Introduction to Linux - A Beginner’s Approach

ninetimesdissemblingSoftware and s/w Development

Nov 10, 2012 (4 years and 5 months ago)


A Beginner’s Approach

Anurag Bhandari

Roll No.: 05103007

CSE, 7


OS is the interface between hardware and user

All computers need an OS

OSes are used to run applications and control hardware

Popular OSes include Windows, Linux, Mac OSX

Developed in 1991 by a University of Finland student
Linus Torvalds

Basically a kernel, it was combined with the various software and
compilers from GNU Project to form an OS, called

Linux is a full
fledged OS available in the form of various


are examples of Linux distros

Linux is supported by big names as IBM, Google, Sun, Novell, Oracle, HP,
Dell, and many more

Inspired by the UNIX OS, the Linux kernel was developed as a clone of

GNU was started in 1984 with a mission to develop a free UNIX
like OS

Linux was the best fit as the kernel for the GNU Project

Linux kernel was passed onto many interested developers throughout the

Linux today is a result of efforts of thousands of individuals, apart from

Can be controlled through command
line (CLI) or Graphical User Interface

GUI run through Desktop Environments (DE)

KDE, GNOME, Xfce, E17 are popular Des

The GUI interface is easy
use and much like that of Windows and Mac

The CLI is similar to that of UNIX/BSD

Modern languages are cross
platform, like

Most Linux distros support these languages and have their runtimes pre



are widely used to design applications for Linux

IDEs like NetBeans, Anjuta, KDevelop, MonoDevelop, Eclipse are available
for Linux too

Linux is desktop computer ready

Large number of distros targeted at Desktop users are available

Linux desktop distros come with many commonly used pre

The modern Linux interface is user
friendly and makes the interaction
with computer easy

It is possible to install/run Windows software on Linux

Wine helps run a wide range of Windows applications

Cedega helps run huge number of Windows games flawlessly

Many native games are available, both 3D and 2D

Wine and Cedega help run Windows
only games

Popular games for Linux are: Quake, Unreal Tournament, Counter Strike,
Doom, Cube, CodeRED, Wesnoth, OpenArena, SuperTux, Frozen Bubble,
Medal of Honor, and many more.

Linux is the most used OS on servers

5 out of 10 reliable web hosting companies use Linux

Linux is the cornerstone of the LAMP server
software combination (Linux,
Apache, MySQL, Perl/PHP/Python) which has achieved popularity among

Out of top 500 supercomputers, Linux is deployed on 426 of them

16.7% of smartphones worldwide use Linux as OS

Linux poses a major competition to the most popular OS is this segment


Nokia, Openmoko supply Linux on their select smartphones

Linux can be used on a wide range of electronic
devices, like PC, PDAs, Smartphones, iPods, MP3
Players, PlayStation 2 & 3, mission critical servers and
so on…

1983 (September):
GNU project was announced publicly

1991 (September):
first version of the Linux kernel was released to the Internet

2001 (second quarter):
Linux server unit shipments at 15% annual growth rate

: Linux shipped on approximately 50% of the worldwide server blade units, and
20% of all rack
optimized servers

: Microsoft representatives accuse Brazilian college using

of pirating
Microsoft Windows

: Dell announces it will ship select models with

Linux pre

: Lenovo announces it will ship select models with SUSE Linux Enterprise Desktop
10 pre

: HP announces that it will begin shipping computers preinstalled with Red Hat
Linux in Australia

: ASUS launches the
based ASUS


: Dell announces it will begin shipping

based computers to Canada and
Latin America

: Dell is shipping systems with

installed in China

: Acer launches the
based Acer Aspire One

Governments of many countries around the world are
shifting to Linux from Windows due to the many
benefits it offer

Countries like India, France, Pakistan, Czech Reppublic,
Brazil, Germany, USA, Austria, Spain, China, and Peru
already use Linux

The widely popular OLPC (One Laptop Per Child)
Project’s XO Laptop runs on Linux

Universities in countries, like USA, Germany,
Netherlands, Philippines, Brazil, Russia, Switzerland,
India, use Linux on their workstations and servers

No threat of viruses

Linux systems are extremely stable

Linux is Free

Linux comes with most of the required software pre

Update all your software with minimum fuss

Linux never gets slow

Linux does not need defragmentation

Linux can even run on oldest hardware

Adding more software is a matter of a few clicks

Most Windows
only apps have their either their native version
or alternatives for Linux

With Linux, you get the highest degree of possible

Security has always been the number one priority with

Linux has a robust security system

There do not exist viruses for the Linux platform

Have you ever lost your precious work because Windows crashed? Have
you ever gotten the "blue screen of death" or error messages telling you
that the computer needs to be shut down for obscure reasons?

Crashes or freezes are not prevalent in Linux

Linux is free and always will be as compared to the
very costly Windows and Mac OSX

Using pirated Windows is a bad thing

When the system has installed, why would you

need to install stuff ?

Common software such as music player, web browser, video player, image
editor, PDF reader, chat messenger, office apps

Just like Windows’ Update tool, Linux has a more better
alternative to it to update all your system in a few clicks

As Linux is impervious to viruses, trojans, spywares,
which are the main reasons to slow down the PC,
systems based on it do not get slower

Linux consumes lesser system resources

If you already know what fragmentation is,
and are already used to defragmenting your
disk every month or so, here is the short
version : Linux doesn't need defragmenting.

Whereas Windows
based system get
fragmented frequently and need attention in
this regard.

Windows requires more and more hardware power as
its version number increases (95, 98, 2000, Me, XP,
etc.). So if you want to keep running Windows, you
need to constantly buy new hardware

Linux runs perfectly well on older hardware, on which
Windows XP would probably even refuse to install, or
let you wait 20 seconds after each click

With Linux, everything is
much simpler
. Linux has what
is called a "package manager": each piece of software
is contained in its own "package". If you need some
new software, just open the package manager, type a
few keywords, choose which software you want to
install and press "Apply" or "OK". Or you can just
browse existing software (that's a lot of choice!) in

Due to the various options available in Linux, like a lot
of DEs, themes, Window Managers, and the modular
nature of DEs, Linux is very customizable

The extent of customizability is clearly implied by the
fact that some people have gone as far as to customize
their Linux OS to make them look and feel like Mac
OSX and Windows

So, what OS a user should opt to choose?

The answer depends on user’s own choice.