Genetics - TeacherWeb

neighgreasycornerBiotechnology

Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 8 months ago)

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Objective: Understand how
humans inherit their traits
form their parents.

Do Now: Work individually

Write as many words related to
genetics as you can think of. The
letter that the word starts with
should go next to the letter on
the paper.

For example:

A
-

Allele



A Allele, Amino Acid, Anaphase,


B boy, blood


C Chromosome, Cells,
Codominant
, colorblind,


D Daughter Cell, Down Syndrome, Dominant allele, disorder, DNA


E Environment, engineering,


F Fertilization,


G Genius, genetic disorders, genotype, genes, girl,
guinene



H homozygous, heterozygous, hybrid,
heterotrouph
, hemophilia,


I inheritance


J


K
karyotype
,


L leukemia,


M mother, mutations, meiosis, mitosis,
mitochondira


N nucleic acid, nuclear envelope


O organisms, offspring,


P purebred, parents, pedigree, pea plant,
Punnett

Square, phenotype, pollen, pairs, protein


Q quantity,


R RNA, Recessive,


S Sickle cell, sex cell, sex chromosome, son, sun


T therapy, thymine, trait, translating the genetic code, types, tumor


U
uracil
,


V vitamin,


W wool,


X
x

chromosome


Y
y

chromosome


Z

1. The
different traits you see are determined
by a variety of
__________________________________.

2. Some
human traits are controlled by
____________________ genes with
__________________ alleles, and others by
___________________ genes with
________________ allele, and other traits
are controlled by ___________________
genes that act
____________________________.


3. When
traits are controlled by a single gene
with one ___________________ allele and
one _________________________ allele, the
traits have two distinctively different
_____________________________, or
physical appearances. For example a widows
peak or straight hair line.


4. Some
genes may have more than two alleles, called
___________________ __________________, such as
blood
.

5. Although
a gene may have multiple alleles, a person can
only carry _______________ of those alleles, because
chromosomes exist in
_______________________________.

6. There
are ____________ main blood types
______,_______,________, and ______.

7. The
alleles for ______(I
A
) and ______(I
B
) are
codominante
.
Where O is recessive so is written as ________.

8. When
a child is born with I
A
from one parent and I
B

From
the other parent, what is its blood type? _______________.

9. How
do you get type O
blood?___________________________________


10. Some
traits have more than ___________
phenotypes, such as height. These genes act
together as a group to produce a
_________________ trait.

11. At
least 4 genes control height in humans,
so there are __________ possible
combinations of genes and
__________________.

12.
Other than height, what is another trait
that is controlled by many genes?

13. Sex
chromosomes carry genes that
determine whether a person is
__________________ or
____________________, as well as genes that
determine
________________________________.


14.
How many pairs of sex chromosomes do
humans have? ______________


15. Sex
chromosomes are the only pair that do
not _______________________.


16.
A girl has _________________________
chromosomes and a boy has
one________________ and
one_____________________ chromosomes.


17. Since
a female has 2 x chromosomes, her eggs
will only be ____________.


18.
Since a male has an x and a y chromosome, his
sperm will be ______________________ and
______________________________.


19.
What determines if the offspring is a girl or
boy?
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________

20. The
genes for some human traits are
carried on the sex chromosomes and are
called
______________________________________.


21.
An example of a sex
-
linked trait is
___________________________
colorblindness.


22. Since
X and Y have different genes, if the X
has the gene for colorblindness, the boy will
be colorblind since there is no dominant
gene on the y to mask it, like there would be
for the X for the girl. So, colorblindness will
come from the ________________________
because it is on the X chromosome.


23. Are
there more males or females that are
colorblind since the trait is controlled by a
recessive allele in the X chromosome?
_________________


24.
What is a carrier?
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________


25. Many
of a person’s characteristics are
determined by an interaction between
____________________ and the
_________________________________.


26.
Is height only influenced by genes?
____________


27.
What else can affect a person’s height?
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________


case against the
Pacific Gas


and Electric Company

(PG&E)


of
California

in 1993.


Chromium 6
-

bone organ

deterioration, liver failure,

carcinogenic, gets in DNA so

can pass to kid

28. How
much genetic material comes from
your mother? From your Father? Can some of
your traits be affected by the environment?


Section 2
-

Human Genetic Disorders



Objective: Learn about various genetic
disorders and how they can be traced
back through generations, and be
detected using different tools.


DO NOW: Think
of a trait that
you have.

Try to tract it
back through
your family tree

Your Trait

Mom


Dad

Causes of Genetic Disorders


1. What is a genetic disorder?
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________
_______________________



2. What are the 2 causes of
genetic disorders?

______________________________

______________________________

_________________________

_________________________


Cystic Fibrosis


3. Cystic Fibrosis is a _______________ disorder in which the
body produces abnormally __________________________
in the _____________ and ________________________.



4. What happens to the person with Cystic Fibrosis?
________________________________________________
________________________________________________



5. What is the cause of Cystic Fibrosis?
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________


Who is at risk for cystic fibrosis?

About 30,000 people in the United
States have cystic fibrosis. It
affects both males and females.

It affects people from all racial and
ethnic groups but is most
common among Caucasians
whose ancestors came from
northern Europe.

CF is one of the most common
inherited diseases among
Caucasians.

CF is much less common among:
African Americans


Asian Americans

About 12 million Americans are
carriers of an abnormal CF gene.
Many of them do not know that
they are CF carriers.



Sickle
-
Cell Disease


6. Sickle
-
cell Disease affects
_________________________________, which is a
____________________ in _____________ blood cells that
carries _______________________.



7. Sickle
-
Shape red blood cells _________________ blood
vessels and cannot carry as much __________________ as
normal cells.


8. What is the cause of sickle
-
cell disease?
__________________________________________________
__________________________________________________


9. A person with one sickle
-
cell allele and one normal allele will
____________________________________ of the disease.


Hemophilia


10. Hemophilia is a genetic disorder in which a person’s blood
_____________________________________________.



11. A person with this disorder do not produce ____________ of the
____________________ needed for normal blood clotting.



12. Why is this so dangerous?
_______________________________________
____________________________________________________________



13. What is the cause of hemophilia?
_______________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________



14. Who is more likely to get hemophilia?


________________________


Down Syndrome



In down syndrome, a
person’s cells have an
_______________________
of____________________,
which means instead of a
pair of chromosomes, they
have ______________.




What is the cause of down
syndrome?
_______________________
_________________
_______________________
_________________




Pedigrees



A pedigree is a
_______________________________
_______________ that tracks which
members of a family have a particular
trait.




How could this have helped a family
who was having a child before there
were genetic testing?
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________
_______________________________





Find one trait that you have and
make a pedigree chart of your family
to trace it back.



Your Family Pedigree

Managing Genetic Disorders




Many years ago, doctors used the pedigree chart to
predict if a child may have a
______________________________. Now, however,
they can use _____________________________ to
help diagnose genetic disorders.





Why is it important for doctors to know about genetic
disorders for children?
____________________________________________
____________________________________________
____________________________________________

Karyotypes



To detect chromosomal disorders, such as down
syndrome, a doctor uses
__________________________________.











A
karyotype

is a __________________________
of all the chromosomes in a cell.


Genetic Counseling



If a couple has a family history of a genetic
disorder, they may turn to a
________________________________________
for advice.




Genetic counselors use tools such as
______________________________,
______________________________, and
__________________________ to help them in
their work.


Dealing With Genetic Disorders



What are some ways people born with a
genetic disorder can get help?
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
_____________________________________
___________________________________

Objective Recap


What are 2 way a genetic disorder can occur?
What are the 3 ways a doctor or genetic
counselor can predict a genetic disorder?


Section 3
-

Advances in Genetics

Objective: Learn how selective breeding is used.
And how scientists are trying to understand
genetics.


Selective Breeding

1. _______________________________ have enabled people to
produce organisms with desirable traits.



2. What are 3 methods for developing organism with desirable traits?
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________



3. Selective breeding is
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________



4. What are 2 selective breeding techniques?
_______________________________________________________

Inbreeding

5. Inbreeding is
___________________
___________________
___________________
___________________
___________________
___________________


What is inbreeding
similar to? __________
___________________



Hybridization

6. Hybridization is
___________________
___________________
___________________
___________________
___________________
___________________

Hybridization can also be
called a _____________
or _________________


Cloning

7. For some organisms, ______________________ can be
used to produce offspring with desired traits.

8. A _______________ is an organism that has exactly the
same __________________ as the organism from which is
was produced.


9. Some plants like the ______________________ are easy
to clone. You just have to cut the _________________
form one plant, and put it in the soil and water it.

10. Researchers have also cloned animals such as
_______________________________________________.
This is more complex. The researcher has to take the
__________________________ of an animal’s body cell
and use it to produce a new ____________________.



Genetic Engineering


11. Genetic engineering is another powerful


technique for producing organisms with


desired ____________________.


12. Genetic engineering is taking _______________ from
one organism and transferring them into the
______________ of another organism.


13. Genetic engineering can produce
_______________________ and improve
___________________________________.


Genetic Engineering in Bacteria

14. One type of genetically engineered bacteria
produces a protein called
_________________________________.

15. Who uses insulin?
____________________________________



Genetic Engineering in

Other Organisms

16. Scientists can also use genetic engineering techniques to insert
genes into __________________________.



17. For example, human genes can be inserted into the cells of
_____________, who then produce the human
__________________ form which the gene codes in their
______________________. This produces the blood clotting
protein needed by people with
________________________________.


18. Genes have also been inserted into plants, such as
________________ and ________________________, which
enable the plant to survive in
______________________________or
_____________________________ or resist
_____________________________________________


Gene Therapy

19. Gene therapy is using genetic engineering to
___________________________________________
_________________, which is not yet possible.


20. Gene therapy involves inserting copies of genes
__________________________________________
_________________________________________.


Concerns About Genetic Engineering

21. Some people think genetically engineered
crops may __________________
__________________________, thinking that
these crops may _______________________
or cause______________________________

_______________________________________.

Learning About Human Genetics

22. The Human Genome Project and
DNA fingerprinting are 2
applications that enabled scientists
to __________________________

______________________________

_____________________________


____________________________.

The Human Genome Project

23. A genome is
_______________________________
_____________________________
_______________________________
_____________________________

24. The main goal of the Human Genome
Project is to
______________________________
_______________________________
_____________________________

25. Scientist have learned that humans
have at least _________________
genes, and each gene has about
_________________ bases.



DNA Fingerprinting


DNA technology used in the Human
Genome Project can also identify
__________________ and show
whether people are
__________________.






DNA from a person’s cells is broken
down into
__________________________,
which to produce a pattern called a
_______________________________
________________.






No two people have the exact same
DNA fingerprint, except for
_______________________________
____________.


Objective Recap

What are some ways scientists can select traits
they want? What is the Human Genome
Project?