Genetic Technology

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Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 9 months ago)

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Genetic Technology



Section 13.2 Summary


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Genetic Engineering


1.
Genetic engineering

is a faster
and more reliable
method for
increasing the frequency of a
specific allele in a population by
cutting fragments of DNA from one
organism

and inserting the
fragments into a host organism

of
the same or a different species.


(It is a way to increase the frequency
of a specific allele by putting pieces of
DNA from one organism into another
)


Section 13.2 Summary


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348

Genetic Engineering


2
. You also may hear genetic engineering
referred to as
recombinant

DNA
technology.


3.
Recombinant DNA is made by
connecting or recombining,
fragments of DNA from
different
sources
.

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Transgenic organisms contain
recombinant DNA


4.
Plants and animals that contain
functional recombinant DNA from an
organism of a different type are
known as
transgenic
organisms
because they contain foreign DNA.

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5. Transgenic organisms contain
recombinant DNA


The first step of the process is to
isolate
the foreign DNA fragment

that will be
inserted.




The second step is to
attach the DNA
fragment to a carrier.



The third step is the
transfer into the host

organism.

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Restriction enzymes cleave (cut) DNA


To isolate a DNA fragment, small pieces of
DNA must be cut from a chromosome.


6. Restriction enzymes

are bacterial proteins
that have the ability to cut both strands of the
DNA molecule at a specific nucleotide
sequence.

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Restriction
enzymes
cleave (cut)
DNA

Cleavage

Cut

Insertion

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Vectors transfer DNA


7.
A
vector

is the means by which
DNA from another species can be
carried into the host cell.



Vectors may be
biological or
mechanical
.

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Vectors transfer DNA


8. Biological vectors include
viruses and bacterial plasmids.




9. A
plasmid
, is a small ring of
DNA found in a bacterial cell.

Vectors transfer DNA


10. Two types of
mechanical

vectors
carry foreign DNA into a cell’s
nucleus

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Vectors transfer DNA


One, a micropipette, is inserted into a
cell;.

the other is a microscopic metal
bullet coated with DNA that is shot
into the cell from a gene gun

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Insertion into a vector


If a plasmid and foreign DNA have been
cleaved with the same restriction enzyme, the
ends of each will match and they will join
together, reconnecting the plasmid ring.


The foreign DNA is recombined into a plasmid
or viral DNA with the help of a second enzyme.

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After the foreign DNA has been inserted
into the plasmid, the recombined DNA is
transferred into a bacterial cell.


11. An advantage to using bacterial cells
to clone DNA is that they
reproduce
quickly
; therefore,
millions of bacteria
are produced and each bacterium
contains hundreds of recombinant DNA
molecules
.

Gene cloning

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12. Clones are
genetically identical
copies
.


Plasmids also can be used to deliver genes to
animal or plant cells, which incorporate the
recombinant DNA.

Gene cloning

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Gene cloning


13. Each time the host cell divides
it
copies

the recombinant DNA
along with its own.

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Cleavage sites

Plasmid

Foreign DNA (gene for
human growth hormone)

Recombined
plasmid

Recombined
DNA

Bacterial
chromosome

E. coli

Human
growth
hormone

Gene cloning

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Cloning of animals


Although their
techniques are
inefficient,
scientists are
coming closer
to perfecting
the process of
cloning
animals.

What animals have been cloned?


Scientists have been cloning animals for
many years.


In 1952, the first animal, a tadpole, was
cloned.


www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/cloning.shtml#animalsQ


Before the creation of Dolly, the first mammal
cloned from the cell of an adult animal, clones
were created from embryonic cells.


Since Dolly, researchers have cloned a number
of large and small animals including sheep,
goats, cows, mice, pigs, cats, and rabbits. All
these clones were created using nuclear transfer
technology.


Hundreds of cloned animals exist today, but the
number of different species is limited. Attempts
at cloning certain species have been
unsuccessful.


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Polymerase chain reaction


14. A method called
polymerase
chain reaction (PCR)

has been
developed in order to replicate DNA
outside living organisms,


This method uses heat to separate
DNA strands from each other
.

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The machine repeatedly replicates
the DNA, making millions of copies
in less than a day.

Polymerase chain reaction

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Sequencing DNA


In DNA sequencing, millions of copies of
a double
-
stranded DNA fragment are
cloned using PCR. Then, the strands
are separated from each other.


The single
-
stranded fragments are
placed in four different test tubes, one
for each DNA base.

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Sequencing DNA


One nucleotide in each tube is tagged
with a different fluorescent color.


Each tube contains four normal
nucleotides (A,C, G,T) and an enzyme
that can catalyze the synthesis of a
complementary strand.


The reactions produce complementary
strands of varying lengths
.

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Sequencing DNA


The bands are visualized using a laser
scanner or UV light.


15. These strands are separated
according to
size

by 16.
gel

electrophoresis
producing a pattern
of fluorescent bands in the gel.

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Gel Electrophoresis


Restriction enzymes are the perfect
tools for cutting DNA. However,
once the DNA is cut, a scientist
needs to determine exactly what
fragments have been formed
.
.

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Restriction enzymes



Either one or several restriction
enzymes is added to a sample of
DNA.
The restriction enzymes cut
the DNA into fragments.

DNA fragments

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The gel


With a consistency
that is firmer than
dessert gelatin, the
gel is molded so
that small wells
form at one end.


DNA fragments are placed
into small wells at the end of
a firm block of gel
.

Gel

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An electric field


The gel is
placed in a
solution and
an electric
field is
applied.
One
end of the
gel is positive
and the other
end is
negative
.

Power
source

Negative
end

Positive
end

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The fragments move


The
negatively
charged
DNA
fragments
travel
toward the
positive
end.

Completed
gel

Shorter
fragments

Longer
fragments

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18.The smaller the fragment, the
faster it moves

through the gel.


The smallest fragments move the
farthest

from the well.

The fragments move

Making a Gel (summarized)(#17)


1. Restriction enzymes cut DNA into
fragments


2. DNA fragments are placed into small
wells at the end of a firm block of gel
which glows under UV light.


3. One end of the gel is made + (pos.) and
the other


(neg.)


4. Neg. charged DNA fragments move
toward the + end.

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Applications of DNA Technology


Many species of bacteria have been engineered
to produce chemical compounds used by
humans.


The main areas proposed for recombinant
bacteria are in industry, medicine, and
agriculture.

Recombinant DNA in industry

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19.Recombinant DNA in industry


Scientists have
modified the
bacterium
E.
coli

to produce
the
expensive
indigo dye that
is used

to color
denim blue
jeans.

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19. Industrial Applications of DNA
Technology

The production of


cheese


paper


laundry detergents


sewage treatment

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20. Recombinant DNA in medicine


Pharmaceutical companies already are
producing molecules made by recombinant
DNA to treat human diseases.


Recombinant bacteria are used in
the
production of human growth
hormone to treat pituitary dwarfism
and insulin to treat diabetes.

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20. Recombinant DNA in medicine



Scientists can study diseases and
the role specific genes play in an
organism by using transgenic
animals

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. An animal that contains recombinant DNA
from other organisms inserted into them is
called a
transgenic
organism.

21.

Transgenic

animals

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Transgenic animals


Mouse
chromosomes
also are similar to
human
chromosomes.


Scientists know the
locations of many
genes on mouse
chromosomes.

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On the same farm in Scotland that
produced the cloned sheep Dolly, a
transgenic sheep was produced that
contained the corrected human gene for
hemophilia A.


This human gene inserted into the sheep
chromosomes allows the production of the
clotting protein in the sheep’s milk.

Transgenic animals

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Recombinant DNA technology has been
highly utilized in the agricultural and food
industries.


Crops have been developed that are
better tasting, stay fresh longer, and are
protected from disease and insect
infestations
.

22. Recombinant DNA in agriculture

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Recombinant DNA in agriculture

The Most Common Genetically Modified (GM) Crops

Millions of hectares

150

100

50

0

72

36%

140

7%

34

25

16%

11%

Soybeans

Corn

Cotton

Canola

Section 13.3 Summary


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In 1990, scientists in the United States
organized the Human Genome Project (HGP).
It is an international effort to completely map
and sequence the
human genome
, the
approximately 35 000
-
40 000 genes on the 46
human chromosomes.


The human genome map shows the
sequence of the genes on the 46
chromosomes.

23. Mapping and Sequencing
the Human Genome

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In February of 2001, the HGP published its
working draft of the 3 billion base pairs of DNA
in most human cells.

Mapping and Sequencing the
Human Genome


The sequence of chromosomes 21 and 22
was finished by May 2000.


It was completed in 2003, but the data is still
being analyzed.

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Improved techniques for


prenatal diagnosis of human disorders,


use of gene therapy, and


development of new methods of crime
detection

24. Applications of the Human
Genome Project

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One of the most important benefits of
the HGP has been the diagnosis of
genetic disorders.

Diagnosis of genetic disorders

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Diagnosis of genetic disorders


The DNA of people with and without a genetic
disorder is compared to find differences that are
associated with the disorder. Once it is clearly
understood where a gene is located and that a
mutation in the gene causes the disorder, a
diagnosis can be made for an individual, even
before birth.

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Individuals who inherit a serious
genetic disorder may now have
hope

gene therapy.
25
.
Gene
therapy

is the insertion of normal
genes into human cells to correct
genetic disorders. Much research
is being done, but the FDA has not
approved any therapy for sale.

Gene
therapy

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DNA fingerprinting can be used to convict or
acquit individuals of criminal offenses because
every person is genetically unique.


26. DNA fingerprinting works because
no
two individuals

(except identical twins)
have the same DNA sequences, and
because all cells (
except gametes
) of an
individual have the same DNA.

DNA
fingerprinting


To identify individuals, forensic scientists
scan 13 DNA regions, or loci, that vary
from person to person and use the data to
create a DNA profile of that individual
(sometimes called a DNA fingerprint).
There is an extremely small chance that
another person has the same DNA profile
for a particular set of 13 regions. (Human
genome project info)


Human Genome Project
--
DNA
fingerprinting

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In a forensic application of DNA fingerprinting, a
small DNA sample is obtained from a suspect
and from blood, hair, skin, or semen found at the
crime scene.


The DNA, which includes the unique non
-
coding
segments, is cut into fragments with restriction
enzymes.

DNA
fingerprinting

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DNA
fingerprinting


The fragments
are separated by
gel
electrophoresis,
then further
analyzed. If the
samples match,
the suspect
most likely is
guilty.