Semantic Web Applications for Modeling and Simulation

nervousripSecurity

Nov 5, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

53 views

Semantic Web Applications for
Modeling and Simulation

July 11, 2001

DMSO Technical Exchange Meeting

Lee W. Lacy

Dynamics Research Corporation


Captain Joel Pawloski

U.S. Army TRAC
-
M

TRAC-Monterey
INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

Agenda


Web Technology Evolution


XML M&S Applications


U.S. Army TRAC
-
M XML Research


Semantic Web Background


DARPA Semantic Web Research


Potential Semantic Web M&S and C4I
Applications

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

The Evolving Web

Web of

Knowledge

HyperText Markup Language
(HTML)

HyperText Transfer Protocol
(HTTP)

Resource Description Framework (RDF)

eXtensible Markup Language (XML)

Self
-
Describing Documents

Formatted Documents

Foundation of the Current Web

Proof, Logic and

Ontology Languages

(e.g., DAML+OIL)

Shared terms/terminology

Machine
-
Machine
communication

1990

2000

2010

Based on Berners
-
Lee, Hendler;
Nature
, 2001

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

Hypertext Markup Language (HTML)


Enabled standard communication of content combined
with format


Loosely defined specific (limited) grammar specified using
SGML (specific language)


Started by Tim Berners
-
Lee


Standardized by World
-
Wide Web Consortium (W3C)


Ubiquitous method of presenting and communicating data


Used throughout DoD on both public internet and
SIPRNET and other classified networks


Not useful for machine search

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

eXtensible Markup Language (XML)


Separates content from format (standard syntax)


Simplified version of SGML (metalanguage) for defining
eXtensible tag sets


Started by Tim Bray et al based on conversations with Tim
Berners
-
Lee


Standardized by W3C


Used to define updated HTML grammar (XHTML)


Used in Modeling and Simulation community primarily for
Data Interchange Formats (DIFs) that support data sharing

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

XML DIF Method

Janus

CCTT

ModSAF

XML
-
based

Data Interchange

File (DIF)

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

M&S and C4I use of XML


HLA Data Interchange Formats (DIFs)


JSIMS Common Component Workstation Battlespace
Schema


Combat XXI Scenario Files


OneSAF Objective System


Land Warrior User Interface Specifications


Joint C4ISR Integration Facility (JCIF) Joint Battlespace
Infosphere (JBI) XML Assessment

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

Specific U.S. Army M&S XML
Research Initiatives


Military Scenario Definition Language (MSDL)


Computer Generated Forces (CGF) Behaviors


Equipment Characteristics and Performance (C&P)

TRAC-Monterey
INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

MSDL Objectives


Support Scenario Developers


Improve Scenario Quality


Reduce Time to Develop Scenarios


Reduce Costs of Developing Scenarios


Support Scenario Generation Tool Developers


Reduce Tool Development Costs


Improve Tool Interoperability

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

Scenario Content Analysis


Metadata


Environment


Organization


Simulation Object


Information Item


Events


Unassigned


INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

MSDL Standard


Initial work reviewed by Combat XXI


Combat XXI enhancements merged into Army Modeling
and Simulation Office (AMSO) Standards Nomination and
Approval Process (SNAP) submission


SNAP submission serving as starting point for OneSAF
Objective System (OOS)

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

MSDL Schema



Defined using XML
DTD and XML Schema


Sample scenarios
marked up

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

CGF Behaviors


Computer Generated Forces (CGF) systems simulate units
and platforms


CGF systems operate at a variety of fidelity and resolution
levels


Behaviors historically “hard coded”


Newer systems represent behaviors in data


Considerable resources required to develop CGF systems
and their associated behaviors

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

Current CGF Systems

Today’s CGF systems are built in a stove
-
piped manner

WARSIM

CCTT

ModSAF


Ada Finite State
Machines


Asynchronous
Augmented Finite State
Machines (translated
into “C” code)


Behavioral Description
Frames


Fundamental Behaviors
(C++ code)

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

“Perfect World” Behavior Sharing

In a perfect world, we’d all speak the

same language

Behaviors

Represented in

Common Language

Using XML

System

#3

System

#1

System

#2

System

#4

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation


CGF Behavioral Representation Logical
Data Model Components

Behavior Specification

Logical Data Model Components

Knowledge Representation

Constructs

Complexity

Metadata

Declarative

Procedural

Strategic

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

SIMTECH Demonstration

Equipment

Characteristics and

Performance Data

in XML

AMSAA

NGIC

OTB

Combat

XXI

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

Explicit vs. Metamodel Schemas


XML DTD and/or XML Schema design often involves
decisions over the use of explicit tags or representation of
names in data


<maxspeed units=“mph”>45</maxspeed>
vs.


<parameter>



<name>maxspeed</name>


<units>mph</units>


<value>45</value>




</parameter>


INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

Semantic Problems for XML


Synonymy and polysemy


<
PERSON
> vs. <
INDIVIDUAL
>


is <
SPIDER
> an arachnid or software?


Structural differences


<PERSON><NAME>Lee Lacy</NAME><PERSON>
vs.


<PERSON><NAME>



<FNAME>Lee</FNAME>


<LNAME>Lacy</LNAME>


</NAME></PERSON>

Based on Hendler, 2001

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

Resource Description Framework (RDF)


RDF data consists of nodes and attached attribute/value
pairs


Nodes can be any web resources


Attributes are named properties of nodes


Values are either atomic (text strings, numbers, etc.) or other
resources or metadata instances


Supports labeled directed graphs


XML used as graph serialization syntax for storing and
communicating RDF instances


Provides basic ontological primitives


Classes and relations (properties)


Class (and property) hierarchy


RDF triples assert facts about resources

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

Why RDF Is Not Enough


Expressive inadequacy


Only range/domain constraints (on properties)


No properties of properties (unique, transitive, inverse
etc.)


No equivalence, disjointness, coverings etc.


No necessary and sufficient conditions (for class
membership)


Poorly (un) defined semantics

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

Semantic Web (SW)


Provides agent
-
readable descriptions of data,
information, and knowledge


Built on top of XML and RDF


Envisioned by Tim Berners
-
Lee and researched by
DARPA team and others


W3C is beginning a Semantic Web initiative


Used to define ontologies and associated instance
data


Huge potential for Modeling and Simulation
community

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

What is an Ontology?

Catalog/

ID

General

Logical

constraints

Terms/

glossary

Thesauri

“narrower

term”

relation

Formal

is
-
a

Frames

(properties)

Informal

is
-
a

Formal

instance

Value
Restrs.

Disjointness,
Inverse, part
-
of…

TAXONOMY

ONTOLOGY

Based on McGuinness, 2001:

http://www.daml.org/2001/06/swday
-
ontologies/Ontologies
-
talk
-
060401_files/frame.htm

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

Beyond XML:Agent Semantics


DARPA developing an Agent Markup
Language (DAML)


A “semantic” language that ties the
information on a page to machine readable
semantics (ontology)

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

DARPA DAML Research Team


BBN


Booz
-
Allen and Hamilton


Cycorp


Dynamics Research
Corporation (DRC)


GRCI


Lockheed Martin
Management and Data
Systems


SRI


Teknowledge


Carnegie Melon
University


University of Southern
California Information
Sciences Institute


MIT (W3C)


Stanford University


UMBC


University of West Florida


Yale University


INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

Benefits


Standard representation of “object
-
oriented” concepts
across the web


Extensibility of ontologies through namespaces


Support for complex queries involving “semantic joins”
over multiple data sets

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

A new/old model of DoD partnering

Semantic Web Res. (EU)

W3C

DAML

www.semanticweb.org

www.daml.org

www.w3.org/RDF/

C2 link

RDF

XML

RDF
-
S

DAML
-
ONT

DAML
-
LOGIC

US/EU Joint
Efforts

(S. Decker,
Coord)

Horus

Research efforts:

SHOE

OIL

EC OntoWeb

Intl Workshops

Tools

Lang Spec

Demos

Ctr for Army

Lessons Learned

EU W3C

Members/directors

(Dan Brickley, coord)


DARPA:


Funds a new
generation of www
technology


Works closely with
W3C to create a web
standard


Works closely with EU
on international
acceptance


Brings DoD users
(J2,J3,J6) in as early
adopters

Based on Hendler, 2001

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

Layered Architecture



DAML+OIL

HTML

XHTML

XML(S)

SMIL

RDF(S)

DC

PICS

Based on Horrocks, 2001: http://www.cs.man.ac.uk/~horrocks/Slides/

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

DAML S
tatus


DAML+OIL ontology language released on World Wide
Web


Annotated “walkthrough”


Examples


Full definition


RDFS = Resource Description Framework Schema


Provides 100% mapping to XML


Open discussion group run by W3C: www
-
rdf
-
logic@w3.prg


Denotational (and axiomatic) Semantics published


First formal semantics for a web language


Proposal to W3C for standardization ongoing

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

www.DAML.org


Language Specifications


DAML Newsletter (you can
subscribe)


Collection of web tools


Ontology library


157 ontologies as of July 9, 2001


DAML crawler


over 14,000 pages w/2,000,000+
DAML statements, 5/15/01


Web tracking software used for
baselining DAML use


Over 500,000 hits in first 6 months


INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

DAML Military Examples


Army CALL Thesaurus


Army Equipment (based on WARSIM Equipment
Knowledge Acquisition Tool schema)


Military task lists (e.g., UJTL)


under development


Army CALL University After Next (UAN) Warrior
Knowledge Network (WKN) Human Intelligence
(HUMINT) interrogation procedure representation


just
started


Intelink (DIA) HUMINT report representation


small
sample developed


currently extending


INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

CALL Thesaurus Ontology

Term

BT

NT

CALL


Term

name

descriptorFor

RT

entry

TermFor

preferred

TermFor

ACK

AF

USE

UF

domain

subClassOf

inverseOf

subPropertyOf

range & domain

Legand

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

Military Equipment Ontology


Army Military Equipment Characteristic & Performance
(C&P) Ontology


Provides framework to compose Army equipment from the
System Unit to individual component (i.e., radio) level


Ontology is modeled after data model used by WARSIM
and that housed by the FDB (Functional Description of the
Battlespace)

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

DAML Query Demonstration

Semantic web DAML Demonstration


Uses Call Thesaurus and Military Equipment C&P
ontologies and data to demonstrate the potential of the
semantic web


Demonstration is composed of:


Thesaurus Lookup Term


Military Equipment Lookup


Complex query involving multiple ontologies by using
thesaurus lookup results to find military equipment terms

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

DAML Query Demonstration

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

HUMINT Report Representation


Unclassified Force Protection Sample HUMINT
report provided


Classes identified included:


Organization, Person (who)


Activity, Event (what)


Timeframe (when)


Location Area (where)


Conclusion (why)

Intelligence Report Ontology

Event

Location

Area

Timeframe

Activity

Equipment

Organization

Person

Person

Description

Note

Intelligence

Report

Conclusion

Building

Metadata

Terrorist

Organization

subclassOf

partOf

describedAs

locatedIn

within

memberOf

Vehicle

Motorcycle

Automobile

subclassOf

subclassOf

subclassOf

drivenBy

locatedIn

Country

subclassOf

resultedIn

conclusion

metadata

event

conclusionEvent

Subject,
directObject,
indirectObject,
source

Subject

directObject

indirectObject

regarding

source

timeframe

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

Ontology Design Issue


Explicit description of classes vs. encoding of information
as data


Explicit definition:


Requires extensive maintenance of ontology


Supports complex queries


Encoding:


Requires companion encoding standard (e.g., DIS enumeration
document, SEDRIS environmental data coding specification)


Decision will be made on case
-
by
-
case basis with
sponsor’s goals paramount but will affect usefulness of
cross
-
ontology “joins”

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

Potential Encoding Sources


Events:


Fineberg Verb Taxonomy


Kansas Event Data System (KEDS)


World Events Interaction Survey (WEIS) Codes


BML operations / tasks


UJTL / service task lists


Things:


FDMS taxonomy


DIS Enumeration Document


INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

Potential M&S Applications of Semantic
Web Technologies


Human Behavior Representation (e.g., CHRIS)


Glossaries / Taxonomies / Thesauri (e.g., CSS)


CGF Behavior Development (e.g., TRAC
-
M research
effort)


Knowledge Acquisition (e.g., FDMS)


METL development (e.g., JTIMS)


Scenario Development (e.g., MSDL)


Unit Order of Battle (e.g., UOB DAT)


Data Provisioning (e.g., AMSO SIMTECH effort)


HLA FEDEP Tool Architecture (e.g., DIFs)


Web Services (e.g., fly
-
out model responsibility)


AAR / logger data

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

CSS Thoughts


DMSO CSS provides definitions, unlike Army CALL
thesaurus


DAML thesaurus ontology based on ANSI standard for
representing thesauri information


CSS validated and traceable to Authoritative Data Sources
(ADSs)


DAML thesauri ontology could be extended to support
definitions and ADS traceability


CSS could be “ported” to semantic web instance data


Once represented as SW content, terms can be manipulated
using standard SW tools and other M&S
-
related SW
applications can link to terms

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

Battle Management Language


Standard verbiage or vocabulary used by simulation
programmers or workstation controllers to describe
planning and executing military functions currently
performed by human controllers


Key factors supporting automated Course of Action (COA)
analysis:


Unit identification (who)


Operation / Task (what)


Operation time (when)


Operation location (where)


Operation purpose / mission (why)

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

BML Thoughts


BML User’s Guide Annex A contains CSS
-
like
definitions


Value of BML is in knowledge representation
structure developed (i.e., units, timeframe, etc.)
and specified vocabulary (i.e., User’s Guide
Annex A)


BML KR structure could be used as the basis for
an ontology for orders


BML vocabulary could be migrated into ontology
instance data similarly to CSS

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

Preliminary BML Order Ontology

Timeframe

Operation

Formation

Task

Unit

partOf

Location

takesPlaceAt

layedOutIn

takesPlaceWithin

arrangedAt

supports

performs

performs

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation

Summary


Web technology continues to evolve


XML is being used for M&S applications


Semantic Web technologies emerging that provide
potential solutions to DoD M&S challenges


Research and proof
-
of
-
concept demonstrations
needed to show benefits

INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS THROUGH PEOPLE, PROCESSES, AND TECHNOLOGY

Dynamics Research Corporation



Questions?


Lee Lacy

LLacy@DRC.com