Development, Universal Access and

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Dec 10, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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1

Development, Universal Access and
Governance in South Africa


CPSR Symposium: One Planet, One Net
-

The Public Interest in
Internet Governance Boston, 10th
-

11th October 1998
.



Tracy Cohen, Part
-
time lecturer


Telecommunications Law, Wits Law School


Assistant to Council, SATRA







The views expressed do not necessarily represent the views of SATRA, its Council or
any of its employees.











The views expressed in this presentation are mine and
do not necessarily represent the views of SATRA, its
Council or any of its employees.


2

Areas of focus


Context and Vitals


Definitions: Universal Service v. Universal Access


Universal Access in South Africa


Poverty


Telecommunications Teledensity


Internet Penetration on the Continent


Governance


Policy and Legislation


Role of the Regulator


Issues


3

South Africa

4

Definitions
-

Dedicated service v.
reasonable access


Universal Service



3 Components
-

Availability, Affordability, Accessibility
-
ITU



“affordable, access to basic voice telephony or its equivalent for
all those reasonably requesting it, regardless of where they live.”








-

Oftel



Universal Access


all of the above, BUT communal and within a reasonable
distance


Definition depends on the nature of the market


Definition informed by technical, social, political
considerations e.g. RDP


5

Universal Access in South Africa


Poverty


36% of all households below the HSL


HSL = R1050/month ($180)


Poorest 20% hh (27% pop) <3% total income



Richest 20% hh (3% pop) >65% total income


Telecommunications Teledensity


2.8 million residential lines


1.5 million business lines


28 000 farm lines


90 000 Public Pay Phones


National average = 9


Richer areas = 50


Poorer areas = 0.001


6

The Phone Gap


7

In Summary


8.7 million households in SA


2.8 million have telephones


55% of the 2.8 million are in white households


5.9 million households have no phones


2.1 million households have NO ACCESS to a
telephone within 5km’s of their home

8

SA
-

ISP Industry Structure



9

Internet in Africa






Source: Mike Jensen, AISI

10

Cost Comparative






Source: Mike Jensen, AISI

11

The role of Governance in delivering
Universal Access in SA



Universal access requires regulation aimed at balancing economic
growth and social/policy objectives


History, Policy and legislation
-

Telecommunications Act
No. 103 of 1996


State institutions supporting universal access



SATRA


The public interest
-

Telkom v Internet Service Providers Association,
1997


The Universal Service Agency


Lifespan
-

5 years


Universal Service Fund
-

Section 59


Administered by the USA subject to the control of SATRA


Department of Communications


Multimedia Projects/ Public Access Projects

12

A nation’s wealth is correlated with its
telecom infrastructure
Source: Formus SA

1
10
100
1,000
10,000
100,000
1,000,000
10,000,000
$1,000
$10,000
$100,000
$1,000,000
$10,000,000
Internet Host Computers - Jan 1995
1993 GNP ($M)
USA
UK
Germany
Japan
Australia
France
Italy
China
Russian Fed
Canada
Spain
Brazil
India
Argentina
Switzerland
Netherlands
Mexico
Korea, S
Sweden
Belarus
Thailand
Portugal
Turkey
Indonesia
Denmark
Austria
Belgium
New Zealand
South Africa
Hong Kong
Finland
Ukraine
Norway
Poland
Czech Rep
Greece
Israel
Hungary
Algeria
Malaysia
Venezuela
Singapore
Philippines
Colombia
Kazakhstan
Chile
Ireland
Iceland
Azerbaijan
Guinea
Moldavia
Fiji
Slovakia
Slovenia
Estonia
Bulgaria
Uruguay
Egypt
Luxembourg
Ecuador
Puerto Rico
Romania
Kuwait
Tunesia
Peru
Cyprus
Costa Rica
Panama
Zimbabwe
Latvia
Lithuania
Jamaica
Armenia
Zambia
Nicaragua
Saudi Arabia
Taiwan
Iran
Macau
13

Issues


Infrastructure


Sub
-
Saharan Africa teledensity
-

<1 in 200


Analogue, unreliable network, urban concentration


Affordability and Costs


Services
-

basic or advanced


Sustainability


Social


Economic


Infrastructural Priorities


Literacy and Language Hegemony


Software solutions


14

Conclusion


Regime is irrelevant
-

other factors are the
determinants.


Socially positive role and purpose of regulation:


State has a role in ensuring universal access (more so under the
exclusivity model?)


USF Ceiling of R20 Million/year must be raised
-

post exclusivity


Public/private sector partnerships will be vital to success


International and regional co
-
operation is crucial


Degree of success correlates proportionately to degree
of sufficient political will, systematic planning and co
-
ordination


15

Contact Details



E
-
mail:

Cohet@satra.gov.za


Post:

SATRA, Private Bag X1, Marlboro,



Sandton, 2063, South Africa


Tel:

27
-
11
-
321
-
8384


16

Useful Sites


http://www.satra.org.za/


http://www3.wn.apc.org/africa/mj.htm


http://www.sangonet.org.za/


http://wn.apc.org/technology/


http://demiurge.wn.apc.org/africa/projects.htm


http://www.doc.org.za/


http://www.telecom98.co.za/


http://www.sas.upenn.edu/African_Studies/AS.html


17

18

Snapshot
-

SA Industry Structure

Telkom



Future fixed line providers


Mobile Cellular

Vodacom, MTN, 3rd and 4th?


PTNs
-

Transnet and Eskom


Mobile Data, Radio Trunking,


VANS


-

including ISPs

19

Governance = Regulation?


Fact: Government involvement in the creation and
extension of services


Regulation aims to achieve:


the delivery of basic services


acceptable ranges and quality of services


fair competition


facilitate economic growth and global competitiveness


Regulation is aimed at balancing economic growth and
social/policy objectives


Universal Access requires regulation

20

24 Months Ago…

21

Africa
-

Continental Connectivity
Indicators

-

Source: Mike Jensen, AISI


46/54 Countries and territories in Africa have Internet
access in the Capital cities


6 Countries have plans for full Internet access in the
capital cities


2 Countries remain without plans for full Internet access


7 Countries have only one full public access ISP after 12
months


11 Countries have local ISPs or POPs in some secondary
towns


10 Countries have local dial
-
up Internet access
nationwide

22

Comparatively Speaking






Source: Mike Jensen, AISI