided, as explained on the
forthcoming section
s
.




B.
5.2.
Structure

of PEVs:

Fig. 13

depicts Nissan
-
LEAF, a PEV
, with its
components.
The Society of Automotive
Engineers
(SAE) set the standard for the plug
-
in connector,
called J1722 [
72], [74]
-
[
76
] and PEV's single phase
and three phase receptacle.



B.
5.3.

Charging

Structure

There are
two k
inds of PEVs charging; AC charging
and DC Charging, with different
voltage levels as
presented in table

V
, r
eproduced from [72], [74], [75],
[77
].







Fig. 13.
A
PEV with its major charging components



B.5.3.a.
AC Charging:

The EVSE supplies AC current, converted into DC
current on
-
board, to
recharge the battery. There are
many AC charging Levels as presented in table

V
,
where Level 1 is the North America standard voltage
that requires around 17 hours to fully recharge a
24kWh battery whereas level 2

(low) is around 2
times faster than level 1

with 8 hours. Moreover,
Level 2 (high) requires half of the time of level 2 at 4
hours to recharge 24kWh battery. As a consequence,
Level 2 would be the mos
t suitable in
-
home charging
as L
evel 1 needs very long time that inhibits its
penetration even at N
orth America

area. The standard
SAE J1772
con
nector for AC is shown in Fig. 13

with
its on
-
board receptacle
s
. Safety requirements for
PEVs charging are thoroughly explained in [
72
].




TABLE
V

PEV’s CHARGING TYPES, LEVELS, AND LOCATIONS





B.5.3.b.
DC Charging

Along with AC, some of the PEVs

are incorporated
with DC charging that named
"quick charging” [
72
]
as it needs less than half

an h
our to 80% battery
charging. 80%

charging can be achieved in less than
30 minutes but the
remaining

20% needs more time to
be achieved so DC charging refers to only 80%
charging because of the chemical features of the
battery [
73
].

In
DC

charging
,

AC current supplied by EVSE is
converted into DC off
-
board and directly
charges

the
battery. This
L
evel is
not avail
able at homes but
it
can be found at private or public stations. In contrast
to AC charging, DC charging

has no

international
standard for the connector, on
-
board receptacle, and
safety requirements [
72
], [
74
].


B.5.4.
Ownership of charging
structure:

The PEV battery can be recharged at home, “Electric
stations”, commercial places. According to
Dickerman, Harrison [
74
]
and EPRI

[72
]
, a

part of
home charging the owners of the charging structure
would be under one of the following:


Municipality owned
: Similar to “paid parking”,
municipality can invest by mounting and managing
charging infrastructure in particular areas along with
paid Parking.


Employer owned
: Employer can run some charging
infrastructure as an advantage
benefit

for
the
employees. This could be only AC charging as the
PEV

mainly stays at work for around 7
-
8 hours which
is

mainly

enough to fully recharging the PEV.


Commercially owned
: Places such as hotels, malls
and

restaurants can operate charging infrastructure of
AC Level

2 and DC to serve their customers.


Privately owned
:
This can be an

individual or
corporate investment,

similar to the

petrol station to
serve public.

T
his should be
a
DC charging only.




B.5.5.
Benefits of PEVs:

PEVs
adoption

offers many benefits to the customer,
environment, society and utility.


Taking customers

first
,

the electricity prices are
considerably less than gasoline prices
for the same
distance.


With respect to environment
, PEVs significantly
reduce burning fossil fuels (gasoline and diesel)
leading to significant carbon foot
-
print reduction.


Regarding s
ociety,

PEV can reduce un
employment
rate as it create

work opportunities

such
as
installation

of EVSE [
77
].
In addition, PEVs considerably reduce
the bill of importing oil for non
oil producing Arab

countries, whilst they

sustain the oil resources for
next gen
eration in oil producing Arab
countries.



Turning to utility
, despite the obvious technical and
operat
ional problems of increasing penetration of
PEVs in the perspectives of DNO and generation,
PEVs themselves, in the future, may provide technical
solutions for these PEVs problems and moreover
support the integration of renewable energy resources
[
76
]
-
[
78
]
. This
is fulfilled
by using PEVs as an
efficient distributed storage, allowing the customer to
sell electricity back (discharging battery) to the grid at
peak times, where this process is driven by the high
prices of e
nergy at peak times
. This fa
cility is

well
known as
Vehicle
-
to
-
Grid
, or simply (V2G), which is
not available in
today’s first generation
PEVs [
72
],
[
76
], [
77
]. In fact, V2G is a promising facility as it
may mitigate the overload on the distribution network
and moreover can
be
use
d

as frequency regulation
[
76],
[
78
] (
the battery of PEV is manufactured for fast
dis
charging [
77
]).
Ipakchi and Albuyeh [
77
] report
that a successful experiment has been done by “PJM
interconnectio
n” in the United States
, to examine the
ability of 19kW bat
tery of PEV for automatic
generation control (frequency regulation). Besides,
V2G can overcome some of the technical challenges
stemmed from adopting renewable generation

(especially volatility of renewable sources)
.


T
hrough low price signal utility can
encourage

the
customers

to charge their cars at periods where the
renewable energy sources are
efficient (
high sun
radiation, fast wind)
[76
]. On the other hand, when
the renewable sources are weak, the utility

can
support the renewable generation by encou
raging
customers to discharge their PEVs batteries via high
energy prices [
76
]. To sum up
,

V2G allows a mean to
overcome the maladies arisen from
DRG

and

PEVs

themselves

such

as

network losses, overloading of
distribu
tion networks, peak
-
demand, and
imbalan
ce
of supply a
nd demand and allow voltage/VAR
control. Despite the benefits of V2G, its implantation
encounters many challenges; one of
them

is the
availability of smart grid functionalities such as
structure of robust two
-
way
communication [
76
],
another
challenge
is "
an unproven business model and
economic justification (how much should be the price
to encourage discharging)
"

[
76
]. Further challenge is
technology limitation of batteries as they are not
designed for rep
eated charging and discharging
[72
]




B.5.6.
PEVs
at

Arab countries:

According to Aljazeera.net [
79
], in 2010, Jordan
completed the first

PV technology

charging stati
on
with 26kW capacity.
This event coincided with
importing the first PEVs in Jordan.

Moreover,
Jordan

announces that 100,000 PEVs charging stations with
collaboration of some private and governmental
sectors will be built in the near future [13].


Also, the first charging PEVs station, based on PV
technology, has been recently completed in Dubai.
This st
ation is owned and operated by
a
car rental

company
,

which
operates

a fleet of PEVs and PHEVs
cars for rental.




IV.

SMART GRID CHALLANGES


Smart grid technology faces serious challenges,
stemming from the complexity of smart grid
system
[7]
.
Some of these
challenges will be discussed
below
.

1
.

AMI Challenges:

In spite of its numerous unprecedented benefits, AMI
has many challenges, which are related to design,
maintenance and data management,
as depicted in
Fig. 14, 15, 16

[
23
].

1.1.
Design Challenges

(Fig. 14)
:

Installation of smart meter system is extremely costly
and due to the global economic crises
,

replacing
traditional metering system with smart on
e is very
difficult to justify.
Smart meters can also be liable to
physical damages so that each
smart meter must be
properly housed [
23
],

[
80
]
.

Also, the communication
technology must meet the aforementioned
communication
requirements,

where the most concern
is security
.


1.1.a.
Security concerns:

As HA
N network could be based on IP
to exchange
information between the customers and smart meters,
it represents the weakest point in the AMI system.
As
a result
, this system can be subject to many threats
with respect to the security
[2], [7], [8];

these are:


Hacking:

Hackers could manipulate their power
consumption readings because the AMIs employs bi
-
directional communication, based on

IP for HAN
network. Therefore, the AMI will be as vulnerable as
the public internet with respect to the threats of the
security issue
s
2], [8]
,
[
80
]
.
Accordingly, the utility
may

lose billions of dollars due to the frauds [2].


Moreover, smart
grid's information might be hacked
via cyber
-
attacks
[7], [8],

resulting in catastrophic
problems such as major outages, failures in the smart
grid's assets, customers' appliances, and many
others
[7]
.


Malwares:

As the smart grid will use the internet
protocol for HAN network, it will be subject to
massive n
umbers of malwares. These malwares are
softwares designed to disrupt the operation in the
computerised systems, causing disruption in data
exchange between the customers and the
utility
[8].

In order to mitigate the security problems, many
researches are n
eeded to evaluate security concerns of
AMIs in the laboratory
as well as in the field [2].
Besides, plans shall be identified in case of failure via
the hackers or malwares [2].



1.2.
Maintenance Challenges:

These ch
allenges
are
clearly shown in Fig.

15
.

1.3.
Data management challenges

(Fig. 16)
:

1.3.a.
Customers' privacy

As aforementioned, the AMIs will provide the smart
grid with beneficial numerous information, utilized to
resolve many technical and operational maladies.
However, this information can impact the customers'
privacy as the utility will not only know the amo
unt
of power consumption, but also the utility may
deduce the life style and the real
-
time activities
(sleeping, watching TV, etc) of the residential
customers in addition to the types of the appliances
that the customers have in their homes
[2], [7].

Reg
arding the commercial and industrial customers,
the information may indicate to the operational status
of those customers (e.g. a sudden increase or decrease
of power consumption "may suggest changes in
business operations"), which could be exposed to the
competitive companies or industries
[7].

Nonetheless, in order to mitigate this problem,
additional researches are required to address and
assess the privacy problem
[2], [7],

in addition to
identifying laws and legislations for who would
access to the col
lected information and what would be
the results in case of exposing the information (e.g.
imposing sanctions, etc)
[23]
.




Fig. 14. Design Challenges of AMI system

.
Fig.
15
.
Maintenance

Challenges of AMI system


Fig. 16
.
Data Management

Challenges of AMI system

1.3.b. Data Management Complexity:

A serious management difficulties might be faced as a
result of the unprecedentedly abundant information
that will be available for the smart grid via the AMIs
that may lead to some problems in
system planning
and maintenance level due to the large numbers of
decision
making [3], [6].




2
.

Technical challenges of PV:

In spite of the aforementioned benefits of PV
technology, there are many technical challenges,
which arise as a result of grid
interconnection of PV

to the power distribution network.


A
mong these are voltage rise,
voltage flicker
,
intermittency

of renewable generation, incre
ase in
short circuit capacity, i
slanding and harmonics [
81
],
[
82
]. Harmonics are generated by
inverters.
IEEE Std
929
-
2000 specifies the Total Harmonic Distortion
(THD) of the inverter’s output current for PV systems
having a rating of 10KW to be less than 5% of the
fundamental frequency current at rated power [
81
].
Cleaning

of PV cells, particularly for

util
ity scale
application

might be another challenge in dusty area
s
.
Cleaning is mainly done
by
a robot in the absence of
the sun. Many PV challenges can be overcome by
successful implementation of other smart grid
technologies. For example,
v
oltage rise
can b
e
overcome by Volt/
VAR automation of the
distribution fe
eders, whilst islanding mode
can be
detected by AMI system as explained earlier. Also,
V2G feature can alleviate the
volatility of renewable
generation
.

3
.

Impacts of PEVS on the Grid


3.1.
Impact of
PEVS in PEAK demand

Increasing the number of PEVs would affect the
power systems at all including generation,
transmission, and distribution, where the latter will
fall as victim of PEVs if the impacts of high
penetration of PEVs have not
been well
addressed.
Hence, m
any researches have been done to study the
effect of PEVs on the power system [
72
], [
74
], [
77
],
[
83
], and concluded that
PEVs can radically increase
the load demand, creating worse technical and
operational problems comparing with today'
s
grid
when the charging happens simultaneously with
today’s peak demand times.
Therefore, In order to
alleviate this problem, the vehicles shall be charged
during the off
-
peak
times
.

EPRI [
72
] has thoroughly studied and examined the
impact of charging PEV
s by

residential customers
only as most of the charging will
be done at

homes.

In
fact,

EPRI has investigated
th
ree different modes
,

"
Uncontrolled Charging
"
,
"
Managed Off
-
Peak
Charge Control
"
, Set
-
time charge Control

at 9pm
”,
which are des
cribed below.


3.1.a.
Uncontrolled Charging:

This
mode

assumes that the residential customers
begin charging their PEVs as soon a
s they reach their
homes. Fig. 17

illustrates the average time arriva
l of
the American driver (blue bar
-
chart)
,
while the red
curve depicts the average cumulative
drivers
arrival in
the
USA [
72
], [
75
].

Fig. 17

also
shows that most residential drivers, just
ov
er 12%, reach homes at 6pm

and just
fewer than

80% of the
cumulative
drivers are home at 9pm
.

EPRI argues
that the curve is fairly fin
e distributed
,
and so the charging of PEVs. As a result, the PEVs

Fig. 17. Average time arrival

and average cumulative time arrival

of
the
American
drivers [
72], [75]


charging inherently would not aggravate today’s

peak
demand, which is assumed to be from 12
-
6 pm
, v
alid
in almost in all countries,
including
the UAE.


3.1.b.
Managed Off
-
Peak Charge Control

This is the most preferable
mode

from the point view
of generation system as in this situation the
PEVs are
only allowed to starting charging
only between

9pm
-

3a
m, where the cars are phased at off
-
peak times
.
This can be

achieved by smart charging, and
energy
price signals
. A
lso
,

most PEVs are equipped with on
board facility that can programmed to star
t and end
charging so this allow the cust
omers to plug in their
cars and
set the best

time they

want

and go to sleep.



3.1.c.
Set
-
Time Charge Control

at 9pm
:

This represents the
worst case scenario,
according to
EPRI [1]. For i
nstance
, if the PEVs

are allowed to be
charged after 9
pm

without any control manner
,

this
will dramatically boost the load from off
-
peak to peak
at 9pm as the cumulative percentage of the cars,
which have reached homes and ready to be charged,
are slightly
less

than
8
0%
.

Most probably, these cars will be switched on
at 9pm
,
shifting t
he demand from off
-
peak to peak
with
in

a

very short time, leading to opera
tional and technical
problems for

the generation sector.

According to EPRI
's

investigation of the

e
-
cars

l
oad
demand
[1], Fig.18

illustrates the expected e
-
car fleet
of 520,000 vehicles load demand in USA in 2015 for
the aforementioned three
modes
. It clearly s
hows that
'set time charge at 9pm'

would considerably raise the
demand to
almost 2GW

in comparison to slightly
m
ore than 0.3GW and around 0.38GW for

“uncontrolled” and “managed o
ff
-
peak” modes.
Furthermore,

"managed off peak” is only distributed
during off
-
peak time.

As a consequence, “managed
off
-
peak” is the best solution for addressing e
-
cars
peak demand for
generation system.





Fig. 18.

Impact of "Uncontrolled Charging", "Managed Off
-
Peak
Charge Control", Set
-
time charge Control at 9pm
” on the demand

[72]




3.2.
Impact of PEVs in the distribution System:

Fig. 19

illustrates the average load of the residential
customers in a particular country along with the
charging load of PEVs at off
-
peak times, in which the
charging type is AC level1 (120V, 15A) [
77
]. Despite
the use of the lowest charging level, it is clearly

shown that the normal load shape is affected, with
increasing of more than 50% of the average load in
the three seasons. Furthermore, higher level of
charging has a marked impact on the pattern of the
average residential load.

Accordingly, numero
us detail
ed researches have
examined

the impact of P
EVs on the distribution
system; it was found

that the impact is undoubtedly
significant, and therefore it must be well addressed.
EPRI [
72
] points out that the penetration of PEVs
results in planning and operation difficulties as PEVs
charging increases the stresses on the distribution
circuits i.e. Cables, distribution transformers,
RMUs
,
LVDBs
, and others. Taylor etal
.

[
75
],

Maitra etal
.

[9]

and

Ipakchi &
Albuyeh

[
77
] evaluate

the impact of
PEVs on the d
istribution circuits and reveal

that PEVs
charging adversely affects thermal loading of the
distribution circuits, system voltage, as well as
voltage regulation. They add that PEVs chargin
g
increases distribution network losses, voltage
unbalance and feeder overloading [
75
], [
77
], [
84
].

Also
, harmonics shall be taken in account as lots of
them are generated by the charging inverters leading
to
many other problems such as low
power quality
and overloaded distribution

circuits

[
77
]
, [85].

Besides,
the
impact

of thermal stresses (
due to

harmonics)

on the aging rate of the distribution
transformers have been addressed [
72
], [
75], [86
]
,
[87], [88].




Fig. 19.

Impa
ct of PEVs on the household
load [77]

4
.

O
verall cost

of the Smart Grid
:

There are two visions to design and construct the
Smart G
rid [4], [5]. The

first one is to construct Smart
G
rid from the scratch without using the existing
system of today's grid, which would be complex but
easy and possible to do , whereas the second one
is to
adjust today's grid into Smart G
rid, which might need
decades as the structure of the
Smart G
rid is di
fferent
from today's
grid [4], [5].

However, both visions are considerably costly, and
therefore huge funding is re
quired to examine and
evaluate Smart G
rid's technologies
[13].

Actually, in
Europe, USA, and other developed countries the
governments along

with some industries assign
billions of dollars for smart grid development,
but
more is required in order for

the smart grid

to
become

a
reality [2].

In Arab countries, in
2012
, DEWA
invited consultant

companies to submit their
perspectives towards the id
ea of
Smart G
rid

implementation

in Dubai. In 2012, Jordan revealed
that $1 million is dedicated for studying Smart Grid
idea.
EPRI published an exte
nsive technical report in
2011, estimating the costs of the
Smart G
rid
technology, which can be greatly bene
ficial for
governments and utilities in order to estimate the
benefits of smart
grid in

relation to its cost

[11]
.

It
points out that
distribution system
technologies in
USA require between 232 and

339.5 billion to
achieve full smart grid functionality

[11]
.

In fact,
these numbers exclude

customers’

technologies

needed for smart grid functionality such as HAN
network.


5
.

Required Standards

Leading engineering institutions along with
governments shall work together to identify the
standards of smart grid such
as [6]:



Home
-

to
-

Grid



Industrial
-
to
-
Grid



Commercial site
-
to
-
Grid



Plug
-
in
Grid
-
to
-

Vehicles



Plug
-
in Vehicles to grid (V2G)



Security and

Cyber Security



Wired/Wireless Communication



Customer's privacy


In
2011
,

IEEE

publish
ed a comprehensive standard
on Smart G
rid
interoperability

of energy technology
and information technology operation with electrical
power system

numbered IEEE Std 2030
-
201 [
90
]
.



IV.

CONCLUSION

In conclusion, today's grid is dumb, overstressed

and
faces s
erious financial, environmental
and operational
challenges; therefore it must be modernized
in
to a
s
mart one that uses two
-
way real
-
time
communication
system and modern technologies to overcome the
challenges of today’s grid, resulting in a higher
reliability, stability and quality of power supply at a
lower cost.

The smart Grid
has

many
characteristics
such as
:



Self
-
healing

It

is accompl
ished by having automation system for
the substations, feeders and customer’s
smart
appliances along with the
real
-
time

information
pr
ovided from the AMI system,
used to detect, isolate
and redistribute power supply in case of outages.



Consumer friendly


C
ustomers
c
an control and manage their
energy

consumption
, depending on the real
-
time
dynamic
tariff, which is sent b
y AMI system. The reaction to

th
e tariff signals can be manual

or automatic in case
of HAN and HEMS.


Accommodate a wide range of DRG and storage
options:

Smart G
rid can encounter the maladies of
DRG

such
as

islanding and

intermittency

through AMI system
and storage devices i.e. batteries of PEVs.


Allow electricity markets to

emerge and

grow
:

Smart Grid

will

enable new services (e.g. real
-
time
pricing),
and markets (e.g. PV and PEVs including
EVSEs).


Asset management Optimisation
:

Smart
G
rid will be able to have abundant
unprecedented information through AMI, which can
be used to optimise asset operations management and
also the maintenance
policies,

such

as

RCM.


Have high reliability and power quality
:

Smart Grid’s power quality and rel
iability will be
compiled with customer’s needs
, through AMI
system and Smart Grid automation systems.


With
stand Cyber and physical attacks
:



Smart grid shall be designed to fend of

hackers and
any planned physical attacks by the network operators
themselves or customers
.


However, the Smart G
rid also confronts challenges
that
may inhibit its implementation. In fact, s
ome of
these challenges can aggravate the problems of
today's
grid

such

as great
PEVs emergence
.
Plenty
challenges

can be overcome through the integration of
all smart Grid technologies.
For example
, efficient
AMI deployment

allows successful implementation
of PEVs and DRG, and also V2G can help face the
volatility o
f renewable generation.




The smart grid concept can be a reality in the near
future
,

provided that the leading engineering
organisations along with the governments

would

develop

the vision of the Smart Grid.

I
s it going to be
built from the scratch or
by modifying the current
grid?.



ACKNOWLEDGMENT


I would like to express my sincere gratitude and deepest
sense of appreciation towards my Senior Manager

of Asset
Management
, Mr
.

Matar

Al Mehairi
, for his undying
support and assistance throughout the progress of this
research paper. I have been most fortunate to work under
his supervision.



I would also like

to thank Mohammed Al Suwa
i
di (V
P of
Distribution Maintenance), and by extensi
on, Rashid

bin
H
umai
dan (EVP, Power Distribution) and Saeed
A
l Tayer
(Managing Director & CEO) for affording me the
opportunity to work at DEWA. It has truly been a
rewarding experience.



I wish to also give a special thanks to

Sharif Albatayneh

(Assistant M
anager

o
f R&A)
, my friend Jihad

Kamal for
editing the English of this paper
and

my fellow colleagues
within the Asset management department for their
contribution.


I thank my beloved family for all of their
support they have lent to me especially during difficult

times. Finally, I thank Almighty God for giving me the
opportunity, patience and strength to complete this task.


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