The development of Hi-Maize - year 12 food


Dec 14, 2012 (5 years and 4 months ago)


Unit 4
Outcome 3

Innovations in food
product and


Biotechnology is a both as science and
an industry as it is the science of living
things, with the technology of industry to
alter or to make foods

Biotechnology involves choosing and
reproducing the best traits in plants and
animals to improve breeds or crops

Traditional plant breeding

Plant breeding is also known as hybridisation

the breeding of 2 plants from the same or
closely related species

The process combines the genetic traits of 2

The new offspring plant is the result of cross
breeding and may also have some
undesirable traits, and are then selected for
further breeding

Plant breeding using

Plant biotechnology is the addition of selected
traits to plants to develop new plant varieties

This process involves transferring one or several
genes that carry desirable traits (high nutritional
value), and transfer that gene to another plant
within the same species

This method of plant breeding ensures that only
desired traits are transferred to the new plant

Innovations in plant breeding

The development of Hi

Developed in Australia in the early 90’s

hybrid is the offspring or the resulting plant from
the cross
pollination of two different plant breeds

Maize is a food ingredient with high levels of
resistant starch, a starch that resists digestion in the
small intestine

Innovations in plant breeding

The Hi
Maize has been accepted within the
food manufacturing industry because of its
unique properties:

It is a fine white powder

It has no flavour or aroma

It can withstand most methods of cooking

It has a low level of water absorption

Maize helps to maintain the crunchiness of
products such as breakfast cereal because

Innovations in plant breeding

Benefits of Hi

Classified as a prebiotic functional food

as it is
not broken down and digested in the small

The starches that resist digestion pass through
the large intestine and is sued as a source of
dietary fibre , and stimulate the growth of
good bacteria

Improves bowel health

Has a low GI

Innovations in Plant Breeding

Why do people need Hi

Decreases the risk of bowel cancer because
of the high levels of dietary fibre

Other factors:

Has been widely accepted because it has
the same texture as white bread

Has been accepted in cereals, muffin mix,
yogurt and the breakfast drink up and go

Economic value because it is classed as a
functional food

Genetic Modification

Genetic modification (GM), “genetic
engineering” and “gene technology” all mean
the same thing

they involve a gene from one
plant or animal being spliced onto another to
improve its characteristics

Genetic Modification

Some genetic scientists argue that our ecosystem
has always been able to respond to and control
newly evolved species.

However natural evolution occurs slowly overtime
and in usually small isolated environments

Genetic modification has the potential to
introduce large numbers of organisms into an
ecosystem in a very short time

Genetic Modification

An advantage of genetic modification is
that the genetic manipulation of crops
can be precisely tailored, unlike
hybridisation and selective breeding

Any other advantages?

What about disadvantages?

Genetic Modification

Transgenic Organisms

Plants and animals that contain foreign DNA are
called transgenic

Example: cows that have been given an extra
gene to make a substance that is normally
made by humans are transgenic because they
contain human DNA

They may also be able to make a new protein or
enzyme that can be used as an antibiotic

Any other examples?

Genetic Modification

Advantages of genetic engineering:

The desired changes can be achieved within a few

They are faster and lower in cost

They can more precisely select desired

They allow more possible improvements for
example resistance of pests and diseases as well as
an increase in nutrition value

Any disadvantages?

Genetic Modification

Genetically modified crops


The production of better yields with the use
of better herbicides and pesticides

The ability for crops to grow in saline soil, or
in extremely hot or cold environments

Improved sensory properties of food such as
flavour and texture

Increased nutrition value

Reduced waste