MOBILE MONEY INFORMATION SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE FOR OPEN AIR MARKET

neversinkhurriedMobile - Wireless

Nov 12, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

59 views




MOBILE MONEY INFORMATION SYSTEM
ARCHITECTURE FOR OPEN AIR MARKET





Woldamriam

Mesfin


Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia
,

mesfinfw@gmail.com


4
th

IMTFI Conference

(Dec 5
-
7, 2012)


1

Outline

1.
Introduction

2.
Related works


-

Mobile payment architectures

3. Methodology

Data & data collection

4. Findings

5. Conclusion

6. Next tasks

2


1. Introduction



The Situation

-

Financial service problem & development of
mobile technologies

-
Individuals linking their money practice to
mobile phones (Maurer 2010, Kristof 2010)

-
Development of ubiquitous technology

-
Societies are becoming cashless

(Garcia
-
Swartz, Hahn, and Layne
-
Farrar, 2006)


3

-

Dictate

money

gradually

becomes

less

material

(Kristof,

2010
)
;

(Muhammad

2011
)
;

(OECD

2002
),

(
http
:
//futureofmoney
.
com
)

-

The

need

for

personal

IS

to

manage

everyday

money

practice

arise,

(Olsen,

Hedman,

and

Vatrapu,

2012
)
.






But

no

such

frameworks

so

far

(Krogstie

et

al
.;

2004
),

(Jones

and

Marseden,

2006
),

(Parikh,

2007
)




4

2. Related works



Many attempts to address the issue of financial
services through:


ATM and agent networks

Problems


-
ATM not suitable for sparsely populated rural
people, requires electricity

-
Agent networks: have liquidity problem
(
http://www1.ifc.org
) and, requires
ubiquitous

telecom SMS infrastructure

5

Current mobile payment architectures

-
Requires merchants and customers to have
bank accounts, (Kumar et al.; 2010), (Vilamos
and Karnouskos, 2003), (Britto et al.; 2008),
(Guo, 2008) and (Chandrahas et al.; 2011)


-
Developed in the context of developed
countries

6

Bottlenecks in developing countries


Low practice and service of bank account based
transaction, (
Abhijit

and Esther, 2007), (Rutherford,
1999),
(
Duncome

and
Boateng
, 2009), (
Kristof

,
2010), (Collins et al, 2009)
.


Frequent interruption of telecom services, (no
signals and services at underground buildings,
during national and religious holidays (network
congestions), which make SMS based payments to
be impractical.


SMS based payment architecture is also not
appropriate for micro payments, (
Guo
, 2008).
Imagine 35 cent SMS service charge to pay 50 cent

7

Research Question


Thus, it is important to research and look for
USER CENTERED ARCHITECTURE



If money is digital (mobile money), what has
to be the characteristic nature of mobile
money information system architecture
(functionalities) in the context of illiterate rural
communities who transact in the open air
market?

8


3. Methodology



65 million Ethiopians live in rural areas


They transact in open air market


Data is collected from 4 different sites from
September


November 2012


Observation, interview, and discussions were
used to gather the data


Different market segments were considered
like:

9

Market places studied


Fruits & vegetables


Cereals


Clothes


Species


Sheep & goats, oxen and cows.


10

Respondent Profiles

(through random selection)



Different religions


Different age (16
-
95) years old


Different educational level (0 grade


BA)


Business experience (0.5


30 )years

11



4. Findings







12


4.1. Currency identification through
color, size, and pictures on them


13


4.2. How Merchants Organize Themselves


14

15

16



4.3. Common mistakes & errors merchants make



17

-

No queuing of customers

-

Items are not prepackaged

Thus during busy times:


Merchants are not sure who has paid them
and who did not,


How much money was received and whether
changes were made or not,


Put sales of an item into the wrong bag


Customers are not willing to accept old money
(for change),

18

Example of an old money that a
customer refused to accept

19


Cash can get lost by wind


Money can stick together and be counted as one


Forgery money notes and unable to differentiate


Lack of changes (during transaction)

20

How they solve some of these problems?


Disagreements between merchants and
customers regarding how much was accepted,
whether changes were made or not is
resolved by asking people around,


Back tracing (confessing how much they have
when they are coming)


21


4.4. Feature of automated tools that
merchants would like to have, if any


A device that is capable of:


Protect their money from thefts,


To handle money easily,


Able to identify the profit & lose from each
item categories, identify cheaters,


That can tell balance by sound,


Do financial mathematics (sales, costs, profit
& lose, changes)



22


A

device

that

able

to

tell

when

making

mistakes,

can

be

integrated

with

mobile

phones

for

alerting

purpose,



A

device

that

is

capable

of

counting

money

23


Cheap, durable, easy to carry on, and operates
by sound,


Able to generate changes for transaction,


That can detect people who has not paid, how
much they paid, and detect cheaters,


Able to detect errors and mistakes through
sound,


That cannot be stolen, even if stolen, money
should be inaccessible to thefts and send signal
about its location to their cell phone.


24

Practices and problems of market assignments

(buyers perspective)


Delegating one another


Illiterates keep separately, even the changes


Relatively educated people keep a note of it
and aggregate with their personal money


Appears to be lump sum of money and
attracts thefts and burglars

25

Price negotiations


See the video



Oral Vs Cash offers

26


5. Conclusion




Potential architectural design concepts are
identified.


Further research insight is required regarding
the
formats (structure)
of digital currencies


27

6. Next tasks


Some more field study (different contexts)


To identify some more design concepts


Map those concepts into architectural design

28









Thank you







Questions




Suggestions, and




Comments are welcome




mesfinfw@gmail.com


29