Development of a Mobile Tourist Information System for

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Nov 12, 2013 (3 years and 5 months ago)

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ICCHP 06

Development of a Mobile Tourist Information System for
People with Functional Limitations:

User Behaviour Concept and Specification of Content
Requirements


Sascha M. Sommer

Institute for Occupational Physiology at the University of Dortmund, Germany




Marion Wiethoff


Technical University of Delft, Netherlands



Sari Valjakka



Research and Development Centre for Welfare and Health, Finland



Dionisis Kehagias

&
Dimitrios Tzovaras



Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, Greece




Development of a mobile tourist information system

Overview


Objectives of the ASK
-
IT project


Framework for specification of content requirements


Implementation of the framework


Content modelling procedure


Discussion & conclusions

2

Development of a mobile tourist information system









“Ambient intelligence system of agents for knowledge based and integrated
services for mobility impaired users”


Integrated project c
o
-
funded by the European Commission (IST 511298)


Co
-
ordination: Siemens Spain, Centre for Research & Technology, Greece


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Development of a mobile tourist information system

4

Project objectives

Development of a mobile tourist information system

Background



Development of an ambient intelligence system that provides assistive
information to people with functional limitations



“Mobility impaired”: all types of functional limitations that make
everyday activities more difficult


„Ambient intelligence“: support to activities by information and
computer technologies



5

Development of a mobile tourist information system

6


Mobile information support for domains:

transportation, tourism & leisure, personal support services, work / business /
education, social relations and communities

Development of a mobile tourist information system


Domain: Tourism


Constraints and barriers in all stages of touristic or leisure
-
related trips


Intrinsic barriers: level of physical, sensory and cognitive functioning


Environmental barriers: consequence of external factors


Communication barriers: interaction with the social environment

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Useful and timely information about mobility barriers and

suitable touristic offerings to cope with them could reduce these problems

Development of a mobile tourist information system

8

Theoretical framework

for the specification of content
requirements

Development of a mobile tourist information system


Framework


Focus on relevant user activities when analysing requirements for
ambient intelligence environments [Riva, 2005]


Theoretical framework:


-

user group definition


-

elaboration of action & activity theory principles


-

implementation of relevant principles


Functional classification of 10 user groups based on ICF codes:


l
ower limb impairment, wheelchair users, upper limb impairment,

upper body impairment, physiological impairment, psychological

impairment, cognitive impairment, vision impairment, hearing

impairment, communication impairment


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Development of a mobile tourist information system


Action Theory (e.g. Frese & Zapf, 1994)


Framework for goal
-
directed human behaviour in working
environments (which can be applied to any type of goal
-
directed human
behaviour

)


Flow of actions and operations to achieve a goal is organized by higher
levels of action regulation



Action process is organized by hierachical
-
sequential action patterns




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Development of a mobile tourist information system

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Example of a hierarchical
-
sequential action process

Person travelling by car arrives at a hotel

Development of a mobile tourist information system

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Activity Theory (e.g., Kuutti, 1993)


Shortcoming of action theory: neglect of social context and artefacts


“Minimal meaningful context”


Context elements:


Object(ive) of the activity, subjects involved, available tools and
division of labour, set of rules, community in which the subject
takes part


Development of a mobile tourist information system

13


Context
-
based approach

+

Divison of activities into a hierarchy of actions and operations

=

Structured definition of content requirements

Development of a mobile tourist information system

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Implementation of the theoretical framework:


Definition of user requirements

Development of a mobile tourist information system

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Aim of the tourist information service


Support to action/activity planning (e.g. which hotel to choose)

-

getting motivated

-

finding information

-

making pre
-
arrangements


Support to execution of plans (e.g. operations to get from the car

park to the entrance)

-

getting to points of interests

-

getting into the facility

-

using the facility

-

using the services

-

getting out in an emergency

Development of a mobile tourist information system

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General and specific user requirements


General actions:

common for all facilities




arriving by public transport or car



parking



walking/wheeling along outdoor routes to the entrance



moving from one room to another




etc.


Specific actions:

optionally applied depending on the type of facility




sleeping (accommodation)



eating (restaurant, café)



shopping (shop)



taking part in an event (spectator's stand)



visiting an exhibition



making sports (swimming pool, beach, walking trails)




etc.

Development of a mobile tourist information system

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1.

A
c
tivity

2.

Action

3.

Attribute

4.

ValueType

5.

ValueLimit

Stairs

Boolean

yes/no


Thresholds

Boolean

yes/no


Height of
thresholds

mm

integer nu
m
ber

maximum

20 mm

Width of doors

mm

integer
nu
m
ber

minimum
850 mm

Facilities:
Ge
t
ting in

Accessing
e
n
trance

Ramp

Boolean

yes/no

yes, if stairs





Extract of tourism and leisure matrix for wheelchair users



Development of a mobile tourist information system

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1.

Identification of activities and distinction of actions




Columns 1 and 2
:
Relevant activities were broken down into actions



Example: relevant actions if objective of activity is to check
-
in at a hotel


-

park the car


-

get from car park to the entrance


-

access entrance


-

check
-
in at reception



1.

A
c
tivity

2.

Action

Facilities: Ge
t
ting in

Accessing e
n
trance


Development of a mobile tourist information system

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2.

Definition of a set of attributes



Column 3
:
User group specific attributes for each action


Attributes describe in a structured way the environmental factors,

which make / do not make accessible operations possible



3.

Attribute

Stairs

Thresholds

Height of thresholds

Width of doors

Ramp


Development of a mobile tourist information system

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3.


Specification of details of attributes




Column 4 and 5
:
Specification of details of attributes




-

Attribute types


-

Attribute values (value limits based on accessibility guidelines


User group specific limit values: average accessibility requirements of a specific
user group

4.

ValueType

5.

ValueLimit

Boolean

yes/no


Boolean

yes/no


mm

integer nu
m
ber

maximum

20 mm

mm

integer
nu
m
ber

minimum 850 mm

Boolean

yes/no

yes, if stairs


Development of a mobile tourist information system

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Content modelling

Development of a mobile tourist information system

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Content modelling procedure



Aim:
formal description of user information needs in a computer

understandable and interoperable format



Outcome:
set of computer
-
interpretable
models that represent the user
information needs



Content representation language: Extensible Markup Language


XML document & schema: Schema processor checks if document conforms to
schema requirements

Development of a mobile tourist information system

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XML schema


Each specific user information need is

-

encoded as an information element

-

composed of several attributes

-

related to values of information that the user desires to know

Info
r
mation Element

Attributes

Explanation

-

Station Id

A unique identifier

-

Accessible Place

A list of accessible places a
t
tached to
the bus station

-

Entrance

The
point of entrance to the bus station

-

Schedule

The schedule of itineraries of the bus
station

-

Address

The postal address

-

Working Hours

The opening hours of the bus station

Bus station

-

Buses

A list of elements of type
Bus


Division of information elements into attributes and their description

(example: bus station)

Development of a mobile tourist information system

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XML schema document


Graphic representation of e
lement with three nested elements

<
xs:element

name
=
"element_name
">


<
xs:complexType
>


<
xs:sequence
>


<
xs:element

name
=
"attribute1
"/>


<
xs:element

name
=
"attribute2
"/>


<
xs:element

name
=
"attribute3
"/>


</
xs:sequence
>


</
xs:complexType
>

</
xs:element
>

xs:element = element

complex data type = three nested elements

xs:sequence = ordered collection

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Graphical (tree) representation of the BusStation element

Bus station, composed of

a list of other nested attributes

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Discussion & Conclusions

Development of a mobile tourist information system

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Summary


Specification of content requirements based on action & activity theory


Combination of minimal meaningful context & hierarchical
-
sequential
divison of goal
-
directed behaviour in touristic settings

-

identification of relevant activities and actions

-

definition of relevant sets of attributes

-

specification of attribute values


Presentation of user requirements in table format


Translation of requirements into machine
-
readable format using XML

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Conclusions


Morganti & Riva [2005]: Focus of Ambient Intelligence for
rehabilitation should be the support of the users’ activities and
interactions with the environment




Integration of action and activity theory principles has proven to be a


suitable theoretical framework




Content requirements matrices provide, for each user group, a


structured representation of information elements in the form of


classes with attributes and limit values




Matrix structure facilitated content requirements specification




Input for the content modeling procedure is immediately available in


a format that can be converted into a machine
-
readable language

Development of a mobile tourist information system

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Thanks.




sommer@ifado.de