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Nov 5, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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IT
-
CODE

IT

in
C
ollaborative
D
esign

Yoke
-
Chin Lai

Aalborg University (Denmark)


May 22
nd

2006

PhD Defence

22/5/2006

Y
-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

2

The Road Map


Introduction



Background



Research Hypothesis



The Research


Research Questions


Case Studies and Important Findings


Demonstrator


IT
-
CODE



Conclusion


Contributions


Future Research Lines

22/5/2006

Y
-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

3

Concept
Knowledge
Management
Literature
Study
Pioneer
_
01
V
.
Bush
Memex
Pioneer
_
02
T
.
Nelson
CARD
:
name
Itcode
:
idea
CARD
:
name
Hypertext
Itcode
:
idea
Pioneer
_
03
Demonstrator
(
IT
-
CODE
)
D
.
Engelbart
NLS
CARD
:
name
Itcode
:
idea
Pioneer
_
04
T
.
Berners
-
Lee
WWW
Itcode
:
idea
CARD
:
name
Semantic
Web
Ontology
Collaborative
Design
Document
-
centric
Information
Management
Design
Knowledge
Transfer
RDF
(
S
)
Design
Meeting
Conventional
Meeting
Minutes
Innovative
Meeting
Minutes
Itcode
:
inspires
DC
:
contributor
Itcode
:
field
Itcode
:
field
Itcode
:
field
Itcode
:
powered
_
by
Itcode
:
field
Itcode
:
requires
Itcode
:
requires
DC
:
contributor
DC
:
language
Itcode
:
produces
Itcode
:
technique
Case
Studies
Itcode
:
proceeding
Future
Research
Itcode
:
stimulating
Itcode
:
proposing
Itcode
:
study
Itcode
:
inspires
Itcode
:
experimenting
Itcode
:
improving
Itcode
:
inspires
Itcode
:
inspires
Itcode
:
inspires
Semantic Web
Itcode
:
idea
Total
Knowledge
Management
Itcode
:
applying
Itcode
:
focuses
From Memex to IT
-
CODE

22/5/2006

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-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

4

Background

Collaborativ
e Design

Knowledge

shares

creates

uses

handles

Multidisciplinar
y team

Common
Understanding
reaching

Information
integration

Data
interoperability

Knowledge

(Tacit &
explicit)
transfer

ICT

Semanti
c Web
Tech.

IT
-
CODE??

Acquisition

Representation

Dissemination

Storage

Retrieval

Search

Indexing

KM

conducts

Problems

has_difficulty

to_improve

applies

inadequate

22/5/2006

Y
-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

5

The Research Hypothesis


The Semantic Web technology is applicable to support
collaboration in the building industry.



On top of the Semantic Web technology, an innovative
meeting minutes taking approach can be developed, to
facilitate tacit design knowledge transfer


by making explicit the meta
-
knowledge used to formalise
reasoning.


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C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

6

Research Questions


How do the multidisciplinary project stakeholders collaborate at the
early project stage, the design stage?



How do project stakeholders monitor the design information flow?


What technique do they use?


What technology do they use?



How will the contemporary ICT help to improve the current
practices?

22/5/2006

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-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

7

The 3 Case studies


Objectives


To study how the project stakeholders collaborate at
the design stage.


To study the design information flow in real
-
life.


To identify the weakness the practising project
information management strategy, if any.



Data collection methods


Observations


Semi
-
structured interviews


[case study]

22/5/2006

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-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

8

The 3 Case studies


Project phase of study


The conceptual design phase



Data analysis methodology


The contextual design formalisms (five types of work
models)


Sequence Model


Flow Model


Culture model


Artefact model


Physical Model.

[case study]

22/5/2006

Y
-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

9

The Information Flow in Design Meeting

Communication

Dialog

Action

Issues

Discuss

Stimulates

Meeting minutes

Agenda

Decide

Brings

[case study]

22/5/2006

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-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

10

Summary of Findings


The implemented ICT supported codified knowledge management


Codified knowledge


Well structured data, e.g., database, spreadsheet


Semi
-
structured information, e.g., html/xml files


Weakly structured information, e.g., texts/graphics/multimedia files


Tacit design knowledge was found incorporated implicitly in the
weakly structured information.


Face
-
to
-
face meetings were favoured in the design phase.


Meeting minutes

were produced to summarise the discussion
contents in the meetings.


Meeting minutes

contained design rationale and reasoning
behind decisions.


[case study]

22/5/2006

Y
-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

11

Constraints of Knowledge Management


Weaknesses identified from the
case studies
:



Difficulty to manage weakly structured information (natural language
plain texts).


Difficulty to connect knowledge containers of various forms (e.g.,
books, digital databases, human minds).


Difficulty to formalise tacit design knowledge (e.g., design rationale,
reasoning behind decisions).


Difficulty to make tacit design knowledge adequately explicit for both
human and machine.


Difficulty to represent knowledge comprehensible to all targeted
knowledge receivers.



[case study]

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-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

12

The Demonstrator Objectives


To be a knowledge management system that has the following
functional requirements:


To integrate information distributed in different logic & physical
containers.


To capture and store decision rationale.


To contextualise discussion contents.


To generate dynamic and semantically structured meeting minutes.

[demonstrator]

22/5/2006

Y
-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

13

Semantic Web: The New Opportunity

The

Semantic Web



It is an extension of the
current web (Bernes
-
Lee, 2001)


It is to provide rich descriptive
means for the current web


Information becomes both
human and machine
understandable


Ontologies are the core of
semantic web

[demonstrator]

Source
: Berners
-
Lee, T (2000), XML and the Web,
http://www.w3.org/2000/Talks/0906
-
xmlweb
-
tbl/slide9
-
0.html

22/5/2006

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C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

14

Definition of Ontology


A formal explicit specification of a shared conceptualisation (Gruber, 93).


One of the main components in knowledge representation.


It can capture consensus knowledge


Its representation is both machine and human readable.


RDF Schema (RDFS) is an example of ontology language


Ontologies are sets of tuples.

Actor

Project

Person

Concept

Concept

Concept

[demonstrator]

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-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

15

RDFS: The Lightweight Ontology

Class Definitions

Property Definitions

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C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

16

The Concept Behind IT
-
CODE


Represent information chunk as object

correlate


Xxxxxxx


Xxxxxx


xxxxxxx

Issue 2

Issue 1

Issue 3

Explicit relation


Represent document as the container of the information objects

object1

Object3

object2

[demonstrator]

Implicit relation

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-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

17

”Following
his initial
review.....Jack
advised...”

12/08/03

Ytutut hgfhd

Hgjghgjh xxds

05/08/03

Annotate the Information

Object 1

Relation

e.g:
causes, improves, solves,
agrees_with, is_consistent_with,
has_alternative

Object 2

An example of discussion issue in meeting dated 12/08/03:

”Following his initial review of the option 3 layout drawings, Jack advised that the
deletion of one floor would reduce total vertical loads and the structural vertical
member sizes are expected to be reduced.”

[demonstrator]

22/5/2006

Y
-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

18

What is


Tag of metadata, e.g. <author>, <URI>, <type_of>


Metadata is ”data about data”


Useful to make information machine readable


Domain specific metadata can be defined and expressed in ontologies models.

[demonstrator]

22/5/2006

Y
-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

19

Examples of Metadata Elements

DCMI

Wordnet

ISO/IEC 82045
-
5

Title

LexicalConcept

Document ID Global

Creator

Verb

Owner document ID

Subject

Noun

Version ID

Description

Adjective

Title

Publisher

AdjectiveSatellite

Summary

Contributor

Adverb

Creator

Date

glossaryEntry

Creator organisation

Type (resource type)

similarTo

Responsible organisation

Relation

antonymOf

Project name

[demonstrator]

Sources
:


Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI),
http://dublincore.org/documents/dces/


Wordnet,
http://www.semanticweb.org/library/wordnet/wordnet
-
20000620.rdfs


International Organisation for Standardization (ISO)
,
http://www.iso.org/iso/en/ISOOnline.frontpage

22/5/2006

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-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

20

Information Integration

Differently strucrured
information

Documenting

Accessing

Extracting

Interpreting

A


A
-
M1: ghj uyt
hgjh lko ssda


A
-
M2: hjkhs
hjwe fdsd nkjjh


B


B
-
M1: hkjh ssss
hkjhwy


B
-
M2: kjkjlkj


B
-
M3: asere jkjd


B
-
M2

A
-
M1

A
-
M2

B

A

IT
-
CODE

WWW

Intranet

The web

B
-
M1

[demonstrator]

22/5/2006

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-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

21

Contextualise the Discussion Contents

Communication

Dialog

Action

Issues

Discuss

Stimulate
s

Decide

Brings


Who raises the issue?


What is the issue type?


Problem?


Propostion/Alternative?


Solution/Agreement?


Are there any precedent cases?


What is the status of the issue?


What is the consequence?


Why does the issue occur?


How to solve the issue?

[demonstrator]

22/5/2006

Y
-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

22

Ontology Model Excerpt



Class Definitions




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C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

23

Ontology Model Excerpt



Property Definitions

24

<Actor>

Instance_001

<Proposition>


<Project

stage>

<Decision>

Deletion of 1
floor...expect to be
reduced.

<Container>
meeting
minutes_001

<Problem>

Bla bla bla

<Actor>

Inst_002

<Location>

URL:http://xxx.xx

has_location

proposes

<Role>

has_name

The Data Model (Instance)

[demonstrator]

<Action
>

Harry

Stan

Rose

<Actor>

Inst_003

22/5/2006

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-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

25

RDF Excerpts

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C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

26

Protege 3.0

RDF
data
file

Sesame

1.1

MySQL

Tomcat 5.0

Ontology editor


Single user applet


Front
-
end data input


RDF data file generated


Simple but precise query

RDF(S) based repository


RDF(S) based precise query


Multi
-
user server environment support


Easily extensible knowledge base


Compatible with different type of database

Tools for IT
-
CODE

[demonstrator]

22/5/2006

Y
-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

27

The Components of IT
-
CODE

[demonstrator]

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-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

28

Applet

-

Project & Meeting Attributes

How to solve the issue?

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C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

29

Applet



Issue Contextualisation

What is the consequence?

Why does the issue occur?

Categorisation


to facilitate precedent search

Who raise the issue?

What is the issue status?

What is the issue type?

22/5/2006

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-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

30

Applet



Discussion Trail Search

Query:

To search all issues that were discussed in the
meeting dated 25 November 2003 and related
to the schematic design process


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-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

31

[demonstrator]

The Semantic Web Client


the gateway to access the Sesame repository

Archives of
previous projects

Search results

22/5/2006

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-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

32

Conclusion

Contribution 1:

The Innovative Meeting Minutes


Information was structured based on semantic network.


Information had better interoperability.


Information was dynamically linked.


Semantic search was supported.


Form based user interface was used.

22/5/2006

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-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

33

Conclusion

Contribution 2:



The concept of
total
knowledge
management

was
applied in the
demonstrator (IT
-
CODE).


22/5/2006

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-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

34

Conclusion

Contribution 3:

The concept of
associative thinking

was incorporated into the innovative meeting minutes to
contextualise the discussion contents.


As a suggestion to make explicit the reasoning behind
decisions.

22/5/2006

Y
-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

35

Conclusion

Contribution 4:

The emerging Semantic Web technology
was suggested having the applicable potential to support
design knowledge management in the building industry.


A demonstrator was constructed using the ontological
representation approach and the corresponding ontology
language


to support semantic search,


to support semantic integration of different information resources,


to make explicit the meta
-
knowledge, and


to facilitate tacit knowledge transfer.

22/5/2006

Y
-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

36

Future Research Lines


To use pre
-
defined domain
-
specific metadata in the
ontology modelling process.


E.g., ISO/IEC 82045
-
5


To investigate possible linking to IFC based product model
description.


More efficient integration of domain knowledge.


To enable simulation of decision making process


Need a more expressive ontology language with logic
support, e.g. OWL.

[conclusion]

OWL (Web Ontology Language), http://www.w3.org/TR/owl
-
features/

22/5/2006

Y
-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

37

Future Research Lines


To improve usability


To create an easy
-
to
-
use knowledge authoring environment.


Need a better system coherence.


Seamless integration of the different knowledge authoring tools
(Protégé & Sesame) used.


Suggestion 1
: Integrate with web
-
based Content
Management tools, e.g. Wiki, Bloki.


Suggestion 2
: Incorporate speech recognition tools and
discourse annotation tools (natural language processing).


Knowledge authoring complications in discourse annotation tools.


Immature speech recognition technology.

[conclusion]

22/5/2006

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C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

38

Thank you.

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C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

39

Data
-
Information
-
Knowledge

<Q&A>

22/5/2006

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C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

40

Sequence Model


To illustrate the
sequence of activities
conducted in a design
progress meeting.


To study the intent of
an activity


To study the action
taken to achieve the
intent.


To study the reasoning
behind the action.

<Q&A>

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-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

41

Flow Model


To study the
interaction and
communication flow of
the interviewees.


To study the
technique/s used to
organise roles.


To study what
technology and/or tool
the interviewees used
to complete the tasks.

<Q&A>

22/5/2006

Y
-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

42

Culture Model


To study the working
culture of a group.


To study the
working practices of
the group.


To study how the
different working
practices influence
one (person) another.


To study how the
authority (power) is
used to achieve the
defined work
objective.



<Q&A>

22/5/2006

Y
-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

43

Artefact Model


To study the variety
of artefact models
used.


To study how does
the model help to
achieve more
efficient
communication and
understanding
sharing.


In the case studies,
meeting minutes
were chosen.

<Q&A>

22/5/2006

Y
-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

44

Physical Model


To study the connection between the physical
environment with the working culture and
communication flow.

Meeting

Room

Meeting

Table

Alice

Joe

Chris

Shawn

Henry

Chung

(QS)

Lawrence

Pat

M

Patrick

Y

drawings

Log

book

Log

book

Log

book

Log

book

Log

book

Meeting

agenda

<Q&A>

22/5/2006

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-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

45

Vannevar Bush


Memex (1945)

"He [mankind] has built a
civilization so complex that
he needs to mechanize
his records more fully if he
is to push his experiment
to its logical conclusion
and not merely become
bogged down part way
there by overtaxing his
limited memory."

Vannevar Bush, "As We May Think,"
LIFE

19:11 (1945)

Source: ArtMuseum.net, http://www.artmuseum.net/w2vr/timeline/Bush.html

<Q&A>

22/5/2006

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-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

46

Ted Nelson


Hypertext (1963)

"Everything is deeply
intertwingled"

Hypertext diagram from Ted Nelson's
Literary Machines


Source: ArtMuseum.net, http://www.artmuseum.net/w2vr/timeline/Nelson.html

<Q&A>

22/5/2006

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-
C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

47

Douglas Engelbart


Augmentation (1968)

"Our goal of augmenting
the human intellect... will
exhibit more of what can
be called intelligence than
an unaided human could...
by organizing his
intellectual capabilities
into higher levels of
synergistic structuring."

oNLine System (NLS)

demonstration at the 1968 Fall Joint

Computer Conference

Source: ArtMusuem.net, http://www.artmuseum.net/w2vr/timeline/Engelbart.html#

<Q&A>

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C Lai PhD Defence, AAU

48

Tim Berners
-
Lee


WWW


The current web (web 1.0)


Contents are structured in
paragraphs of natural
language chunks (using for
instance the <p></p> tag).


Prominent technologies are
hyperlinks and keywords
search


Limited support in
information processing

<Q&A>