14–3 Human Molecular Genetics

neighgreasycornerBiotechnology

Dec 14, 2012 (4 years and 6 months ago)

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Biology

Biology

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Human Molecular
Genetics

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Human Molecular Genetics

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Human Molecular Genetics

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Bioethics and You

As you become more aware of scientific advances in genetics, you
might realize that with the ability to manipulate genes, there
comes responsibility. This ability provides an opportunity to
improve the lives of many people. But there is also a potential for
errors or intentional misuse of the technology.

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Interest Grabber

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Working with a partner, answer the following
questions
.


1.

In what type of situation do you think genetic engineering

changing the genes of organisms

is warranted? Explain your
reasoning about your position. If you do not think that genetic
engineering is ever warranted, explain your reasons for your
position.


2.

In what type of situation do you think genetic engineering might
be misused? Suggest limits that might be placed on the
manipulation of genes to avoid its misuse.

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Human Molecular Genetics

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Human DNA Analysis

Human DNA Analysis

There are roughly 6 billion base pairs in your DNA.

Biologists search the human genome using
sequences of DNA bases.

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Human Molecular Genetics

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Human DNA Analysis

Genetic tests are available for hundreds of
disorders.

DNA testing can pinpoint the exact genetic basis of
a disorder.

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Human DNA Analysis

DNA Fingerprinting


DNA fingerprinting

analyzes sections of DNA that
have little or no known function but vary widely
from one individual to another.

Only identical twins are genetically identical.

DNA samples can be obtained from blood, sperm,
and hair strands with tissue at the base.

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Human DNA Analysis


Chromosomes
contain large
amounts of DNA
called repeats that do
not code for proteins.


This DNA pattern
varies from person to
person.


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Human DNA Analysis

Restriction enzymes are used to cut the DNA into
fragments containing genes and repeats.

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Human DNA Analysis

DNA fragments are
separated using gel
electrophoresis.

Fragments containing
repeats are labeled.

This produces a series
of bands

the DNA
fingerprint.

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Human DNA Analysis

DNA Fingerprint

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The Human Genome Project

The Human Genome Project

What is the goal of the Human Genome
Project?

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Human Molecular Genetics

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The Human Genome Project


In 1990, scientists in the United States and
other countries began the Human Genome
Project
.

The Human Genome Project is an ongoing
effort to analyze the human DNA
sequence.

In June 2000, a working copy of the human
genome was essentially complete.

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The Human Genome Project

Research groups are analyzing the DNA sequence,
looking for genes that may provide clues to the basic
properties of life.

Biotechnology companies are looking for information
that may help develop new drugs and treatments for
diseases.

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Promoter

Start
signal

Gene

Stop
signal

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Human Molecular Genetics

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The Human Genome Project

A Breakthrough for Everyone

Data from publicly supported research on the
human genome have been posted on the Internet
on a daily basis.

You can read and analyze the latest genome data.

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Gene Therapy

Gene Therapy

What is gene therapy?

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Human Molecular Genetics

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Gene Therapy


In gene therapy, an absent or faulty
gene is replaced by a normal, working
gene.

The body can then make the correct
protein or enzyme, eliminating the cause of
the disorder.

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Gene Therapy

Viruses are often used
because of their ability to
enter a cell’s DNA.

Virus particles are
modified so that they
cannot cause disease.

Normal hemoglobin gene

Genetically engineered virus

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Gene Therapy

A DNA fragment containing a replacement gene is
spliced to viral DNA.

Chromosomes

Bone marrow cell

Nucleus

Genetically engineered virus

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Gene Therapy

The patient is then infected with the modified virus
particles, which should carry the gene into cells to
correct genetic defects.

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DNA fingerprinting analyzes sections of DNA
that have

a.
Little or no known function but are identical
from one individual to another.


b.
little or no known function but vary widely
from one individual to another.


c.
a function and are identical from one
individual to another.


d.
a function and are highly variable from one
individual to another.


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DNA fingerprinting uses the technique of

a.
gene therapy.


b.
allele analysis.


c.
gel electrophoresis.


d.
gene recombination.


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Repeats are areas of DNA that

a.
do not code for proteins.


b.
code for proteins.


c.
are identical from person to person.


d.
cause genetic disorders.


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Data from the human genome project is
available


a.
only to those who have sequenced the DNA.


b.
to scientists who are able to understand the
data.


c.
by permission to anyone who wishes to do
research.


d.
to anyone with Internet access.

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Which statement most accurately describes
gene therapy?


a.
It repairs the defective gene in all cells of the
body.


b.
It destroys the defective gene in cells where
it exists.


c.
It replaces absent or defective genes with a
normal gene.


d.
It promotes DNA repair through the use of
enzymes.


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