Laboratory Safety

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Feb 20, 2013 (4 years and 3 months ago)

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Hazard Communication

& Laboratory Safety

September 2008

Laboratory Safety


Safety in the workplace:


Safety


Accidents


Emergencies


Hazards and Risk Assessment


Who is Responsible for Workplace Safety

Laboratory Safety Management:

Regulatory Agencies


Standards:
operating principals or requirements
related to many areas in addition to safety. Many
safety regulations are voluntary.


Regulations
:

operating principals required by law.


Areas that have standards and regulations:


Worker safety


Environmental Protection


Use and Handling of Animals


Regulation of Radioisotopes

Regulatory Agencies


Prudent Practices in the Laboratory. Handling
and Disposal of Chemicals.
National Research
Council, National Academy Press. Washington,
D.C. 1995



Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical
Laboratories 4th U.S.
Department of Health and
Human Services, Public Health Service Centers
for Disease Control and National Institutes of
Health. U.S. Government Printing Office 1999.


Regulatory Agencies


OSHA web site :
http://www.osha.gov


EPA web site:
http://www.epa.gov



Other Government Agencies

that have regulatory oversight:


Department of Transportation (DOT)


Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)




OSHA (Occupational Safety

and Health Administration)


Federal Hazard Communication Standard (HCS)
:
regulates the use of hazardous materials in industrial
workplaces. It focuses on the availability of information
concerning employee hazard exposure and applicable
safety measures.
Right to Know Law.


workplace hazard identification


written hazard communication plan (CHP)


files of Material Data Safety Sheets for all hazardous chemicals


clear labeling of all chemicals


worker training for the safe use of all chemicals


Institutional Responsibility

Institutional Responsibility


1990 Occupational Exposure to
Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories
Standards (29 CFR Part 1910) :


mandates the development of a chemical
hygiene plan (CHP) for every institution.
The CHP is a written manual that outlines
the specific information and procedures
necessary to protect workers from hazardous
chemicals.

Chemical Hygiene Plan


Items that must be addressed in the CHP:


General chemical safety rules and procedures


Purchase, distribution, and storage of chemicals


Environmental monitoring


Availability of medical programs


Maintenance, housekeeping, and inspection procedures


Availability of protective devices and clothing


Record keeping policies


Training and employee information programs


Chemical labeling requirement


Accident and spill policies


Waste disposal programs


Emergency response plans


Designation of safety officer

Environmental Protection


Environmental Protection


Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has
primary responsibility for enforcement of laws to
prevent environmental contamination with
hazardous chemicals.


Clean Water Act


Safe Drinking Water Act


Clean Air Act

Environmental Protection


Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

(RCRA)


Provides a system for tracking hazardous waste,
including poisonous or reactive chemicals from creation
to disposal (cradle to grave)



Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA): designed to
regulate chemicals that pose health or environmental
risks.



Establishes chemical inventory and record keeping
requirements. Allows EPA to ban or control
hazardous chemicals in commerce.


Laboratory Responsibility


Laboratory Responsibility


Institutions have policies, but these policies
need to be implemented at the individual
laboratory level.



Commitment to risk reduction should be a
clear and constant goal for all members of
the laboratory group.

Laboratory Responsibility


Designation of a safety officer (committee)


safety advisor to laboratory


ensure that safety procedures are documented


act as a liaison with the institutions safety officers


communicate policy changes to co
-
workers


coordinate internal safety inspections


ensure that equipment is properly maintained


keep records of hazards and problems within the
laboratory


Laboratory Responsibility


Labeling and Documentation


Lack of proper labeling is one of the most
common OSHA citations against laboratories.


Labeling should provide identification to new workers
and emergency personnel


MSDS


Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS):



A legally required technical document
provided by chemical suppliers that
describes the specific properties of a
chemical.


http://msds.ehs.cornell.edu/msdssrch.asp

MSDS


No specific format.


Types of information typically provided:


Chemical name


Chemical supplier


Composition and ingredients information


Potential health effects


Exposure levels, with specific concentrations and times


First Aid Procedures


Fire fighting procedures


Accidental release procedures


Handling and storage procedures


Recommended personnel protection


Physical and chemical properties


Stability and reactivity


Toxicological information


Environmental impact


Disposal Recommendations


Transportation information


Regulatory information

Laboratory Responsibility

Job Safety Analysis:

a detailed step by step analysis
of each step in a procedure identifying hazards
and outlining accident prevention strategies.



Housekeeping


Clean Up after yourself!


Balances, Centrifuges, other common
equipment.


Freezers and Refrigerators


Laboratory Responsibility


Emergency Response


All Personnel should be familiar with basic emergency
responses.


At least one person trained in CPR and basic first aid


First aid kit must be readily accessible and fully stocked


All required protective devices such as fire extinguishers,
fire blankets, and eyewash stations must be well marked
and easily accessible.


Emergency telephone numbers and instructions should be
prominently displayed b y each phone


Evacuation routes should be kept well clear of boxes and
clutter.


Laboratory Responsibility


Laboratory Rooms should be labeled


Hazard Diamond System (S&M p614):
rates
chemicals according to their fire, reactivity, and general
health hazards


Scale of 0
-
4; 0 being non
-
hazardous, 4 being very
hazardous



Biohazard Warning signs



Biosafety Levels (S&M p642)

Biosafety Levels

All associated with : Standard
microbiological practices, special
practices, safety equipment
(primary barriers), and
laboratory facilities (secondary
barriers)



BSL1

: “is suitable for work involving well
characterized agents not known to consistently
cause disease in healthy adult humans, and of
minimal potential hazard to laboratory personnel
and the envioronment.”

Biosafety Levels


BSL2
: “is similar to Biosafety Level 1 and is suitable for
work involving agents of moderate potential hazard to
personnel and the environment.”



BSL3:
“is applicable to clinical, diagnostic, teaching,
research, or production facilities in which work is done
with indigenous or exotic agents which may cause
serious or potentially lethal disease as a result of
exposure by the inhalation route.”

Biosafety Levels


BSL4:
”is required for work with dangerous and exotic
agents that pose a high individual risk of aerosol
transmitted laboratory infections and life
-
threatening
disease.”



Animal Biosafety Levels: when experimental animals are
being used.

Personnel Responsibility


Personnel Responsibility




Ultimately it is up to you the individual
laboratory worker who is responsible for
his/her safety and the safety of their
coworkers
-
after all it is you who has the
most to lose, your health, eyesight, or life.


Personnel Safety Practices


Be sure that you are informed about the hazards that
you encounter in the laboratory.


Be aware of emergency protocols.


When in doubt about a hazardous material or
procedure, ask.


Use personnel protective wear such as lab coats and
safety glasses


Do not eat, drink, smoke, or chew gum in the
laboratory.


Avoid practical jokes and/or horse play


Use gloves when in doubt


Wash your hands regularly

Personnel Safety Practices


Always wash your hands thourougly before leaving the
laboratory


Disinfect your workspace before starting work and when
finishing


Read the labels of chemicals carefully


Read procedures before performing them and visualize
hazardous steps


Minimize use of sharp objects (needles, broken glass) and
know how to dispose of them


Clean up spills and pick up any dropped items immediately


Label everything clearly


Use a fume hood for chemicals and solvents that you can
smell, has known toxic properties, or is unfamiliar to you.


Record everything in your lab notebook


Always report accidents, however minor.


Laboratory Safety


Text References:


General Safety Guidelines: Chapter 2 “Introduction to a
Safe Workplace” pages 19
-
32. Physical Hazards: Chapter
28 “Working Safely in the Laboratory General
Considerations & Physical Hazards” pages 595
-
612.


Chemical Hazards: Chapter 29 “ Working Safely with
Chemicals” pages 613
-
637.


Biological Hazards: Chapter 30 “Workng Safely with
Biological Materials” pages 639
-
662.


Seidman and Moore, Basic Laboratory Methods for
Biotechnology


Physical Hazards


Fire


Bunsen Burners


Autoclaves


Compressed Gas Cylinders


Broken Glassware


Razorblades and needles


Electrical Equipment



Ultraviolet light

Chemical Hazards


Flammable Chemicals


Reactive Chemicals


Corrosive Chemicals


Toxic Chemicals


See Chapter 29 Tables 29.1,2,3,5&6.

Biological Hazards


Guidelines & Regulations pertaining to Biological
Hazards (Table 30.2)


Biosafety in Microbiological and Biomedical
Laboratories


CDC/NIH


OSHA Bloodborn Pathogens Standard


OSHA
29CFR1910.1030


Guidelines for research involving recombinant DNA
molecules


NIH


Biological Safety Manual for Research involving
Oncogenic viruses



NCI


Guide for Care and Use of Laboratory Animals



ILAR


Animal Welfare



USDA 9CFR parts 1,2,3


Risk assessment



Risk Assessment for Biological Agents (Table 30.1)



Is this a known human or primate pathogen?


What is the history of laboratory use of this organism or
agent and what are the recognized risks?


Has this agent been associated with a laboratory acquired
infection and if so what were the health effects of that
infection?


Is there an effective treatment or preventative vaccine?

Biological Risk Assessment


Does this agent frequently induce
sensitivity or allergies in workers?


What is my potential susceptibility as a
function of age, sex, or medical condition?


How can I limit my exposure to the agent?


What are the recommended safety
precautions for this agent and are they
being practiced in this laboratory?


Is the estimated risk acceptable to me?


Std. Microbiological Practices


Standard Microbiological Practices (Table 30.3)


Access to the laboratory should be limited to trained personnel


Lab coats and Eye protection should be worn at all times


Workers should wash their hands after any work with microorganisms and
whenever they leave the lab


Eating, drinking and smoking in the laboratory are prohibited


Hand to mouth, or hand to eye contact should be avoided


Mouth
-
pipetting of any substance in the laboratory is prohibited


Steps should be taken to minimize aerosol production


Work should be performed on a clean impervious bench surface with an
appropriate disinfectant available


Work surfaces should be decontaminated after any spill and at the end of
every work session


All biological materials should be properly decontaminated before
disposal


Lab Assignment


Draw a floor plan of the laboratory showing lab benches, and lecture desks.
Include in your drawing the following:

Exit(s)


Fire Extinguishers


Eye Wash Stations


Safety Shower


Fire Extinguisher


Fire Blanket


Hand
-
washing sink


Master gas shutoff


Master electricity shut off


First
-
aid kit


Biohazardous waste container


Sharps containers


Broken glass containers


Routine garbage containers


Chemical disposal containers


MSDS File


After observing and/or discharging a dry
chemical fire extinguisher answer the
following questions.


What class of fire extinguisher did you
discharge or observe being discharged?


Could you use this type of fire extinguisher on
an electrical fire? A solvent (chemical) fire? A
combustible metal fire?


Outline the steps you took to operate the fire
extinguisher.



Practice using a fire blanket. After using
the fire blanket answer the following
questions.


Are there any obstacles to using the fire
blanket?


How could you rearrange things so that there
is unimpeded access to the fire blanket?



List 3 items of personal protective
equipment available in the laboratory.


a.


b.


c.


What items are found in the laboratory

first aid kit?


Hazard Analysis:


Conduct a safety audit of the laboratory listing
any observed safety violations. Discuss these
safety violations with your laboratory partners.


What steps would you suggest to remove or
reduce these violations.


1.
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