The development of Hi-Maize - year 12 food

neighgreasycornerBiotechnology

Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 6 months ago)

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Unit 4
Outcome 3

Innovations in food
product and
development

Biotechnology


Biotechnology is a both as science and
an industry as it is the science of living
things, with the technology of industry to
alter or to make foods



Biotechnology involves choosing and
reproducing the best traits in plants and
animals to improve breeds or crops

Traditional plant breeding


Plant breeding is also known as hybridisation
-

the breeding of 2 plants from the same or
closely related species



The process combines the genetic traits of 2
plants



The new offspring plant is the result of cross
-
breeding and may also have some
undesirable traits, and are then selected for
further breeding

Plant breeding using
biotechnology


Plant biotechnology is the addition of selected
traits to plants to develop new plant varieties



This process involves transferring one or several
genes that carry desirable traits (high nutritional
value), and transfer that gene to another plant
within the same species



This method of plant breeding ensures that only
desired traits are transferred to the new plant

Innovations in plant breeding

The development of Hi
-
Maize



Developed in Australia in the early 90’s



A
hybrid is the offspring or the resulting plant from
the cross
-
pollination of two different plant breeds




Hi
-
Maize is a food ingredient with high levels of
resistant starch, a starch that resists digestion in the
small intestine




Innovations in plant breeding


The Hi
-
Maize has been accepted within the
food manufacturing industry because of its
unique properties:


It is a fine white powder


It has no flavour or aroma


It can withstand most methods of cooking


It has a low level of water absorption


Hi
-
Maize helps to maintain the crunchiness of
products such as breakfast cereal because
of….

Innovations in plant breeding

Benefits of Hi
-
Maize:


Classified as a prebiotic functional food

as it is
not broken down and digested in the small
intestine


The starches that resist digestion pass through
the large intestine and is sued as a source of
dietary fibre , and stimulate the growth of
good bacteria


Improves bowel health


Has a low GI


Innovations in Plant Breeding

Why do people need Hi
-
Maize?


Decreases the risk of bowel cancer because
of the high levels of dietary fibre


Other factors:


Has been widely accepted because it has
the same texture as white bread


Has been accepted in cereals, muffin mix,
yogurt and the breakfast drink up and go


Economic value because it is classed as a
functional food


Genetic Modification


Genetic modification (GM), “genetic
engineering” and “gene technology” all mean
the same thing
-

they involve a gene from one
plant or animal being spliced onto another to
improve its characteristics





Genetic Modification


Some genetic scientists argue that our ecosystem
has always been able to respond to and control
newly evolved species.



However natural evolution occurs slowly overtime
and in usually small isolated environments



Genetic modification has the potential to
introduce large numbers of organisms into an
ecosystem in a very short time



Genetic Modification


An advantage of genetic modification is
that the genetic manipulation of crops
can be precisely tailored, unlike
hybridisation and selective breeding



Any other advantages?



What about disadvantages?

Genetic Modification

Transgenic Organisms


Plants and animals that contain foreign DNA are
called transgenic


Example: cows that have been given an extra
gene to make a substance that is normally
made by humans are transgenic because they
contain human DNA


They may also be able to make a new protein or
enzyme that can be used as an antibiotic


Any other examples?



Genetic Modification

Advantages of genetic engineering:


The desired changes can be achieved within a few
generation


They are faster and lower in cost


They can more precisely select desired
characteristics


They allow more possible improvements for
example resistance of pests and diseases as well as
an increase in nutrition value



Any disadvantages?

Genetic Modification

Genetically modified crops

Characteristics:


The production of better yields with the use
of better herbicides and pesticides


The ability for crops to grow in saline soil, or
in extremely hot or cold environments


Improved sensory properties of food such as
flavour and texture


Increased nutrition value


Reduced waste