or Genetic engineering If you chose selective breeding ... - mrsoto

neighgreasycornerBiotechnology

Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 4 months ago)

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One variety of wheat is resistant to disease. Another variety contains more nutrients
of benefit to humans. Explain how a new variety of wheat with disease resistance
and high nutrient value could be developed.

In your answer, be sure to:


(1) Identify one technique that could be used to combine disease resistance

and high nutrient value in a new variety of wheat. (1)



(2) Describe how this technique would be carried out to produce a wheat plant with
the desired characteristics. (2)


Selective breeding (hybridization) or Genetic engineering

If you chose selective breeding

Crossing a resistant
-
to
-
disease wheat plant with a high
-
nutrient wheat plant, so
both desirable traits would passed to the next generation, obtaining a
disease
-
resistance and high
-
nutrient
-
value wheat plant.

If you choose genetic engineering


Using restriction enzymes cut the resistant
-
to
-
disease gene from one variety of
wheat, and insert it in the DNA of the high
-

nutrient wheat variety.

Then clone the transformed wheat plant.

Objective
: Review Biotechnology throughout Regent’s Questions

For many years, humans have used a variety of techniques that have influenced the genetic
makeup of organisms. These techniques have led to the production of new varieties of
organisms that possess characteristics that are useful to humans.

Identify one technique presently being used to alter the genetic makeup of an organism, and
explain how humans can benefit from this change.

Your answer must include at least:

the name of the technique used to alter the genetic makeup

a statement of how humans have benefited from the production of this new variety of organism

a brief description of what is involved in this technique

one specific example of how this technique has been used

1. The name of the technique is inbreeding

3. Inbreeding is about breeding of animals or plants that have
similar characteristics

2. Humans benefit because they obtain a desired line of organisms and
preserve traits that make each breed unique

4. One example is the breeding of dogs or race horses

Objective
: Review Biotechnology throughout Regent’s Questions

The diagram below represents a technique used in biotechnology.








1)
Name a specific substance that can be produced by this technique (1)


2) State how humans have benefited from the production of this substance. (2)


3) Give two examples of how the technology of genetic engineering allows humans
to alter the genetic makeup of organisms. (2)

Insulin or growth hormone or clotting factors

People with diabetes can be treated

Genetic engineering allow humans to alter bacteria to produce
insulin, and to alter rice to produce Golden Rice that contains
vitamin A

Objective
: Review Biotechnology throughout Regent’s Questions

"Today I planted something new in my vegetable garden
-

something very new, as a matter of fact. It's a
potato called the New Leaf Superior, which has been genetically engineered
-

by Monsanto, the chemical
giant recently turned "life sciences" giant
-

to produce its own insecticide. This it can do in every cell of
every leaf, stem, flower, root, and (here's the creepy part) spud [the potato]."
-

New York Times Sunday
Magazine, Michael Pollan, 10/25/98

State two reasons that a gardener might choose to grow this new variety of plant. (2)





State one possible disadvantage of the synthesis of an insecticide by potatoes. (2)




Explain why every cell in the New Leaf Superior potato plant is able to produce its own insecticide. (2)


New Leaf Superior produces its own insecticide.


Increase productivity: the potato grows bigger because the plant is not eaten by
insects.


The garden does not need to use insecticide. Less harmful for the environment



The insecticide in the potato may be harmful to humans.



Insecticides sprayed on can be washed off; those produced in cells cannot.



Insects may develop a resistance to the insecticide produced by potatoes.


All cells have the same genetic information or DNA.


Genetic information in one cell is passed to other cells through cell division.

Objective
: Review Biotechnology throughout Regent’s Questions

1. When humans first domesticated dogs, there was relatively little diversity in the species. Today,
there are many variations such as the German shepherd and the dalmatian.

This increase in
diversity is most closely associated with __________________________




2. White short
-
horned cattle and Black Angus cattle have been crossed to produce offspring with
superior beef and rapid growth qualities. (2) This process of choosing organisms with the most
desirable traits for mating is known as ____________________



3. What is the technique of genetic engineering in which DNA is transferred from the cells of one
organism to the cells of another organism? (2) ________________________



4. In recent research, the DNA that codes for a different key enzyme was removed from each of
three different species of soil bacteria. A new bacterium, containing DNA for all three key enzymes,
could be produced by (2) _________________________________




5. Which process is a common practice that has been used by farmers for hundreds of years to
develop new plant and animal varieties?__________________________________



6. Some geneticists are suggesting the possibility of transferring some of the genes that influence
photosynthesis from an efficient variety of crop plant to a less efficient crop plant. The goal is the
produce a new variety with improved productivity.

To produce this new variety, the project would most likely involve____________________

Selective Breeding inbreeding

Genetic engineering

Selective breeding, hybridization

Bacterial transformation or cloning

Bacterial transformation or genetic engineering

Selective breeding

4) For many years, humans have used a variety of techniques that have influenced the
genetic makeup of organisms. These techniques have led to the production of new varieties
of organisms that possess characteristics that are useful to humans.

Identify one technique presently being used to alter the genetic makeup of an organism, and
explain how humans can benefit from this change.

Your answer must include at least:

(1) the name of the technique used to alter the genetic makeup

(2) a statement of how humans have benefited from the production of this new variety of
organism

(3) a brief description of what is involved in this technique

(4) one specific example of how this technique has been used

1. The name of the technique is inbreeding

3. Inbreeding is about breeding of animals or plants that have
similar characteristics

2. Humans benefit because they obtain a desired line of organisms and
preserve traits that make each breed unique

4. One example is the breeding of dogs or race horses

Scientists have successfully cloned sheep and cattle for several years. A farmer is considering
the advantages and disadvantages of having a flock of sheep cloned from a single individual.

Discuss the issues the farmer should take into account before making a decision. Your response
should include:

5. How would a cloned flock differ from a noncloned flock?




6. State one advantage of having a cloned flock.



7. State one disadvantage of having a cloned flock.

In the cloned flock all the animals are genetically identical, but in the non
-
cloned flock all individuals are genetically different

All the offspring has the features we like in the original animal. For
instance, cows producing more milk.

All individuals will be affected by the same diseases, viruses, and bacteria.

8. Discuss one reason that the farmer could not mate these cloned sheep with each other
to increase the size of his flock.

Because all the animals share the same sex gender

9. Name one reason that the offspring resulting from breeding these sheep with an
unrelated sheep would not all be the same.

The offspring will receive genes from both unrelated parents

One variety of wheat is resistant to disease. Another variety contains more
nutrients of benefit to humans. Explain how a new variety of wheat with
disease resistance and high nutrient value could be developed. In your
answer, be sure to:


10. Identify one technique that could be used to combine disease resistance
and high nutrient value in a new variety of wheat. (1)



11. Describe how this technique would be carried out to produce a wheat plant
with the desired characteristics. (2)

Selective breeding or hybridization

The variety of wheat that is resistant to disease and the variety of wheat
that contains more nutrients are crossed.

The new line of wheat will combine both characteristics: being resistant
to disease and containing more nutrients