Ursinus College Summer Fellows

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Oct 31, 2013 (4 years and 8 months ago)


Ursinus College

Summer Fellows



Research Symposium

July 2
, 201


Special Acknowledgements

Abigail Robinson and Elizabeth Van Horn

(mentored by Gabrielle Principe) were supported by a
National Institutes of Health grant (#MH0

Elizabeth Chamberlain, Daniel Devlin, Kelly Reynolds, and Kiley Stauffer

(mentored by Lynne
Edwards and April Kontostathis) were supported by a National Science Foundation Research at
Undergraduate Institutions grant (#0916152).

Jessica Meeker
, Margaret Williams, and Zachary Klock

(mentored by Rebecca Lyczak) were
supported by a National Science Foundation Research at Undergraduate Institutions grant

Andrea Casuras, Cristina Kelly, and Jeffrey Landau

(mentored by
Codrina Popescu
) we
re supported
by a National Science Foundation Research at Undergraduate Institutions grant (#

Michael Agiorgousis and Samantha Wildonger

(mentored by Lew Riley) were supported by a National
Science Foundation Research at Undergraduate Institutions

grant (#0969002).

Seth Aaronson, Cassandra Chapman, Emily Dougherty, Michael Dunlea, Marie Meyer, Neal Shukla,
and Clinton Watton

(mentored by Akshaye Dhawan, April Kontostathis,
Nick Scoville,
Mohammad Yahdi) were supported by a National Science Foun
dation Research Experience

Undergraduates grant (#

David Porbunderwala, Robert Stuke, and Christopher Yanucil

(mentored by Dale Cameron) were
supported in part by a
Research Corporation for Science Advancement grant.

Emily Arndt

(mentored by
Gregory M. Weight
) was supported as a Teagle Diversity Fellow by

Teagle Foundation Collaborative Effort in

Driven Value
Added Assessment

of Student
Learning grant.

Greg Martell

(mentored by
Eric Gaus
was supported as a Whitman Summer Fellow by G
and Sally Whitman.

The students and faculty who participated in the Summer Fellows program

are grateful to all who have contributed to support student research over the past year:

Svetlana Agayeva, p'11

Michael E. Antonio '97

Beth A. Bailey

hn F. Bauman '60

Andrey F. Bilko '10

Christine Kenny Block '99

Myers Squibb

Barbara A. Castanzo, p'14

Hugh R. Clark

Reed A. Coats '91

Stephanie Restine
DerOhannessian '00

Rick G. DiFeliciantonio

Eden Charitable Foundation

Robert W. Fishe
r '76

Paul M. Forlano '94

Alexander J. Frey '07

Patrick J. Gasda '07

Phillip E. Gladfelter

Erin Golembewski

Thomas H. Graham '75

Alfred W. Gramp '68

Denise A. Grenier

Carolyn M. Gretzinger '85

Ray Hamilton '57

F. Phyllis Hepfner

James E. Klaunig


Marissa L. Kletsko '06

April C. Kontostathis

Alicia Darby Krauss '96

Peter A. Kreisky

Craig J. Kubicek '09

Judith T. Levy

Robert Levy

Sharon A. Long '94

Andrea E. Martin '75

Anthony C. Mastoris, p'09

Margaret L. Mastoris, p'09

Moira E. McGrath '10

cia Morgans Snowden '02

Craig A. Overpeck '94

PACCAR Foundation

Joseph Paesani '81

Catherine V. Palchak '09

Raymond R. Ritting '68

Rachel L. Sargent '94

Elise N. Sassone '10

Scott C. Savett '94

Kelly Knapp Schmidt '00

Brian E. Schultz '06

Courtney Root Sch
ultz '06

Salvatore M. Serra '51, p"75

Donald T. Simmons '65

Linda Rogers Simmons '66

Daniel M. Simon '97

State Farm Companies

Pamela M. Visintin '00

Frank A. Wood, Jr. '41, p'71,

Nancy L. Landis Wood '43,
p'71, '80


Welcome to all studen
ts, faculty, and invited guests who gather today for the 201

Fellows Research Symposium! This annual event gives us the opportunity to recognize and
celebrate our students‘ outstanding achievements. The student participants, called Summer
will present the results of their individual research conducted this summer in collaboration
with their faculty mentors. The breadth and depth of the student research described in this program
reflects the talent, dedication, seriousness and hard work of U
rsinus students and their mentors.
Participation in the program is increasingly competitive; today‘s presenters developed, wrote, and
submitted research proposals and budgets that were reviewed and selected by an interdisciplinary
faculty panel to receive
funding, which includes a stipend, research expenses, and free campus
housing for the summer. In addition, Fellows and mentors also share weekly lunches, attend talks
by invited guests who describe their research, and enjoy a variety of social activities.
opportunity for students to live and work together as a community of scholars generates a valuable
collegial and stimulating atmosphere on campus.

Ursinus has a long tradition of fostering student
faculty collaborative research, an
exceptionally effect
ive pedagogy for undergraduates. When Pfahler Hall was designed in the late
1920s, the plans included research laboratories for each professor ―in which he serves as an
investigator and in which, under his direction, students are trained in the methods of
research.‖ Of
course, the research conducted by students of today differs considerably from the work of students
some eighty years ago: today, Ursinus students are not merely taught research methods, but
create work that is rigorous, relevant, and respecte
d, often leading to Honors projects, conference
presentations, and publications. The history of the program itself shows how important research is
to the college: from a program for ten students and their faculty mentors in 1996, the program has
grown this

year to include nearly

students and their faculty mentors from every discipline. That
growth has been sparked by support both internal and external

from the initial Howard Hughes
Medical Institute grants to funding from federal agencies, such as the Na
tional Science Foundation
and the National Institutes of Health, and industry (please find opposite a list of donors and alumni
who also generously support the program).

Because of their hard work and intellectual maturity, it comes as no surprise that Sum
Fellows have been recognized and rewarded for their accomplishments outside the college.
Graduate schools see in Summer Fellows engaged and well
prepared students ready for the
challenge of graduate research: recent Fellows have received full scholarsh
ips to graduate
programs at such first
class research universities as Harvard, Princeton, and Johns Hopkins. The
maturity, curiosity, and independence demonstrated by Summer Fellows have also merited further
support in the form of prestigious scholarships
and fellowships. Last summer,
Melissa Pankake studied Lancelot and will continue her studies in English literature at Princeton
University next year with the help of an American Graduate Fellowship; Jennifer Schrandt's
experience as a soph
omore working in Professor Lyczak's laboratory helped her receive a
prestigious Goldwater scholarship for her senior year

I look forward today to hearing from and reading work by the latest group of students to
carry on the tradition of high academic ach
ievement at Ursinus.

Vice President for Academic Affairs

Dean of the College


List of the 2011

Summer Fellows





























iel Gene








Benders, Rachel










Murray, Sylvia



































































































Gilmore, Allyson




Goldman, Ian


McNeil, Monay


Lindsay E.






Van Horn


Jeremiah, Omari




































Table of Contents


American Studies

It‘s All
Reality: Authenticity within the American Folk Tradition, from Blues to Hip


Chris Zinn (Mentor: Walter Greason)


Burnt Cork and Sad Songs: The Career of Bert W

Geoffrey Swann (Mentor:
Patricia Schroeder)


Anthropology and Sociology

The Acquisition and Use of English by Latin American Immigrants

Natalie DelBusso
(Mentor: Thomas



War on Terror, Assault on Activism: An Analysis of th
e Pennsylvania Eco


Lockard (Mentor: Jonathan Clark)


Fleshing it Out: Examining the Potential of Nakedness and Nudity as Protest Tactics


Mohler (Mentor: Jonathan Clark)


Applied Ethics

The Ethics of WikiLeaks


Adams (Mentor: Kelly Sorensen)


Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Comparison of retention using various organic phase compositions through a
Fluorinated Stationary Phase

Kevin Amiri (Mentor: Eric Williamsen)


Characterizing Basal Levels of B C
ell Surface Molecules and their Response to Culture
in a Murine Lupus Model

Christopher Doyle (Mentor: Rebecca Roberts)


Expression, purification, and analysis of the membrane glycoprotein thrombomodulin

Amy Schaefer (Mentor: Julia Koeppe)


ect of Thrombomodulin on the Complement System: Purification and Identification of
Complement Factor 3

Grace Soloff (Mentor: Julia Koeppe)



Determining the mechanism of resistance to selenium in a halophilic archaeon


Barringer (Mento
r: Anthony Lobo)


Determining a Time Frame for the Microglial Response to Spinal Cord Injury in
Regenerating Amphibians

Brenna Duffy
and Patrick Skelton
(Mentor: Ellen Dawley)



Effect of plant diversity on an herbivore and its host plant


and Nate

(Mentor: Cory Straub)


Differential Calcium Uptake and Sarcomere Shortening in Pregnancy Induced
Hypertrophy: Understanding Peripartum Cardiomyopathy

Kaitlyn Kennard and
Lianna Foster
Bey (Mentor: Beth Bailey)


ing the role of the centrosome in establishing the Anterior
Posterior axis in


Klock (Mentor: Rebecca Lyczak)


Establishment of the anterior
posterior axis in the single
cell embryo and suppression

embryonic lethality in
habditis elegans

Jessica Meeker (Mentor:
Rebecca Lyczak)


Effect of Ubiquitin
Proteasome System Inhibition on Yeast Prion Phenotypes

Porbunderwala (Mentor: Dale Cameron)


The Role of the Centrosome and PAM
1 in the Development of the Ante
axis in the
Caenorhabditis elegans
One Cell Embryo

Margaret Williams (Mentor:
Rebecca Lyczak)


Prions in
Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

and the Effect of Mutations of the Nuclear Pore
and Export Machinery

Christopher Yanucil

Robert St

(Mentor: Dale


Business and Economics

Keystone Opportunity Zones (KOZ) and The Factors that Explain Underutilization

Greg Martell (Mentor: Eric Gaus)


Changing Atmospheres, Changing Benefits?

An Analysis of Human Capital Outcomes
of Post
Secondary Education Overtime

Sam Rinde (Mentor: Jennifer VanGilder)


Web Marketing: Strategies to Increase Awareness of F Your Life and Chat Coder

Kiley Stauffer (Mentor:
Carol Cirka and
April Kontostathis)



c Chemistry

Mössbauer Studies of Model Compounds Illustrating
States of the [Fe
Fe] Hydrogenase Enzymes

Andrea Casuras (Mentor: Codrina


Attachment of Acyclovir to Carbon Nanotubes using a Cysteine Bond

Chorney (Mentor: Mark Ell


iron Proteins: Formation of a rubrerythrin (Rbr) replica protein from a DFsc model

Sabrina Cimerol (Mentor: Amanda Reig)


Spectroscopic Studies of the Active Site of the Enzyme Dehaloperoxidase from
Amphitrite Ornata


Kelly (Mentor: Codrina Popescu)



Spectroscopic Studies of Dehaloperoxidase

Jeffrey Landau (Mentor: Codrina



An Awfully Grave Occupation: A New Historicist Approach to Edgar A. Poe‘s ―The
Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar‖



English and Education

Reshaping Perceptions of the ―Other‖: An Exploration of Human Disabilities, Graphic

English and Moder
n Languages

À la recherche de la belle fidèle: Translation Theory and
The Second Sex
Rolleston (Mentor: Meredith Goldsmith)


Environmental Studies

Harvesting in Haddington: An Oral History of Environmental Changes in West

hakiya Canty (Mentor: Patrick Hurley)


Defining the Southern Sea Otter Recovery Problem

Regan Dohm (Mentor: Richard


Exurban Developmen
t in Southeastern Pennsylvania

Max Lehner (Mentor: Patrick


Exercise and Sport Science

Men‘s vs. Women‘s Coaching Behaviors in Female Sports


God‘s Cartography: Religious Morality and Mercantile Forces in Medieval Islamic Maps



The Investiture Controversy: Desire for Unity as a Cause of Conflict

Schmalhofer (Mentor: Susanna Throop)


tics and Computer Science

Discrete Morse Functions on Graphs

Seth Aaronson
, Marie Meyer, Mitchell Smith,
and Laura Stibich

(Mentor: Nick Scoville)


Deterministic and Age
Structured Mathematical Models in Predator
Insect Herbivore
Host Plant interac
Allison Bugenis
and Karissa Smith
(Mentor: Mohammed


SafeChat: Detecting instances of Internet predation in the home

Dan Devlin (Mentor:
April Kontostathis)


Optimal Control Theory for a VRE Model

Emily Dougherty
, Michael Dunlea
, and
Clinton Watton
(Mentor: Mohammed Yahdi)


Applying Latent Semantic Indexing to the TREC 2011 Dataset

by And

(Mentor: April Kontostathis)


Using Machine Learning to Detect Cyberbullying

Kelly Reynolds (Mentor: April


Fault Tolerant Clustering in Wireless Sensor Networks

Neal Shukla
Chapman (Mentor: Akshaye Dhawan)


Building a 3
D game in multiple environments

Sam Snodgrass (Mentor: April


Media and Communication Studies


Resisters: The Youth's Approach to New Communication Technology Usage

Elizabeth Burns (Mentor: Louise Woodstock)


bullying a
nd Moral Panics

Elizabeth Chamberlain (Mentor: Lynne Edwards)


Modern Languages

Trauma and Hope in Recent Arge
ntine Cinema:
Los pasos perdidos

(2001) and


Cara DiNicola (Mentor: Juan Ramón de Arana)


Santeria: From Criminality to Cubanidad

Erin Doby (Mentor: Theresa Ko)


Second Language Acquisition in the Brain: How and Where a Language i
s Learned

Kirsten King (Mentor: Robin Clouser)


Evangelism in New Guinea: A Translation
ith Commentary of Johann Flierl's
Gedenkblatt der Neuendettelsauer Heidenmission in Queensland und Neu

Ethan Kuhn (Mentor: Robin Clouser)




armina Burana: A Conductor‘s Study and Analysis


Examination of Correlations between Memory Processing and concept formation using
the DRM Paradigm and Novel Language Acquisition

Elisabeth Clarke (M
entor: Joel


Pharmacological Action of Brainstem Medullary Depressants

Michael Duffield
(Mentor: James Sidie)


The Effects of Prenatal Ethanol Exposure on Cerebral Cortical Development

Christopher Howard (Mentor: Carlita Favero)


ts of prenatal ethanol exposure on axon tract development between the thalamus
and cortex

Jennilyn Weber (Mentor: Carlita Favero)


Relationship between Knowledge and Perceptions of Individuals with Schizophrenia

Juliann Weidenmoyer (Mentor: Joel B


Philosophy and Religious Studies

All in the Family: Understanding Filial Piety as Debt, Duty, or Desire

Levandoski (Mentor: Kelly Sorensen)


Finding Subject in Object: Perceptual Anti
Individualism and the Nature of Perspective

ex Niedmann (Mentor: Roger Florka)


Hallucination and the Veil of Perception

Ross Whitehurst (Mentor: Roger Florka)



Optimization Code for Submitting Simulation Jobs to the Ursinus College Cluster

Michael Agiorgousis (Mentor: Lewis Ri


Oscillations in Dipole
Dipole Transitions from Nearly
Degenerate Rydberg States by
Alex Mellus (Mentor: Thomas Carroll)


Optimization and Characterization of a Magneto
Optical Trap

Scott Paine (Mentor:
Thomas Carroll)


Experiment Planning

Using Simulated Data

Samantha Wildonger (Mentor: Lewis



Politics and International Relations

One Size Does Not Fit All: Democracy Promotion in Kyrgyzstan, Venezuela, and

Eva Bramesco (Mentor: Joseph Melrose)


War and Stat
e Formation in Post
Colonial Africa

Elliott Covert (Mentor: Rebecca


Devils: Comparing and Contrasting Prominent Female Nazi War Criminals with
Female Soldiers at Abu Ghraib
Emily Koppenhofer (Mentor: Rebecca Evans)


Day Slave
ry in the Home of the Free and the Brave: Human Trafficking of
Audra Lins (Mentor: Joseph Melrose)


The Arab Spring: What has happened, Why and Where is it going?

Jason Mullins
(Mentor: Joseph Melrose)


Politics and Nature in the heart

of Dante‘s

Joshua Stricoff (Mentor: Paul



The Effects of Commercial Media Literacy Education on Body Satisfaction and Media
Internalization in Young Adolescent Girls and Boys

Molly Blew (Mentor: Kneia


agic Mumfry to Taylor the Explorer: How providing misinformation lead to the quest
for accuracy


and Elizabeth Van Horn

(Mentor: Gabrielle


Theater and Dance

The Healing Power and Presence of Dance Movement Therapy
Ashley (Mentor: Cathy Young)


A New Extreme Formalism in Modern Dance: A Method and Program for
Computerizing the Choreographic Process

Annabel Clarance (Mentor: Cathy


Teagle Diversity Scholars

Safe Spaces: Undergraduate Res
ources for LGBTQ Students

Emily Arndt (
Mentor: Gregory M. Weight)


Washington College‘s Recruitment of Minority Students by Rachel Benders

Diversity at W&J: The Story of Charles ―Pruner
‖ West by Allyson Gilmore (Washington


Study of Media as a Catalyst for Diversity by
Ian Goldman and Monay Threats
(McDaniel College;
Mentor: Robert J. Trader)


Diversity within Goucher's
ircles by Omari Jeremiah (Goucher College;
Mentor: Janet Shope)


Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality in Course Offerings at Goucher College by Sylvia
Murray (Goucher College; Mentor: Seble Dewit)



Chris Zinn

It’s All a
bout Reality:


within the American Folk Tradition, from Blues to Hip

American Studies

Mentor: Walter Greason

Nearly every American musical genre is connected by the traditions and aesthetics of folk
music. This aesthetic is the key to music‘s continued evolution,
expanding what are socially
perceived as valid forms of artistic expression. It accomplishes this through an unwaveringly
populist sentiment, working to create a strong atmosphere of inclusivity. That feeling of community
is crafted through a focus on the
authenticity of the musical artists; this authenticity allows the artist
to voice the concerns of oppressed or voiceless people, eventually leading to the establishment of
regional folk communities. The folk aesthetic is hardly without flaw; this focus on
authenticity is far
reaching enough to lead to the loss of performers‘ credibility or, in some cases, their lives. I plan to
explore this aesthetic focus on authenticity through four musical genres closely associated with it:
the blues, Southern soul, post
punk, and hip
hop. Audiences continually find resonance within the
authenticity found in Robert Johnson‘s ethereal Delta blues, the minimalist funk of James Brown,
the Minutemen‘s synthesis of white and black music, and the integrated sampling which marks

hop genre. Why do these play as authentic to popular audiences? How did these artists work to
counteract the increasing racial divide within popular music? I am working to discover, through
these four genres and some of their most notable artists,

the greater importance of the folk
tradition‘s obsession with authenticity. It should ultimately become clear that the focus on
authenticity is the antithesis to segregation within American music.

Geoffrey Swann

Burnt Cork and Sad Songs: The Career of Be
rt Williams

American Studies

Mentor: Patricia Schroeder

Bert Williams was once the top
paid African American performer in the world. He was the
first recorded African American star in both music and film, and he even performed for the King of
England, tea
ching him how to cakewalk. Now, however, he holds no place in popular culture, and
is studied by academics for his controversial use of blackface in his comedy. Through my research
into his life, as well as the scholarship surrounding his works, I see Will
iams as a man who sought
to change the discourse of race in America, but could not fully succeed. My paper will present Bert
Williams in an uncommon light: acknowledging his failures as well as his successes. By analyzing
biographies both recent and contem
porary to his life, as well as the wealth of analysis of his work
in the last ten years, I have found many scholars moved to defend Williams‘s plays and comedy as
subversive and progressive despite the use of blackface which modern audiences see as offensi
While I agree that his aim was to subvert common minstrel stereotypes, his work used an iconic
sign too familiar to white audiences of the time: the bumbling Jonah
style ―coon‖, which also
garnered mixed opinions from African American audiences. This i
s not to say he didn‘t have
successes, such as making Broadway shows by and for African Americans, but we must modify
our analysis of his work to make clear his failures. Through this research, we can come to a more
nuanced understanding of the way William
s wished to portray himself, how he was actually
perceived by audiences both white and black, and how we respond to him now.


Natalie DelBusso

The Acquisition and Use of English by Latin American Immigrants

Anthropology and Sociology

Mentor: Thomas Gallag

The past few decades have seen an increase in the number of native Spanish
immigrants from Latin American countries. Many of these immigrants have limited proficiency in
English before immigration and try to learn the language in the U.S. Tho
ugh individuals differ in the
degree to which they require English skills to function effectively in society, lack of any abilities in
the language forms a significant barrier to economic and social success. Many immigrants learn in
an informal setting, th
rough interactions with native English speakers, but others seek out formal
instruction, which for adults is usually in the form of classes in English as a second language at
venues such as community centers or literacy programs. These classes often strugg
le to meet the
needs of a diverse group of learners, from those with limited literacy in their native language to
those holding advanced degrees. Further, patterns of language use affect acquisition, with greater
use usually facilitating learning. In this

the large numbers of native Spanish speakers in the
United States make it easier for Latino immigrants to avoid English than for other, smaller
language groups. Using both interviews with adult immigrants learning English either formally or

as well as research in second language acquisition, English as a second language, and
language use of minority
language speakers, this study explores the accessibility of English to
immigrants, as well as how social factors interact with acquisition of pr
oficiency in English.

Ann Lockard

War on Terror, Assault on Activism: An Analysis of the Pennsylvania Eco
Terrorism Law

Anthropology and Sociology

Mentor: Jonathan Clark

e Pennsylvania eco
terrorism law

(HB 213)
, passed in 2006,

states that any person

commits an offense against property with the intent to intimidate, coerce, prevent or obstruct
anyone lawfully using an animal, animal facility, natural resource, or natural resource facility is
guilty of eco
terrorism. The bill covers offenses from a
rson and vandalism to graffiti and

In a close analysis of
the legislative history,
several troubling trends were noticed

particularly in regards to the use of the words "terrorism" and "violence."
While there has been
blatantly terroristic a
ctivity by environmental groups (i.e. arson), actions like these were not the
focus. Witnesses were most concerned with misdemeanors, summary offenses, and even legal
activity. Repeatedly, activism was equated with terrorism,
protests were

opposition to lawful animal and environmental use was viewed as unnecessary,

it was
assumed that anyone engaged in unlawful activism of any kind was
a terrorist. These attitudes
se important questions regarding

the power of the label

‖, the definition of violence, the
capacity for reform without confrontation, and
use of

civil disobedience in the environmental
and animal rights movements
. When these issues are considered, the implications of the law are
that activists are

demonized, violence is trivialized, lawful activity is not questioned, and civil
disobedience is rejected. The overall effect could be a weakening of democracy and the stifling of


Sara Mohler

Fleshing it Out: Examining the Potential of Nakednes
s and Nudity as Protest Tactics

Anthropology and Sociology

Mentor: Jonathan Clark

People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) has become the household name for
animal activism. Its notoriety has not been without criticism, however, as many of PETA
‘s ads have
come under fire for their sexually suggestive content. Objections to the ads include concerns about
the objectification of women, double standards within portrayals of gender and sexuality, and an
apparent ignorance of the interconnectedness of

feminist and animal rights issues. Despite these
criticisms, some scholars look at the ads more favorably, comparing PETA to other organizations
that employ nakedness as a means of protest. However, these comparisons ignore the
complexities of body activi
sm, particularly the distinction between nakedness and nudity.


Ways of Seeing
, John Berger writes,

To be naked is to be oneself. To be nude is to be
seen naked by others and yet not recognized for oneself. A naked body has to be seen as an
object in
order to become a nude." Essentially, while

describes a neutral lack of

denotes a certain fantasy and sexuality, turning a body into a sexualized object to
be consumed by a spectator. Using the case of PETA, I examine the potenti
al of nakedness and
nudity as protest tactics. What constitutes valid body activism? How is nakedness different from
nudity in the context of protest? Are acts of naked and nude protest mere spectacle, or can they
convey a message of vulnerability that is
impossible to communicate through other means of
protest? I argue that despite the potential of naked and nude activism, PETA‘s particular utilization
of nudity generates barriers for women‘s rights and liberation, which ultimately damages their
y in the struggle for animal rights.

Lindsay Adams

The Ethics of WikiLeaks

Applied Ethics

Mentor: Kelly Sorensen

WikiLeaks, an anti
secrecy website, holds the aim of government and institutional
transparency, with the belief that transparency leads to a
better society overall. The website acts
as a safe haven for whistleblowers or individuals who see injustice within their government,
wanting to expose information and make sure it is seen. In an effort to provide transparency within
the United States, Wik
iLeaks released the Collateral Murder Video, Iraq War Logs, Afghan War
Diaries, and United States Diplomatic Cables, exposing information from close to 250,000 United
States classified documents.
The publication of
those materials

is creating

much controve
rsy in the
United States, forcing the nation to question
how much transparency is needed within a
government where there is an obligation to keep individuals informed as well as a government
obligation to protect those individuals.

My paper argues that cu
rrently within a democratic society, WikiLeaks is a necessary tool
for keeping the public informed. As journalism serves as the fourth branch in terms of checks and
balances in the government of a democratic society, WikiLeaks serves as the fifth branch,
roviding the public with information the press cannot. The sheer amount of confidential
documents not accessible to the press and obscured objectivity limits the press‘ ability to inform,
and forces us to question how much information is needed in an open
society such as the United
States democracy. Where, in order to be effective, free speech and freedom of the press is
imperative, allowing individuals within the democratic society to make informed decisions.


Kevin Amiri

Comparison of retention using var
ious organic phase compositions through a Fluorinated
Stationary Phase

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Mentor: Eric Williamsen

Chromatography is a type of chemical separation technique in which a mixture is
transported in a mobile phase past a stationa
ry phase. Separation occurs when parts of the
mixture interact with the stationary phase for different amounts of time. This can be very useful for
isolating compounds because they are mostly found as mixtures whether found in nature or
synthesized in a la
b. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) is a separation technique
that separates compounds based on the difference in their physical properties. This technique is
widely used in pharmaceuticals, chemistry, biochemistry and other related fields. De
spite the
widespread use of HPLC, the underlying mechanisms of retention governed by various
intermolecular physical interactions are not yet well understood. Having a molecular level
understanding of the retention process will allow for the development of

more efficient methods
and the separation of new mixtures. Traditionally HPLC stationary phases


of carbon
and hydrogen
. In this current work the interactions

between analytes and a

particular fluorinated
stationary phase, a fluorophenyl phase

in which hydrogen on the aromatic ring is replaced with
fluorine atoms, was studied
There is a great interest in fluorinated stationary phases due to their
unique properties

including their overall non
polar character with highly polar C

F bonds

tention times of
43 analytes with various functional groups were studied through various mobile
phase compositions combinations of methanol or acetonitrile with water. The retention times were
measured from 5.0

65.0 °C in 5.0 °C increments. Using a van‘t
Hoff analysis, the thermodynamic
characteristics governing retention were determined. It was determined that when using methanol
as organic modifier, retention was governed more by entropy than enthalpy. In the future
comparisons between the results of ace
tonitrile as an organic modifier to methanol will be shown.

Christopher Doyle

Characterizing Basal Levels of B Cell Surface Molecules and their Response to Culture in a
Murine Lupus Model

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Mentor: Rebecca Roberts

ic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that predominantly affects
women, particularly during times in which body estrogen is elevated. SLE has a wide variety of
symptoms, but common to all lupus patients is an overactive immune system that p
autoantibodies. These rogue antibodies attack a patient‘s body and are responsible for many of the
symptoms, including butterfly rash and organ failure. Due to the fact that nine out of ten lupus
patients are female, and the correlation between per
iods of raised estrogen levels and the onset of
the disease, there may be a link between this hormone and the disease. In addition, bisphenol A
(BPA), a chemical used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, is an

and c
an bind to cellular estrogen receptors. This suggests that BPA may have a
similar, previously unfounded connection with SLE. This study characterizes the repertoire of cell
surface molecules on B lymphocytes. These cells are responsible for the production

autoantibodies and depend on cell surface molecules for requisite interactions with other immune
cells. B cell surface molecule expression was monitored by fluorescence activated cell scanning.
Levels of these molecules were analyzed of these molecule
s as they exist naturally in control and
prone mice, in response to culture with the mitogen lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and in
response to culture with estrogen and BPA.


Amy Schaefer

Expression, purification, and analysis of the membrane glycoprot
ein thrombomodulin

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Mentor: Julia Koeppe

protein interactions are extremely important interactions in the body responsible for
many necessary biological functions. This study aims to specifically look at the inter
between the lectin
like domain of thrombomodulin (TM) and complement components C3 and C3b.
To understand the relationship, each protein first needs to be studied individually. The lectin
domain of TM must be expressed in yeast before it can b
e purified and analyzed, and the
complement components C3 and C3b must be extracted from plasma and activated. Attempts to
clone the lectin
like domain of TM in yeast are ongoing. Complement component C3 has been
isolated from plasma, activated to C3b, a
nd both proteins have been purified using Fast Protein
Liquid Chromatography (FPLC). After purification, both proteins were subjected to pepsin
digestion, and the resulting peptides were analyzed by mass spectrometry. The peptide analysis
will aid future

work in which hydrogen/deuterium exchange and mass spectrometry are used to
investigate the interaction between the complement components and the lectin
like domain of TM

Grace Soloff

Effect of Thrombomodulin on the Complement System: Purification and I
dentification of
Complement Factor 3

Biochemistry and Molecular Biology

Mentor: Julia Koeppe


goal of this project was to isolate complement factor 3 (C3) protein in order to study its
interaction with thrombomodulin (TM). Complement factor 3 is a com
ponent of the inflammatory
response. It is converted into its active form, C3b, by the attachment of lectin or lectin
like domain.
This activation may be regulated by an interaction of C3 with TM. TM is a protein usually
associated with regulation of the b
lood clotting mechanism. Because TM contains a lectin
domain, we it may also be regulating C3. This research may suggest an association between the
blood clotting and inflammation mechanisms.

C3 has been successfully purified from blood serum using
an ion exchange column. The
isolated protein was activated to C3b using trypsin in order to characterize the active protein in the
absence of TM. A pepsin digest was performed to identify the fragments of C3 and C3b that will be
analyzed in future studies
of C3 with TM. The resulting peptides were analyzed using mass

Multiple attempts have been to produce the lectin
like domain of TM. This domain will be
expressed in the yeast
pastoris. Attempts to ligate the TM gene with a yeast expres
vector (pPic9K) are ongoing. Once the vector has been successfully ligated and amplified using
, the vector will be transformed into yeast to allow for the expression of TM. TM will be purified
and its interaction with C3 will then be studied.


Ned Barringer

Determining the mechanism of resistance to selenium in a halophilic archaeon


Mentor: Anthony Lobo

Extreme halophiles are organisms that grow optimally at 20%
30% salinity. These
organisms live in evaporation pools, brines and salt w
ater springs that also frequently contain
concentrated toxic selenium compounds. As a result, many of these organisms have mechanisms
that allow them to tolerate high quantities of these harmful compounds. This project focuses on
determining the mechanism
of resistance to sodium selenate in a strain of the halophilic archaeon
Haloferax mediterranei
. The strain was selected by repeated exposure of
H. mediterranei

increasing sodium selenate concentrations. The resultant strain was streaked onto sodium
enate 1176 medium for isolation. Minimum inhibitory concentration of selenate for the wild type
was 0.5 M and the resistant strain was show to have a minimum inhibitory concentration greater
than 0.5 M. Resistance was determined to be unrelated to nitrate

reduction or peroxide resistance.
No hydrogen selenide was detected using ferrous ion, barring a detoxification

mechanism that
produced volatile gas. Further, in all resistant cultures a red precipitate was observed under DIC
microscopy. This precipitate
appears to be the red allotrope of elemental selenium, suggesting
some selenate

reduction pathway for detoxification. In a related study, hypersaline

columns were made to analyze extreme halophiles in a setting that models their natural
ment. Winogradsky columns contained sediment and sea water from Cape May, NJ, Miami,
FL, and Woods Hole, MA to assemble a representation of hypersaline aquatic ecosystems.

Brenna Duffy and Patrick Skelton

Determining a Time Frame for the Microglial Respo
nse to Spinal Cord Injury in
Regenerating Amphibians


Mentor: Ellen Dawley

Microglia are the resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS). Depending on
the state of the CNS, microglia can take on a diverse set of morphologies. In the
normal adult CNS,
microglia have a stationary cell body from which many motile processes project; these processes
sample and regulate the cellular environment. Microglia activate in response to injury by adopting
an amoeboid shape and migrating toward the
site of injury, where they phagocytose debris from
dead cells. This response has been largely studied as part of the inflammatory response in
mammals, and is likely a significant factor in allowing regeneration. As adults, urodele amphibians
are capable o
f regenerating limbs and tails; thus, they are a valuable model organism for
regeneration. Prior studies in our lab have established a time frame for the microglial response to
tail amputation in newts (
Notophthalmus viridescens
) and salamanders (

). We
extended this research to another common non
urodele model organism, the frog
Xenopus laevis
which can regenerate their spinal cords and limb buds during most of their larval development.
Thus, we focused on

tadpoles of stages 48
50. We amp
utated the end of the tadpoles‘ tails and
allowed them to recover from 0.5 to 2 hours or 2 or 4 days. We then examined the regenerating
tails for the presence and morphology of microglia, using tomato (
Lycopersicon esculentum
) lectin
as a specific label fo
r immunofluorescence staining. The results will provide a time frame for the
microglial response in this species to be compared with the timing of response in other species.


Mark Gapinski and Nate Simasek

Effect of plant diversity on an herbivore and its
host plant


Mentor: Cory Straub

lfa is an

important forage crop used to feed cattle

Potato leafhoppers (PLH) are the
main pest associated with alfalfa and are known to degrade crop

To combat the PLH,
any farmers
t are expensive and damage

the environment
. One proposed
alternative to pesticides is to increase plant diversity within the crop field. Increasing plant diversity
can directly reduce herbivorous pests by reducing their ability locate and remain on host pl
ants. It
can also reduce pests indirectly by enhancing the performance of their natural enemies. In alfalfa
the damsel bug (
) is a major predator of the PLH.

We measured the abundance of PLH and

in two planting strategies, monocultures of alfalf
a, and polycultures of alfalfa mixed with
other vegetation.

In a field experiment we

twelve 8x10 meter

plots consisting of

six monocultures and
six polycultures

at North Star Farm

To analyze
how planting treatments affected the abundance
of PLH

we collected insect samples from each plot on a weekly basis

PLH density and
damage to alfalfa was significantly higher in monoculture than in polyculture. The ratio of

PLH was greater in polyculture than in monoculture. We are plannin
g small scale experiments to
examine how the monoculture and polyculture treatments affect PLH emigration, and

foraging efficiency.

Kaitlyn Kennard and Lianna Foster

Differential Calcium Uptake and Sarcomere Shortening in Pregnancy Induced Hyp
Understanding Peripartum Cardiomyopathy


Mentor:Beth Bailey

Cardiac hypertrophy is the enlargement of the myocardium, the muscle of the heart.
Hypertrophy is classically designated as physiological or pathological. Physiological hypertr
occurs when the heart adapts to an increased volume and pressure load via endurance training.
During physiological hypertrophy the left ventricular diameter and wall thickness increases, and the
heart muscle strengthens (more forceful contractions).
Conversely, pathological hypertrophy is
caused by hypertension or valvular stenosis resulting in a thickening of the ventricular wall,
reduction of chamber volume and a weakening of the muscle which, if left untreated, can lead to
heart failure. Our proje
ct explores a potentially unique category of hypertrophy, pregnancy
induced hypertrophy. This is an under
studied form of hypertrophy which has some characteristics
of both physiological and pathological hypertrophy. In a small percentage of women, peripar
cardiomyopathy develops in which the heart fails to return to the non
hypertrophic state following
delivery, the heart muscle weakens, and congestive heart failure ensues. Previous studies from
our lab investigated the structural changes that occur dur
ing pregnancy; this study will begin to
elucidate the functional changes the heart undergoes during pregnancy. Using a murine model of
induced hypertrophy, we are studying individual muscle cells to determine if the heart
muscle undergoes any cha
nges in its contractile properties during the hypertrophic process. The
results from this study will help us better understand the unique properties of the heart during
pregnancy and may lend insights into the development of the pathological hypertrophy o
peripartum cardiomyopathy.


Zac Klock

Investigating the role of the centrosome

in establishing the Anterior
Posterior axis in
C. elegans


Mentor: Rebecca Lyczak

The establishment of the Anterior
Posterior (AP) axis in the embryo
is a key
developmental process.

In the nematode
Caenorhabditis elegans
, polarity is established in the
one cell embryo when the sperm donated centrosome contacts the posterior cortex; however, the
timing and mechanism of this contact is still unknown.

1 is necessary for establishing this
contact and thus establishing polarity, although the regulators and targets of this gene are still

By performing a suppressor screen, we can identify strains that rescue the embryonic
lethality of the
mutants and thus identify targets and regulators of

that can be studied
to further understand the mechanism of the centrosome
cortex interaction.

We have identified
one suppressor strain that increases the hatching rate from 1% to 70%.

We will als
o use
and wild type strains in order to understand the timing mechanism behind the centrosome
cortex contact and conditions necessary for proper polarization.

12 is necessary for
maintaining contact between the centrosome and nucleus and

mutants, the centrosome
moves freely through the cell, although polarity is still hypothesized to be established.

observe a decreased contact time in

when compared to wild type, with
being the most reduced as well as
a much earlier contact in the cell cycle in

Thus, the
defect in polarity observed in
may be due to a decreased duration of contact or an earlier
contact time, providing insight into the timing mechanism required for proper polarity establishm

Jessica Meeker

Establishment of the anterior
posterior axis in the single
cell embryo and suppression of

embryonic lethality in
Caenorhabditis elegans


Mentor: Rebecca Lyczak

Establishment of the anterior
posterior (AP) axis occurs in
the one

embryo. Necessary for cell polarization is the contact of the sperm donated centrosome
with the posterior cortex. While little is known about the mechanistic details of this contact, it has
been shown that presence of
1, a puromycin
sensitive aminopeptidase, is required for
centrosome positioning during polarization. While it is known that PAM
1 is necessary for
polarization of the one
C. elegans

embryo, its targets are relatively unknown in any system.
fore, to learn more about the targets and regulators of PAM
1 and to identify additional
proteins vital to centrosome positioning, a genetic suppressor screen was utilized. Suppressor
mutations can be target proteins or also located in negative regulators

of a gene. Therefore, it
would follow that suppression would allow increased abundance of PAM
1, theoretically towards
type levels, or changes in downstream target levels. Thus, suppressor mutations were
expected to increase hatching rates above the

1% that is seen in

mutants. Indeed, we have
identified two suppressors,

, resulting in embryonic hatching rates of 87% and 73%,
respectively. Additionally, time
lapse images of the

suppressor, taken with Differential Image
(DIC) microscopy, have shown complete rescue of polarity and significant decreases in
the abnormal phenotypes associated with

embryos, including weak/absent pseudocleavage
and abnormal cytokinetic activity (blebbing).

characterization of the

suppressor mutations,
including mapping, will begin to allow us to accumulate further information regarding PAM
1 targets
and regulators necessary in the mechanism of centrosome contact with the cortex, resulting in AP
axis establishment.


David Porbund

Effect of Ubiquitin
Proteasome System Inhibition on Yeast Prion Phenotypes


Mentor: Dale Cameron

Prions are infectious agents that are the cause of various neurodegenerative disorders in
mammals including Mad Cow Disease, Creutzfeld
Jakob Di
sease and Scrapie. Unlike other
commonly known infectious agents such as viruses or bacteria, prions are thought to be composed
exclusively of proteinaceous material. Prions are a specific subset of misfolded proteins that are
classified by their abilitie
s to aggregate within cells and to recruit other normally folded forms of a
protein into the same conformation. The model organism
Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

yeast) provides a convenient way of studying prions as it is known to have four naturally o
prions and many of its cellular processes are analogous to mammalian cells. The Ubiquitin
Proteasome System (UPS) is a eukaryotic quality
control system that normally degrades misfolded
and damaged proteins in order to maintain homeostatic conditi
ons. Several aspects of the UPS
have been implicated in modulation of prion phenotypes in
S. cerevisiae.

This research specifically
seeks to implicate the inhibition of the proteasome in modulating phenotypes associated with the
yeast prion [PSI+]. The pro
inhibiting drug MG132 was used to assess prion stability,
spontaneous prion formation and prion toxicity in conjunction with proteasome inhibition. These
results will contribute to the development of a model describing the role of the UPS in protec
the cell against the potentially toxic effects of prions.

Margaret Williams

The Role of the Centrosome and PAM
1 in the Development of the Anterior
Posterior axis in
Caenorhabditis elegans
One Cell Embryo


Mentor: Rebecca Lyczak

The first

cell division in
Caenorhabditis elegans
is polarized, resulting in a larger anterior
and smaller posterior cell. This polarized division is necessary for proper anterior
posterior body
axis establishment. The sperm
donated centrosome makes some cue for th
is polarization, but its
mechanism and timing are unknown. It is thought that the centrosome must make contact with the
posterior cortex for a minimum length of time and during a particular cell
cycle stage for proper
polarization to occur. To investigate
the timing and the duration

of the centrosome cont
act, two
worm strains

with different ce
ntrosome phenotypes were examined
. Using fluorescent tagging, the
s and the chromosomes

can be viewed simultaneously as the cell polarizes, allowing
us to co
mpare the centrosome‘s movements bet
ween wild
type and



In wild
embryos, the centrosomes make contact with the cortex for about four minutes during the early
pronuclear stage. We found that in


mutants, lacking a puromycin

the centrosom
e contacts the cortex prior to pronuclear appearance

and also makes contact for a
shorter duration. Polarization does not occur in

embryos, and these symmetric cell divisions
lead to high embryonic mortality
. These obser
vations reinforce that the centrosome is a necessary
cue for polarization and that in
this cue

is absent due to centrosome contact occuring

too early or for too short of a time.

addition, because little is known about the targets of
suppressor screening was

conducted through blanket mutagenization of a

strain. Strains
with po
tential suppressor mutations were

screened through comparing the rates of embryonic
Two strains that showed promising hatch rates were investigat
ed and outcrossed, and
one was found to show a significantly higher hatching rate, from 1% hatching in

mutants to
67% hatching.
In the future, we hope to map these mutations and identify targets and regulators of


Christopher Yanucil and Rober
t Stuke

Prions in
Saccharomyces Cerevisiae

and the Effect of Mutations of the Nucl
ar Pore and
Export Machinery


Mentor: Dale Cameron

A prion is an infectious agent composed of proteins that have become misfolded and can
no longer function properly
. Prions propagate by transforming a once stable, properly folded
protein into the misfolded prion conformation that is prone to aggregate into insoluble fibers.
Molecular chaperones are the cell‘s natural defense against protein misfoldings. Chaperones ca
either break up aggregates and assist in the refolding process or can deliver the proteins to the
proteasome to be degraded. However, prions are often able to evade these chaperones and can
persist, continuing to cause the misfolding of additional protei
ns, which in the case of mammalian
prion diseases can have a catastrophic result. In this study we are investigating a prion that is
present in a common form of yeast,
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
. This prion is known as [PSI+],
which is a misfolded form of t
he protein Sup35p that affects the efficiency of translation termination.
Preliminary data generated previously by Dr. Cameron suggests that the growth rate of cells that
are defective in the export of RNA from the nucleus is reduced by the [PSI+] prion; h
owever, the
mechanistic basis of this observation is not understood.

Therefore, we have developed a sensitive
and precise flow cytometery
based yeast growth
rate assay to quantitatively assess these prion
dependent fitness defects. The assay we developed a
llows us to accurately measure the cell
fitness consequences of various mutations in cells harboring prions. The results will implicate
specific cell processes in prion toxicity.

Greg Martell

ne Opportunity Zones (KOZ) and t
he Factors that Explain U

Business and Economics

Mentor: Eric Gaus

I will examine the many factors that explain the underutilization Keystone Opportunity
Zones (KOZ). I am going to approach this explanation by first observing the Southeast Region of
the twelve KOZ
regions. The Southeast Region has done relatively well compared to the rest of the
state in making use of the KOZs. Of the 3,238 KOZ acres available in the southeast region, roughly
thirty five percent has been developed. Determining the factors that influ
enced the Southeast
Region will give a better understanding of what the rest of the state is experiencing. I have spent
the summer researching different State Enterprise programs so I could get a better understanding
and have something to compare to the KO
Z program. Since there ha

been many deficiencies in
the KOZ program record keeping due to weaknesses in program structure, staffing, and definition.
Therefore I have been calling counties and organizing the data that has been gathered.


Sam Rinde

Atmospheres, Changing Benefits?

An Analysis of Human Capital Outcomes of Post
Secondary Education Overtime

Business and Economics

Mentor: Jennifer VanGilder

The atmosphere of higher education has seen many changes over the past several
decades. W
ith the addition of technology to the classroom as well as the additional attention
placed on active learning, the structure of the classroom and possibly skill sets that students
acquire may have undergone changes. Using the 1993 and 2003 waves of the Na
tional Survey of
College Graduates, I will analyze student outcomes using a cohort analysis framework.

I plan to
use econometric techniques to analyze outcomes for graduates in the 1993 wave by age groups
(e.g., 20
29, 30
39, 40
49, etc.), do the same typ
e of analysis for graduates in the 2003 wave by
age group (e.g. 20
29, 30
39, 40
49, 50
59, etc.), and then seek out differences between

While the students within these groups are clearly not the same people, the National Survey
of College Graduates

was designed to be ‗representative‘.

Thus, I will be able to make
comparisons (for example) between the 20
29 age group in 1993 and the 30
39 age group in 2003
to see how outcomes changed for the cohort over the decade. Additionally, I will seek out
fferences between the 1993, 20
29 age group and the 2003, 20
29 age group. These differences
could help answer the question of whether or not students are becoming more prepared for the
work force with these new educational techniques.

Kiley Stauffer


Marketing: Strategies to Increase Awareness of F Your Life and Chat Coder

Business and Economics

Mentors: Carol Cirka


April Kontostathis

Development of social media, instant messaging and online

provide millions of
users with opportunit
ies to network with others for social and professional reasons; however, these
technologies also give bullies and predators access to victims. Such online ciriminal behavior,
termed cyberharrassment presents challenges for law enforcement in part because
legislation has
not been passed that clearly defines the crime itself and the repercussions for participating in such
acts. Outside of the legislative arena, research that focuses on developing a program to detect
suspicious language may be of value in pu
tting an end or at least reducing cyberbullying.
F Your
Chat Coder
, two websites that can be used to collect data in the language used by
cyberbullies and predators, can begin to help us understand the language of cyberbullies and
predators; howe
ver, despite being fully functional for several months, no participants have
contributed to either website. Therefore, my Summer Fellows research goal is to analyze available
literature and apply the AIDA marketing model to develop recommendations for us
of web
marketing tools and techniques to increase awareness of and interest in the two sites and
ultimately result in unsolicitied postings. Initial results suggest that the most effective and efficient
techniques to market these two websites to their int
ended target markets include search engine
optimization, use of social networks, and viral marketing.


Andrea Casuras

Bioorganometallic Chemistry

Mössbauer Studies of Model Compounds Illustrating States
of the [Fe
Fe] Hydrogenase Enzymes


: Codrina Popescu

Iron hydrogenases

catalyze the reversible reaction for the production of molecular hydrogen

employing a dinuclear

spin 2Fe
This 2Fe subcluster has been the focus of
investigation, including the development of

model comple
xes, which mimic its

structure and certain

Spectroscopic evidence has been accumulating for the presence of Fe(I) in the active
site of the hydrogenase. Low
spin Fe(I) sites are not very well understood from spectroscopic and
theoretical points

of view, in part because they are difficult to isolate. Moreover during the catalytic
cycle, the dinuclear Fe(I)Fe(I) center goes through an elusive Fe(II)Fe(I) mixed valence state.
Since Fe(I) compounds are rare in the literature (to date, only one mon
onuclear low
spin Fe(I) has
been studied with MB spectroscopy), the presence of such a site in an enzyme has stimulated
intensive studies of Fe(I) derivatives. Our goal is to study models for the dinuclear subcluster in the
Fe(I)Fe(I) and Fe(II)Fe(I) state
s. Due to the highly reduced character of Fe(I), all our samples are
unstable and very reactive, which until now hampered our ability to obtain good spectra and
completely characterize pure samples.

We are presenting Mössbauer spectroscopic data for fou
r dinuclear derivatives illustrating
states of the active site of the [2Fe]
subcluster. Most significantly, we have characterized with
Mössbauer spectroscopy a mixed
valent Fe(II)Fe(I) model for the oxidized state, which has been
pursued for the past deca
de by many synthetic chemists and spectroscopists. Our results enable
us to reveal for the first time the magnetic hyperfine interactions of such a cluster.

Matthew Chorney

Attachment of Acyclovir and Tetracycline to Single
Walled Carbon Nanotubes


Mentor: Mark Ellison

Certain pharmaceutical drugs possess poor bioavailability, and when taken orally as a pill,
disperse throughout the body and decrease the drug‘s effectiveness in targeting infected cells.
Intravenous delivery of acyclovir allows

for a higher bioavailability, enabling the antiviral drug to
efficiently reach the target cells. Because of the unique structure that single
walled carbon
nanotubes posses, attachment of acyclovir to nanotubes would allow the nanotube
complex t
o penetrate through cell membranes non
invasively. Short, functionalized carbon
nanotubes reduce the risk of asbestos
related symptoms and are excreted from the body at faster
rates. Oxidized single
walled carbon nanotubes were reacted with protected boc
cysteine to
form cysteine
functionalized carbon nanotubes. Acyclovir, an antiviral drug used to target the
Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV), was reacted with boc
cysteine in order to create an amino
bond between the cysteine and acyclovir. The cystei
ne groups of both acyclovir and the carbon
nanotubes were reacted together to form a disulfide bond between the two cysteine amino acids;
linking together the nanotubes and acyclovir. Using FTIR
ATR spectroscopy, the disulfide bond
formation linking acycl
ovir and the carbon nanotubes was verified and analyzed. The reducing
agent, β
mercaptoethanol, which cleaves disulfide bonds, was also used to provide further
evidence of disulfide
bond linkage between the nanotubes and acyclovir. The fluorescent thiol
reactive probe iodoacetamide was used to quantify the amount of cysteine attached to carbon
nanotubes, which corresponds to the concentration of acyclovir attached to the nanotubes. Using
a plaque neutralization assay, the efficacy of the attached acyclov
ir was analyzed to determine the
effectiveness of the nanotube drug delivery. In related work, tetracycline, an antibiotic used to treat
acne as well as other illnesses, and folic acid were also attached to oxidized nanotubes to better
increase their bioa
vailability during intravenous delivery. We anticipate the results of this research

can be applied to other antiviral drugs, and improve the effectiveness of drug delivery for particular

Sabrina Cimerol

iron Proteins: Formation of a r
rerythrin (Rbr)

lica protein from a DFsc model p


Mentor: Amanda Reig

Metalloproteins and their associated Fe

ion cofactors, termed di
iron proteins, are known
to catalyze many reactions within a living cell. The function of the metal

cofactor in relation to the
protein and the chemical basis of the cofactor‘s ability to adhere to the active site are not yet fully
understood. Naturally occurring di
iron proteins are structurally comple
x; in order to study

aspects of
iron prote

we seek to create a model structure that is structurally simple but
complex enough

to exhibit the same environmental inter
actions as the natural protein

DFsc is a
monomeric de novo designed protein created to model a class of naturally occurring di
carboxylate enzymes which contain two histidine and four carboxylate residues in the active site
located at the center of a four helix bundle.

Rubrerythrin is a naturally occurring di
iron protein that exhibits peroxidase activity. The
active site of

rubrerythrin differs from the DFsc model protein by the presence of one extra
carboxylate residue.

We have inserted an additional carboxylate residue (either Glu or Asp) at
position 14 in the amino acid sequence of DFsc with the goal of altering the DFsc

protein from a
phenol oxidase to a peroxidase that can be used as a rubrerythin model. The proteins were
analyzed for composition and characterized for secondary structure, metal binding ability,
ferroxidase activity, and reactivity towards a series of s
mall aromatic substrates. Our results show
that both proteins bind to a variety of divalent metal ions (Co, Zn, and Mn), are well folded in the
absence and presence of metal ions at neutral pH, and exhibit an absorption feature near 350 nm
upon addition o
f Fe

characteristic of the activation of dioxygen.

Cristina Kelly

Spectroscopic Studies of the Active Site of the Enzyme Dehaloperoxidase from


Mentor: Codrina Popescu

Amphitrite ornata
, a marine worm found in estuary mudf
lats, cohabitates with
, a marine worm that secretes mono
, di
, and tribromophenols as well as mono

dibromovinyl phenols. These secreted chemicals are toxic and used as a defense mechanism for
the worm.
A. ornata

does not have its

own defense
mechanism and
instead secretes an enzyme
known as dehaloperoxidase (DHP) which detoxif

the halometabolites secreted by


cohabitants. DHP can oxidatively dehalogenate trihalophenols to yield dihaloquinones in the
presence of hydrogen per
oxide. Besides its detoxifying properties, DHP is also a globin serving as
a respiratory protein, just as myoglobin and hemoglobin serve in mammals. The dual function of
DHP is possible because the protein has a flexible tertiary structure in addition to

a heme iron
center. This structure creates a coordination sphere which allows tuning of the electron density at
the iron center. Our goal is to study the electronic properties of DHP‘s iron center through
Mössbauer and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance


spectroscopy and to compare its
characteristics with those of peroxidases.
Our Mössbauer studies revealed that the resting state of
the enzyme contains a high
spin ferric center which can adopt two different configurations
depending on the pH. Althou
gh the Mössbauer spectra for DHP are complex, they have shown
some similarities to Horseradish Peroxidase (HRP).


Jeffrey Landau

Spectroscopic Studies of Dehaloperoxidase


Mentor: Codrina Popescu

Dehaloperoxidase (DHP) is the oxygen transport p
rotein in the marine worm
. It also catalyzes the conversion of tri
iodophenol, which is secreted by
Notomastus lobatus

as a predator deterrant, to create a less toxic quinone. This dual function enzyme is unique among
globins. Previous
studies have demonstrated that DHP has a globin fold, which allows it to bind
and transport oxygen throughout the organism. At the same time, it has an active site pocket,
allowing binding of a large substrate. Using Mossbauer and Electron Paramagnetic R
(EPR) spectroscopy, we have studied the heme active site of DHP with the aim of making
comparisons to myoglobin and cytochrome P450, an oxygen transporter and oxygenase
respectively. We hypothesize that its dual function is possible because the h
eme site has a flexible
coordination environment, which in turn can tune the electron density at the iron as well as its
reducing ability. Mössbauer spectroscopy is an ideal technique to distinguish among different
oxidation and spin states of the heme si
te. As the first Mössbauer study we characterized the
three states of the heme active site formed during catalytic turnover. Preliminary analysis shows
that the resting state of the active site contains a high
spin ferric site, with MB properties
nt on pH. Thus far, the DHP heme center shows similarities with acidic myoglobin and

Daniel Gene Barlekamp

An Awfully Grave Occupation: A New Historicist Approach to Edgar A. Poe’s “The Facts in
the Case of M. Valdemar”


Mentor: Rebec
ca Jaroff

Western society witnessed several grotesque cultural reactions to the development of
medicine as a professional science in the late 18

and early 19

centuries. Among them are
increased anxieties over premature burial, dramatic growth in the

grave robbing and body
snatching trade, and the maturity of mesmerism into a legitimate field of study. Of course, popular
literature of the time reflects such phenomena.

This paper historicizes Poe‘s unforgettably ghastly tale of mesmerism and living
death, ―The
Facts in the Case of M. Valdemar‖ (1845). I begin with an in
depth examination of the bizarre
―scientific‖ articles that likely influenced Poe, and then proceed to contextualize his work amongst
similar contemporaneous fiction. Ultimately, I
account for the major cultural impact of ―Valdemar‖
by considering what it reveals about popular 19

century American mindsets. I intend to expand
this essay into a chapter of my Honors Thesis, which will be a larger project on the psychological
of Poe‘s Gothic fiction.


Sarah Schultz

Surviving Crime Fiction: The Women Who Would Not Disappear


Mentor: Meredith Goldsmith

Crime fiction, like much genre fiction, heavily depends upon conventions that can either
create a pleasant sense of fam
iliarity or a feeling of triteness. Lovers of the genre are quick to
point out that even within a genre, variations on the basic foundation can create masterful texts rich
in complexity. One variation exemplified by Dashiell Hammett, Raymond Chandler, Ja
mes M. Cain,
and Dorothy B. Hughes is the development of complex and realistic female characters. Crime
fiction is a particularly misogynistic genre, with women typically stereotyped as either femme fatale
criminals or brutally wronged victims of early 20

century American crime fiction. While the hard
boiled style made popular in early 20

century American crime fiction would seem especially
constraining to women, powerful exceptions to the norms exist. In the novels
The Thin Man


Farewell, My L

, Mildred Pierce

, and In a Lonely Place


characters transcend the limitations of genre to bring greater depth to the novels. By deviating
from the norm of passive innocents or highly aggressive and sexualized female figures
, these
authors reveal a misogynistic genre to be fertile ground for the empowerment and experimentation
of women.

Maeve Sutherland

All the Tastes in Nectar Soup: Artistic Community and the Beat Generation


Mentor: Rebecca Jaroff

In 1944 in Gree
nwich Village, Jack Kerouac had not yet been on the road, William S.
Burroughs still wore his clothes to lunch, and Allen Ginsberg reserved his howling for the full moon.
It would be four more years before Kerouac comes up with the name ―Beat Generation,‖

but these
young men, along with Lucien Carr, David Kammerer, and a network of other artists and pseudo
intellectuals, were already beginning to challenge artistic precedent.

This project centers


the early Beat group as an authorial unit, as they crit
icized each
other‘s work and wrote with similar
a prioris
. Their complex homosexual and homosocial
relationship dynamics, in addition to their literary influence on one another, becomes evident in
their fictionalized accounts of Lucien Carr's
murder of Da
vid Kammerer

in August 1944. Among
the narratives are Ginsberg‘s unpublished
, Kerouac‘s
The Town and the City

Vanity of Duluoz
, and the Burroughs
Kerouac collaboration
And the Hippos Were Boiled in Their
, which is of special interest a
s a snapshot of Kerouac and Burroughs‘ writing style before
they had published their first novels. The murder rocked their group, but also perpetuated an
atmosphere in which the young writers felt compelled to tell their story and pass whatever
judgment t
hey saw fit through fiction.


Amanda McBride

Reshaping Perceptions of the “Other”:

An Exploration of Human Disabilities, Graphic Novels, and the High School Curriculum

English and Education

Mentors: Elizabeth Ho and Stephanie Mackler

American High Schoo
l classrooms privilege the expected, the normal, and those who are
capable of academic success, as defined by society‘s traditional yet narrow scope. But what about
those who do not align with these traditional ideals? The problem with our current educat
system is how it ―others‖ those who are different, especially those with disabilities, and fails to
provide them with an adequate education because of their differences. Though federal laws such
as ―No Child Left Behind‖ and ―Individuals with Disabili
ty Education Act‖ have made strides in
petitioning for a more equal education for students with disabilities, these policies fail to humanize
disabled students and include their perspective in the classroom.

My Summer Fellows Project bridges the gap b
etween disabilities and the classroom. I draw
upon Disabilities Studies in order to contextualize our current situation, focusing on the history of
disabilities, their treatments, and how they are viewed today, especially in education. Current
practices tend to render disabled students invisible, voiceless, and ―other‖ in the
classroom. To address this problem, schools need to go beyond just providing access to
education for disabled students, as the law requires, but fully recognize them as st
udents so that
they gain a voice in the classroom and curriculum as well as have other students develop empathy
for disabilities. In order for schools to bridge the gaps between disabled and non
disabled students,
my project argues that schools should uti
lize graphic novels in the classroom, particularly because
they are best suited for approaching issues related to difference and ―other‖. Through a disability
studies/comic book theory analysis of four different graphic novels, I will examine how these tex
depict disabilities as well as analyze moments where the comics provide teaching moments for
educators and students about disabilities. Although many schools today use graphic novels in the
classroom, they teach them in unexciting ways. Furthermore, r
arely, if ever, are disabilities talked
about as part of the subject matter of the curriculum.

I ultimately argue through my research that schools need to disrupt the dichotomies of
graphic novels/books, normal/abnormal, and able/disable in order to effe
ctively address, discuss,
and teach about disabilities in the classroom.

Ellyn Rolleston


la recher

de la belle fid
le: Translation
heory and
The Second Sex

English and Modern Languages

Mentor: Meredith Goldsmith

French existentialist Simone de B
eauvoir‘s 1949 treatise
Le Deuxi
me Sexe
is frequently
described as a germinal text in feminist literature. Yet despite its significance as an invaluable
contribution to the canon of feminist works, the original 1953 English translation of the French text

is considered very poor. Significantly abridged with conspicuously inaccurate translations of
Beauvoir‘s vocabulary, this translation was clearly insufficient for English speakers. However, a
new translation of the text did not appear until 2009, and th
is second translation has also been met
with protest and discordance among critics and academics. In this project, I examine the cultural
climate that influenced the reception of Beauvoir‘s book in France and the United States,
particularly commenting on
the context in which the work was translated into English. I also
provide a summary of how the second translation took form, and from this basis, I look at segments
of the French original and the two translations side
side, endeavoring to discern why t
his work
has proved to be both culturally and linguistically difficult to translate. Drawing upon translation
theory, I use these three texts to pose and attempt to answer one fundamental question: What
makes a translation ―good‖ or ―bad‖ and can a ―perf
ect‖ translation exist?


Shakiya Canty

Harvesting in Haddington: An Oral History of Environmental Changes in West Philadelphia

Environmental Studies

Mentor: Patrick Hurley

Given the declining environmental conditions of some urban areas, there has been a
growing interest in urban environmental change and the consequences these changes have for
urban communities. Many non
profit organizations have begun working in urbanized communities
experiencing environmental decline in hopes of changing the social dyna
mic through urban
greening projects. Through transforming abandoned lots into green spaces, residents observe
drastic differences in their communities. Non
profit organizations have been very active over the
past decade in West Philadelphia; however, there

have been several accounts of sporadic urban
greening prior to the new millennium, but why? This research focuses on the Haddington
neighborhood in West Philadelphia and the efforts by Urban Tree Connection (UTC), a non
organization committed to ur
ban greening, to work with area citizens to revitalize abandoned lots
and the community through community gardening and food production. Still, given the history of
gardening and food production in the neighborhood, the return to gardening by UTC raises m
questions: What happened to previous gardening efforts? What has caused the fluctuating interest
in urban gardening? What environmental changes in Haddington over the past several decades
influenced these activities and necessitated UTC‘s involvement?
Using a case study in the
Haddington area of West Philadelphia, this paper examines past and present urban gardening
efforts by long
term residents in West Haddington. Through the use of oral histories with long
residents, I explore the historical and

contemporary relations of African
American residents living in
Haddington to urban farming and the changing environment.

Regan Dohm

Defining the Southern Sea Otter Recovery Problem

Environmental Studies

Mentor: Richard L. Wallace

The Southern or Califor
nia sea otter is a federally protected species, listed in 1977 as
―threatened‖ under the Endangered Species Act and designated as ―depleted‖ under the Marine
Mammal Protection Act. Since its protection, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) has been
ponsible for developing and implementing a recovery program for the population. This program
has gained a great deal of attention through some successes and, most notably, numerous failures.
We suspect the root of the recovery program‘s ineffectiveness has

been due to poor problem
definition by FWS and other participants in the recovery program. We reviewed the history of the
program, assessing its successes and failures while analyzing how participants in the program
have defined the problems facing the ot
ter. After a thorough exploration of the ecological and
biological literature, it appears that the recent decline in numbers and sluggish growth rate of late
are a direct result of increased mortality within the population. Considering the strict regulatio
currently in place to protect otters from incidental take in fishing nets, the most likely culprit of this
mortality is disease, specifically protozoan
induced encephalitis, principally due to

With a major contributor to sea otter mor
tality identified, we will assess the recovery plan
and make recommendations for measures to protect and recover the otter population.


Max Lehner

Exurban Development in Southeastern Pennsylvania

Environmental Studies

Mentor: Patrick Hurley

While exurba
n land use is a predominant development trend in the United States and much
of the developed world, this form of land use is often characterized by the movement of affluent
homebuyers from urban centers to regions characterized by economies and cultures ti
ed to natural
resource extraction, often in pursuit of the environmental and iconic rural aesthetics that define
landscapes in these areas. Exurbanization is associated with a complex network of social, political,
and ecological interactions, many of which

present new land
use planning challenges to
municipalities this development occurs. However, much of the research on exurbanization and land
conservation focuses on the American West. Given the scarcity of research on areas in the eastern
United States, t
his project seeks to examine the implications of exurbanization for residential land
development and conservation at the municipal level in Southeastern Pennsylvania. Through a
qualitative investigation, I examine the ways in which residents, local governm
ents, and non
governmental organizations (i.e. land trusts) produce diverse forms of environmental conservation.
My findings address the gap in our understandings of exurbanization in the eastern U.S. by
elucidating emergent conflicts and challenges assoc
iated with amenity
driven in
surrounding the Quakertown Swamp conservation landscape in western Bucks County.

Alyssa Thren

Men’s vs. Women’s Coaching Behaviors in Female Sports

Exercise and Sports Science

Mentor: Del Engstrom

Being physically

active goes a long way in preventing obesity and living a healthy lifestyle.
One of the easiest ways to stay active, especially at a young age, is to be part of an athletic team.
These athletic experiences in any sport can be extremely different from one
individual to the next
due to the coach of the team. Coaching behaviors are the key determinant of what athletes gain
from each practice. A coach can use behaviors that allow individuals to enjoy the experience or
behaviors that hinder involvement. Researc
h (Sherman, Fuller, and Speed, 2008) has shown that
athletes seem to prefer coaches who allow the athlete to participate in decisions as opposed to an
independent behavior where the coach has full authority. Studies (Owens and Stewart, 2011) also
that athletes enjoy a positive group atmosphere and coaches who have warm personal
relations with players. Focusing on female youth sports specifically, the purpose of this study was
to examine coaching behaviors. Male and female coaches of female athletic

teams were analyzed
to determine if differences occurred by gender. Observations were held during public practices and
camp sessions using a timing system known as the Physical Education Teacher Assessment
Instrument (PETAI) which gives percentages of tim
es for each behavior at the end of an
observation period. Behaviors observed and coded into this program were adapted from the
Arizona State University Observation Instrument (ASUOI) which included the following behaviors:
instruction, questioning, manual
manipulation, positive modeling, negative modeling, hustle, praise,
scold, management, and other. The goal of the research was to identify what behaviors coaches
used during practice sessions and the actual percentage of time devoted to those behaviors.


indsay Hogan

God’s Cartography:

Religious Morality and Mercantile Forces in Medieval Islamic Maps and Texts


Mentor: Susanna Throop

The lands encompassing Islam in the 9
, 10

and 11

centuries were vast. Since the 6

century Muslims had spre
ad west from the Arabian Peninsula all the way into Spain and east into
India. In an attempt to visualize, catalogue and glorify these lands, men traveled by every means
attempting to articulate and bring back the diversity within Islam.
The growing techno
logy of the
age allowed Arabs to travel by land and sea all far beyond the center of Islam.
As a result, this era
produced fascinating and detailed maps, as well as even more detailed texts and travel accounts.
With this historical context, I have read an
d analyzed the works of several important cartographers
in an attempt to answer the following questions; How can cartography be used as text to chronicle
historical developments in medieval Islamic society? And how did these people understand Islam‘s

in the increasingly interconnected world? These questions will continue to shape my year
long honors project. This summer I have begun to uncover and articulate a few important themes
in the texts of two particular cartographers, Muhammad Abu‘l
Qasim Ibn
Hawqal and Muhammad
ibn Ahmad Shams al
Din Al
Muqaddasi. First, Islam permeated the lands of the medieval Middle
East, but also the actions and thoughts of the people. Unexpectedly, in the chronicles covering the
lands of Islam, religious partiality and po
larization between Islam and other religions, mainly
Judaism and Christianity, as not emphasized. Instead the authors constantly criticized sects and
divergent communities within Islam, suggesting that ―otherness‖ was not a preoccupation of these
. The other important forces that these texts highlight are trade and commerce, which
seem to have created a conflict for medieval geographers who grappled with the challenge of
promoting an Islamic way of life, while dealing with the moral implications of

trade, wealth and
greed. These authors, their texts and their visual maps ultimately reflect the larger conflict of forces
at this time in Islamic history, namely, devotion to religion and the desire to disperse it, versus the
moral contradiction implicit

in a more commercial and globally interconnected world.

Arielle Ross

Indecent Conduct: The Creation of a Queer Subculture in Interwar Philadelphia, 1918


Mentor: Dallett Hemphill

How did the gayborhood come into existence? Who builds a clos
et, who builds a
community? Has homosexuality always existed as we, in the twenty
first century

conceptualize it?
What role do race and gender have in establishing a community based on something as inherently
invisible as queer sexuality and gender identi
ty? My project explores the existence and
establishment of queer community in Philadelphia between World War I and World War II. In the
1920s, the conceptualization of homosexuality and queer identity changed fundamentally. In the
nineteenth century and th
e first decades of the twentieth century, sexuality was a private matter.
Even when it was made public, queerness was

t sexual

it was gendered. Men who had sex with
men were defined by their gender expression, rather than their sexual partners: only eff
men who took a submissive role were considered gay. After the First World War, as psychology
gained scientific credibility, ―homosexuality‖ became about identities, rather than behaviors. To find
queer people in interwar Philadelphia, I took advant
age of Pennsylvania‘s longstanding anti
sodomy laws, using Philadelphia City Vice Squad records to map the sites of arrest for ―indecent
conduct‖, and ―solicitation to commit sodomy,‖ crimes which clearly involved queer men (Lesbians
are elusive in crimina
l records because there were no laws prohibiting sex between women, as
there were with men). I discovered that arrests of gay men were concentrated on the fringes of the
heterosexual vice districts of the Tenderloin and the 7

Ward. In this examination of

place as a site

for queer community, intersections of racial and sexual marginality emerge, providing a unique lens
into the interwar origins of later gay communities in Philadelphia.

Nate Schmalhofer

The Investiture Controversy: Desire for Unity as a C
ause of Conflict


Mentor: Susanna Throop

At the root of the Investiture Controversy lay the changing goals of the Church and the
―State‖ in the eleventh century, embodied by Pope Gregory VII and King Henry IV of Germany
respectively. Both of these
men aimed for unification in their early reigns, but the unification and
changes which they aspired to were poorly matched, despite their similarities. Once he came of
age as a ruler, Henry IV began to reach for the political unification of Germany, potent
modeling himself after Charlemagne and his kingdom as the ideal embodiment of a Christian
Kingdom. Meanwhile, Gregory VII dreamed of uniting the Church under the headship of the papacy
in order to foster increased accountability, consistent orthodoxy
, and ideally the formation of the
Kingdom of God on Earth. Ultimately, however, the changes which Gregory VII envisioned were
incompatible with the Doctrine of Two Swords, the traditional political theory that called for the Holy
Roman Emperor, Henry IV,
and the Pope, Gregory VII, to rule side by side. By elevating the status
of the pope to God‘s most significant representative on earth, Gregory was asserting the
preeminence of the papal directive in both secular and sacred life. Such a situation could hav
never been acceptable to Henry IV. For, in order to maintain order within Germany, Henry had to
buttress his own power and authority with the moral weight of spiritual authority. Thus, Henry IV
both wanted and had to maintain the Doctrine of the Two Swor
ds to keep peace at home as well
as to advance his own plans for political unification. Meanwhile, in Gregory VII‘s mind, he needed
to destroy that very same doctrine to complete the consolidation of Church teaching. In my
Summer Fellows research, which i
s part of a broader Distinguished Honors project focused on the
polemics of the Investiture Controversy, I have explored the differences in how Gregory VII and
Henry IV acquired, and wielded, their power and authority. In addition, I have analyzed how
itional German ideas of peace and justice were at odds with those that the Church sought to
enforce, and the implications of these different ideas in the Investiture Controversy.

Seth Aaronson, Marie Meyer, Mitchell Smith, and Laura Stibich

Discrete Mor
se Functions on Graphs

Mathematics and Computer Science

Mentor: Nick Scoville

Discrete Morse theory combines ideas in graph theory, algebra, and topology. A discrete
Morse function
, which

a real number

to each edge and vertex of G
, gives
a sequenc

subgraphs determined by critical values. These critical elements ―detect‖

a change in topology.
Previous notio
ns of equivalence in Discrete Morse theory include

vector field

equivalence and
homological equivalence.
Our research explores

graph homolog
ical equivalence, a new notion of
equivalence. T
wo discrete Morse functions f and g
with m critical values are graph homologically

equivalent if
the i

level subcomplex

of f is isomorphic to the

level subcomplex of g for i=1,2, …,
. We
examine the
relationships of

graph homological equivalence with

notions of
equivalence. We
apply these

ideas for
equivalence to graphs

such as line graphs, star graphs,
and the Petersen Graph.

Ongoing development of ways to count equivalence classes on the
graphs has lead to accurate counting of graph homological equivalent star graphs. Future plans
include developing ways to count equivalence classes of other graphs.


Allison Bugenis and Karissa Smith

ministic and Age
Structured Mathematical Models

in Predator
Insect Herbivore
Plant interactions

Mathematics and Computer Science

Mentor: Mohammed Yahdi

ew mathematical tools and computing simulators
were used to



mathematical model


map out the interactions

between pot
ato leafhoppers (pest

PLH), damsel
bugs (predator
), and alfalfa (plant). S
, the project

looked at the inclusion of
predator and plant diversity, rather than pesticides, to control PLH damage to alfalfa. The PLH
damage done to alfalfa is ve
ry costly, and pesticides are unsafe. Field d
and results on enemies
and diversity hypotheses
from Cory Stra
ub‘s biological studies on Nabis/PHL/alfalfa interactions
were used to determine the parameter ranges and validate the models. Other intrinsic pa
were determined using other research studies. The parameters included

the Diversity Index (H‘),


th, birth, and death rates. Two models were constructed; with or without
age structure. The non
age structured model has three va
riables, related to the field experiments,
while the age
structured model has seven variables to more accurately reflect the natural lifecycles.
Logistic, Beverton
Holt, and Allee effect modeling approaches were used leading to deterministic
systems of dif
ferential equations.

Computer simulations were constructed to analyze the behaviors
of the models, examine t
he roles of the parameters, and

reduce the alfalfa damage. Uncertain
parameters were adjusted for the models to fit the experimental data and predic
t outcomes for
scenarios not covered by the
field experiments.

In conclusion, the project provides a
frame work for designing cost
effective and environmentally safe strategies to minimize alfalfa
damage, determine

critical parameters

and bifurc
ation structures, and utilize
enemies‘ hypothesis

and polyculture diversity.

Dan Devlin

SafeChat: Detecting instances of Internet predation in the home

Mathematics and
Computer Science

Mentor: April Kontostathis

Monitoring the Internet for sexual preda
tors is a labor
intensive process. Police task forces
as well as non
profit organizations, such as Perverted Justice, spend valuable time and money
setting up stings, and patrolling chat rooms. Perverted
justice.com serves as a repository of chat
ts that have been used to convict perpetrators, and, in previous research, a database of
sexual language has been amassed. This database was used to develop computerized rules to
identify sexual predation. These rules are based on patterns of speech and la
nguage commonly
used by predators when attempting to meet children online. SafeChat is a program that was
developed during Summer Fellows 2010 to provide parents with a research
based tool to monitor
home computer usage by children. SafeChat can detect con
versations that are explicit in nature,
along with the age of the chat participants, and is designed to report dangerous encounters to
parents who could then take appropriate action.

During Summer Fellows 2011, we enhanced the SafeChat software by adding
notification feature. Without a way to warn parents of their children‘s behavior the program could
not reach its full potential or serve its mission. SafeChat was developed in C as a plug
in that can
be installed on the universal chat client Pidgin. Th
e method developed enhances this plug
in so
that it will be able to contact our website, and send information to our server. Software on the
server would then be used to store the incident and notify the appropriate adults.


Emily Dougherty, Michael Dunlea
, and Clinton Watton

Optimal Control Theory for a VRE

Mathematics and Computer Science

Mentor: Mohammed Yahdi

The project aim is to determine the most efficient and economically favorable strategies to
prevent outbreaks and to control t
he emergence of the life
threatening antibiotic resistant VRE
(Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci) in hospital intensive care units. Optimal control theory
provides optimization methods for a dynamic system, with control functions and under certain
ts, in order to achieve and optimize a certain output. Relevant optimal control concepts
used include: single and multiple controls, isometric and transversality conditions, Hamiltonian,
Pontryagin's maximum principle, Hamilton
Bellman equation, Cay

Hamilton Theorem,
Bang Control, computer simulations using MatLab and Mathematica, and systems of eleven
differential equations, twelve unknown functions and thirty parameters. From recent models and
sensitivity analysis results by Yahdi et al. (2
011), objective functions appropriate to given scenarios
and goals were formulated. The research work then focused on merging key methods to provide
necessary conditions for the existence, characterization and construction of optimal controls.
Computer si
mulations and analysis techniques were used to visualize the optimal solutions and the
role of critical parameters on reducing VRE infections and preventing outbreaks. Key controls
included the levels of special preventive care for colonized patients, the
ICU and health care
workers‘ compliance rates, and the health and economical costs. The main conclusions include a
collection of time depending functions representing variable levels of special preventive care,
rather than unchanged high levels, recommende
d for achieving the most efficient and economically
favorable strategies to control VRE and prevent outbreaks.

Andy Garron

Applying Latent Semantic Indexing to the TREC 2011 Dataset

Mathematics and Computer Science

Mentor: April Kontostathis

Our researc
h focused on Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI), a technique used in information
retrieval. Information retrieval is a subfield of computer science that studies how to efficiently
search a large dataset and return relevant results. It is integral in many busin
ess fields including
legal and medical workplaces, and new algorithms for searching are continually being developed.
LSI is a technique designed to extract semantic meaning for documents and queries instead of
using simple term
matching. LSI uses the Singu
lar Value Decomposition (SVD) of a term
document matrix representing the dataset in order to conduct its searches. The method is time

and memory

intensive, however, so our research focused on finding ways to improve efficiency.
During Summer Fellows 2010
, we designed and implemented an LSI system from scratch for the
annual Text Retrieval Competition (TREC).

This summer, we explored various methods for improving the system implemented last
year. Among them were vector replacement to reduce dimensions of
the term
document matrix,
parallelization of last summer‘s system to improve speed and memory efficiency, and both
automated and selective query expansion techniques. Also, alternate methods for taking the
singular value decomposition of the term
matrix (a limiting factor last year) were
explored. We have successfully used the irlba package in R to take the SVD to further dimensions
and implemented automatic and selective query expansion. Between now and August 28
, our
efforts will be focused on
continuing to improve our system in order to prepare a submission for
TREC 2011.


Kelly Reynolds

Using Machine Learning to Detect Cyberbullying

Mathematics and
Computer Science


April Kontostathis

Cyberbullying is the use of technol
ogy as a medium to bully someone.

Although it has
been an issue for many years, the recognition of its impact on young people has recently

Social networking sites, such as MySpace, Facebook, and Formspring.me, provide a
fertile medium for bul
lies, and teens and young adults who use these sites are vulnerable to

Through machine learning, we can detect language patterns used by bullies and their
, and develop rules to automatically detect cyberbullying content. The long
term go
al of this
project is to protect victims of cyberbullying.

The data we used for our project was collected from the website Formspring.m
e, a
answer formatted website that contains a high percentage of bullying content.

ta was labeled using a web service, Amazon‘s Mechanical Turk. This web service allowed us to

hire anonymous workers to determine whether or not they believed
that bullying was present in a
single Q&A post.

Each post was labeled by three individuals, and

we required that two out of
three workers agree that a post contain bullying for it to be labeled
as such.

We then used the
labeled data, in conjection with machine learning techniques provided by the Weka tool kit, to train
a computer to recognize bully
ing content. The computer analyzed a variety of features including
e prevalence of swear and insult words,
and determined which fe
atures were most likely to
predict cyberbullying.

Neal Shukla and Cassandra Chapman

Fault Tolerant Clustering in Wireless

Sensor Networks

Mathematics and Computer Science

Mentor: Akshaye Dhawan

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are networks of microsensors equipped with a radio
interface. These devices gather and transmit data collected from their environment and have
s applications in military, environmental and health care domains. A major constraint of
these networks is their limited battery life. Clustering has been looked at it in the literature as a
means of conserving energy while routing in these networks. In cl
ustering, the network is
partitioned into a number of clusters, each of which has a sensor assigned as the cluster head.
Nodes in the cluster send data to the cluster head which aggregates this data and transmits it to
the base station. In order to share t
he burden of being cluster head, this responsibility is rotated
periodically amongst sensors.

Since these networks are deployed in harsh environments, sensor nodes are prone to
failure. If a cluster head fails, this leaves an entire cluster disconnected f
rom the network until the
next rotation. Our work looks at the specific problem of detecting and recovering from the failure of
a cluster head. We designed different algorithms to recover from failure and evaluate them across
a number of different network
parameters. The goal was to assess what trade
offs needed to be
made in order to make the network fault tolerant. Our algorithms are theoretically based in
domination graph theory.


Sam Snodgrass

Building a 3D Game in Multiple Environments

Mathematics and

Computer Science

Mentor: April Kontostathis

There are many popular graphical modeling tools for game design. From among these
tools, we chose Blender and 3D Studio Max as representatives of free and commercial tools,
respectively. Both are widely used
by digital animation companies as well as game developers.
We explored the advantages and disadvantages of the two programs by using them to build a 3D

The game that we are building is a chess
based role playing game. The pieces and rules
are based

on the moves in a traditional chess game, but each chess piece will also be
customizable to a certain extent. The pieces will have special attacks and abilities that can be
activated by the player during the chess game. In particular, a piece cannot simp
ly be taken by
another piece. When a piece is challenged, the two pieces will fight using a turn
based battle
system. A player must defeat the other piece in battle in order to capture it.

We built the chess pieces in both Blender and 3D Studio. By bu
ilding each piece in both
programs, we were able to compare the advantages and disadvantages of the software tools, as
well as determine ease of use for both products. We learned that each program has desirable
features. For example, Blender‘s camera is v
ery intuitive, but 3D Studio‘s is fairly unwieldy. Another
difference between the two is that Blender has a game engine built into it. 3D Studio requires its
models to be exported to a separate game engine. We decided to use the Unity game engine

it is also a commercial tool that is advertised as working well with 3D Studio. During
summer fellows we identified the best tool(s) to use to complete the game. The game will be
completed during the 2011
2012 academic year as honors research in computer


Elizabeth Burns

Media Resisters:

The Youth's Approach to New Communication Technology Usage

Media and Communication Studies

Mentor: Louise Woodstock

Although new communication technologies are a part of many Americans‘ everyday lives,

suggests that some people avoid mediated interpersonal communication, such as instant
message and texting. These ―media resisters‖ actively limit their use. With this in mind, I conducted
a literature review on youths‘ use of mediated interpersonal commun
ication and its effects on their
lives, concentrating on identity formation and interpersonal relationships. The constant connectivity
afforded by new communication technologies does not allow teens to strengthen relationships
through uninterrupted face
face interaction or time alone to reflect on their identity. As a result, a
small, but possibly growing number of youths are limiting their use of new communication

With this background knowledge, I conducted preliminary interviews with you
ng people who
feel the need to limit their new media usage. My initial findings include that resistance is often due
to feeling overwhelmed by constant connectivity, the belief that it is unnecessary, stress over their
online presentation of self, or avers
ion to the weaker relationships formed through mediated
communication. Resistance helps individuals feel more in control, while also allowing them to
participate in more face
face communication, forging what they believe are stronger
relationships. Howe
ver, these individuals can feel socially isolated from their peers due to their
resistance of popular forms of communication. I aim to continue this project, conducting honors
research throughout my senior year, completing interviews with high school and c
ollege students
who are opting to limit their media use.


Elizabeth Chamberlain

bullying and Moral Panics

Media and Communication Studies

Mentor: Lynne Edwards

This study examined the cases of Tyler Clementi and Megan Meier in order to determine if

the two cases can be characterized as a moral panic about cyber bullying. As defined by Stanley
Cohen a moral panic is when ―a condition, episode, person, or group of persons emerges to
become defined as a threat to societal values and interests,‖ and is
characterized by five elements:
law enforcement, public response, news coverage, political response, and the disproportionality
between reality and what is believed (Ben
Yehuda & Goode, 2003). The study examined state
cyber bullying and electronic harassm
ent laws and policies in order to determine public and
political concern. Additionally,
257 articles about these cases from the
New York Times
Jersey Record
, and the
St. Louis Post Dispatch

were analyzed to examine disproportionate

Finally law review articles about the First Amendment to prosecute the charges brought
or to defend against them and whether or not our response (e.g., sacrificing constitutional rights
such as freedom of speech) to the crime is justified.

Cara DiNico

Trauma and Hope in Recent Argentine Cinema:

Los pasos perdidos

(2001) and


Modern Languages

Mentor: Juan Ram
n de Arana

During The Dirty War in Argentina (1976
1983), as many as 30,000 Argentineans were
illegally detained, tortured, or s
ecretly killed in clandestine detention centers ran by the governing
military junta. The effects that these human rights abuses have had on Argentine society suggest
that the events of The Dirty War constitute a massive cultural trauma. Since the onset of
democracy in Argentina, Argentineans have been attempting to overcome this trauma through
various venues. Film provides a safe space in which themes pertaining to The Dirty War and
Argentina‘s cultural trauma can be confronted head

This project examin
es theories of trauma by critics like Cathy Caruth and Dominick
LaCapra in order to determine their rele
vance to the case of cultural trauma caused by The Dirty
and, more specifically, cinematic

representations of this trauma
. This paper explores the w
two recent Argentine films,
Los pasos perdidos

(Manane Rodríguez, 2001) and


2003), fictionalize cases of The Dirty War‘s ―stolen babies‖ and attempt to present a
discourse of hope as the characters struggle with their personal t
rauma and identity.

This research
will ultimately discuss the implications these

may h
ave for the

ongoing debate on
Argentina's cultural trauma.

Erin Doby

Santeria: From Criminality to Cubanidad

Modern Languages

Mentor: Theresa Ko

Beginning in

the 18

century Afro Cuban religions, such as
, were characterized by the
ruling class and intellectuals as anti
modern and directly connected to criminality, making them and
their practitioners a ―threat‖ to the safety and well being of Cuban so
ciety. This conception of Afro
Cuban religions appeared to change for a brief period during the war for independence in Cuba;
this period is referred to as the
movement. The progress that the movement
fostered was quickly undone shortly after

Cuba secured its independence from Spain. The scrutiny
that surrounded the various Afro Cuban religions before the Cuban War of Independence

continued to plague Cuba for almost 100 years after Cuban struggle for independence. Today
many Cubans practice va
rious Afro Cuban religions, most notably
. These religions are not
only practiced by a considerable portion of the population, but they are also recognized by the
government as an important part of
the essence or identity of Cuba, along
with racial
diversity and the culture of the African slaves whose descendents now make up about 60% of the
population. The purpose of this project is to investigate how

Afro Cuban religions, such as
Santeria, that were once considered to be criminal activ
ities become accepted? What role did
changing racial politics play in the rejection or acceptance of Afro Cuban religions? And what role if
any does race play in present day Cuba where Afro Cuban religions are now embraced?

Kirsten King

Second Language A
cquisition in the Brain: How and Where a Language is Learned

Modern Languages

Mentor: Robin Clouser

Learning another language can be a rewarding and advantageous skill in a society where
multilingualism is crucial for communication. The ultimate goal of m
any is to achieve fluency in their
language of interest, but others wish only to learn enough to get by in a new culture. Still others are
raised in multilingual households, where language learning is a natural process, and fluency is not
a struggle but a
given. What differentiates these people in terms of their language
learning skills,
and what is happening in their brains in the process of acquiring those languages? Some of the
answers can be found via Second Language Acquisition (SLA), the study of the
way in which
individuals learn a language other than their mother tongue, inside or outside of the classroom.
Several common theories which seek to identify the ways in which a second language is learned
are addressed in this review, as well as the neurolo
gical underpinnings of where this language is
found in the brain. Using this knowledge, a potential personal research endeavor is also described.
This experiment may be carried out in the coming year of study at Ursinus College.

Ethan Kuhn

m in N
ew Guinea: A Translation w
ith Commentary of Johann Flierl's
der Neuendettelsauer Heidenmission in Queensland und Neu

Modern Languages

Mentor: Robin Clouser

By the end of the 19

century, European colonialism had been in full swing for

centuries. As
a fractured and divided people, the Germans did not enter the broader world stage until after the
unification of the German states in 1871. At the beginning of the First World War, the German
colonial empire had several colonies throughout
Africa and the Pacific and German New Guinea
was the first of these territories. Immigrants seeking to fulfill economic and spiritual aims traveled
to these newly acquired areas. One of these people was Johann Flierl, a Lutheran missionary.



in New Guinea
from 1886 to

ounding a number of mission churches
leading to the establishment of the

Evangelical Lutheran Church of Papua New Guinea which now
constitutes approximately 20% of the total population of
that nation

Despite the influenc
e of his
work there, very few of Flierl‘s writings have been translated. Taking both his religious and
historical context into account, my translation attempts to stay as close to Flierl‘s original German
as possible while still making it accessible to th
e English reader.


Ron Stranix

Carmina Burana: A Conductor’s Study and Analysis


Mentor: John French

Throughout history, many composers have created works that are deemed masterpieces in
the musical world. One of these 20

century examples is Car
l Orff‘s
Carmina Burana
, a scenic
cantata (ballet), first performed by the Frankfurt Opera on June 8, 1937 at the
Stadtische Buhnen
in Frankfurt, Germany. Meaning ―Songs of Bueren‖, the 25

movement cantata derives its name
and text from a 13

century G
erman manuscript of poems and songs spanning such themes as
love, fortune, and gluttony. For this project, I analyzed the historical and compositional aspects of
the piece. I constructed a chart of musical characteristics including keys, modes, meters an
tempos. I studied the orchestration and alternate accompaniments as well as the solo and choral
forces required for performance. Finally, I looked at various ways (musical and textual) that
Carmina Burana

is influenced by the medieval era.

In addition t
o formal research, another focus of my study was to learn how to conduct this
difficult scenic cantata. With weekly coaching by Dr. French, I was able to work through and
conduct the piece with piano accompaniment. We also had the opportunity to hear the

rehearsals of
Carmina Burana
performed by the Philadelphia Orchestra and the Philadelphia
Singers Chorale. This experience helped me gain knowledge of the necessary aspects of
preparing a performance of a large choral work.

Elisabeth Clarke

mination of Correlations between Memory Processing and concept formation using the
DRM Paradigm and Novel Language Acquisition


Mentor: Joel Bish

The current study aimed to pilot the use of the Deese Roediger
McDermott paradigm with
novel lan
guage in order to see if the phenomenon typically observed with everyday concepts can
be induced through use of novel concept formation. Participants were initially tested before
learning the relationships of six sets of novel words, a state strikingly si
milar to the ignorance of a
child first acquiring language. Vocabulary, verbal proficiency, and inhibition were also assessed
before each participant was provided with and instructed to study a slideshow outlining the
relationships between novel words. P
articipants were asked to achieve a specific level of mastery
before coming back in approximately one week in order to again complete the DRM trials as well
as explicit and implicit tests of knowledge. The process of deliberately learning new concepts is
analogous to the purposeful language acquisition and concept formation associated with
communication, self expression, and interpretation that develop throughout a lifetime. Preliminary
results suggest that accuracy in the novel DRM lists declined with gr
eater knowledge of the novel
terms, an indication that meaningful concept formation is an integral part of mistakenly accepting
the lure word, or theme of the list, in the recall portion of the DRM paradigm. Additionally, we
examined the relationship betw
een the cognitive behavioral profile of participants and their
performance on the DRM paradigm to simulate the shift observed between children and adults in
traditional DRM studies.


Michael Duffield

Pharmacological Action of Brainstem Medullary Depressa


Mentor: James Sidie

The medulla serves both reflex (coughing, sneezing, swallowing, gagging, hiccupping,
vomiting) and autonomic (respiration/breathing, cardiac
sympathetic/parasympathetic, vasomotor)
functions. We investigated the effect

of several depressant compounds on medullary electrical
output. The compounds studied were benzonatate (non
opioid butylamine chemically related to the
linked local anesthetic tetracaine ), dextromethorphan (opioid noncompetitive NMDA
antagonist and

opioid receptor agonist), and ketamine (anesthetic noncompetitive NMDA receptor
antagonist). Benzonatate and dextromethorphan are prescribed as antitussives (cough
suppressants). Studies were conducted utilizing the weakly electric fish bioassay. These fi
generate an oscillating electric field (electric organ discharge

EOD) whose frequency is solely
determined by a medullary pacemaker network. Decrements in EOD frequency are recorded as a
measure of medullary depression. The pKa is the pH at which 50%
of a weak acid or weak base is
in the charged form and 50% is in the uncharged form. In order to cross biological membranes,
pharmacological compounds must be in the uncharged form. The pKa values for these compounds
are benzonatate (3.5

calculated value
), dextromethorphan (8,3), and ketamine (7.5). To obtain
the uncharged form, the solution pH must be: benzonatate (>4), dextromethorphan (>8), and
ketamine (>8). At a concentration of 5x10
5M for each of these compounds the suppression in
medullary funct
ion was predictably pH dependent. Benzonatate ~36% depression at pH 6
Dextromethorphan ~ 12 % suppression at pH 8; Ketamine suppression ~ 17% at pH 8. There
have been recent reports of child mortality following ingestion of benzonatate overdose.
nzonatate has been examined as a local anesthetic acting on vagal afferents from lung stretch
receptors, but there does not appear to have been studies of this compound on medullary function.

Christopher Howard

The Effects of Prenatal Ethanol Exposure on
Cerebral Cortical Development


Mentor: Carlita

Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) is the intoxicating agent in fermented and distilled liquors
. Consumption of ethyl alcohol during pregnancy can lead to Fetal Alcohol Spectrum
orders (FASDs) in the developing fetus. FASDs, the leading cause of mental retardation,
encompass a broad spectrum of developmental abnormalities.
Little is known, however, about the
mechanisms by which alcohol affects neural development. Ethanol inhibits
the integrity of neurons
by mechanisms such as the altered proliferation (division), apoptosis (programmed cell death), and
fate. In the current study, we investigated how prenatal ethanol exposure disrupts the thalamo
cortical development by examining the
se mechanisms in Swiss Webster mice. We are particularly
interested in the thalamo
cortical system because hindrances of this sensorimotor relay system
underlie cognitive deficits seen in FASD patients. Previous research has shown that prenatal
ethanol exp
osure does not affect cell proliferation or cause apoptosis within the thalamus (Mooney
& Miller, 2010). On the other hand, many studies have shown that the cerebral cortex is adversely
affected by prenatal ethanol exposure. Although most studies investiga
te the effects of prenatal
ethanol exposure administered throughout gestation, our study investigates the effects of prenatal
ethanol during early cerebral cortical neurogenesis (neuron birth). Specifically, the study
investigates embryonic days (E) 12 to
14. To analyze apoptosis, we used cleaved caspase 3
immunostaining while neuron fate was investigated through immunostaining with cerebral cortical
layer specific markers.


Jennilyn Weber

Effects of prenatal ethanol exposure on axon tract development

een the thalamus and cortex


Mentor: Carlita Favero

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is the umbrella term used to describe the broad
range of cognitive and physical defects resulting from any prenatal expos
ure to alcohol.

r deficits commonly observed in children affected by FASDs likely result from
malformations of axon tract development
Candidates for these deficits are the axons that connect
the thalamus and cortex, known as thalamocortical axons (TCAs) and corticothalam
ic axons
(CTAs). Proper development of these axons is essential for normal sensation and

Studies in
humans and rodents have shown that prenatal ethanol exposure
affects these axon tracts. In this study, ethanol was administered via intrap
eritoneal injection

pregnant Swiss Webster mice

embryonic days (E) 12
.5 to E14.5 or E10.5 to E14.5.

matched controls were injected with phosphate buffered saline. These time points are critical

during axon development. Around

E10 neurons are

being generated and starting to extend axons.
We analyzed offspring at E15.5 or postnatal (P) day 0 because the axons should have reached
their final destination by this time.

Immunostaining was used to visualize axon tracts with L1
specifically labeling
TCAs and CTAs and neurofilament (NFM) labeling all axons.

We also used
Nissl staining to investigate nervous system cytoarchitecture for abnormalities due to chronic
prenatal ethanol exposure.

Juliann A. Weidenmoyer

Relationship between Knowledge and Perc
eptions of Individuals with Schizophrenia


Mentor: Joel

Schizophrenia is a highly stigmatized mental illness in the world, partially because people
know so little about it. The current study examined the effect of educating undergraduate
about schizophrenia on their explicit knowledge and perceptions of the mental illness. Using a
posttest design, participants were given a knowledge test, the implicit association task and
a concept formation task. They were then randomly a
ssigned to education groups in which they
were either shown a documentary about schizophrenia or a webpage with factual information
about the disorder. The study demonstrated that there were differences between the two education
groups and a non
educated c
ontrol group on explicit knowledge and implicit knowledge structure,
which influences bias.

This information can be used for future education to reduce the negative
stigma towards schizophrenia.


Karen Levandoski

All in the Family: Understanding Filial Pi
ety as Debt, Duty, or Desire

Philosophy and Religious Studies

Mentor: Kelly Sorensen

“You don't really understand human nature unless you know why a child on a merry
round will
wave at his parents every time around

and why his parents will always wav
e back.”
William D.

Consider the following: two parents lovingly raise a child, fulfilling all her needs and more.
After she attends college, which they have paid for, she begins her career and decides that her
parents are now too low
class to be
associated with. She cuts off all communication with them,
despite their desperate pleadings, and ignores them as they grow old and require assistance.
Nearly all who read this will, as I do, think that the daughter has done something terribly wrong. But
hy? If children have moral obligations towards their parents, as most think that they do, where do
these obligations spring from? Is it because parents have given their children the gift of life, an
infinite debt, as ethicist Chenyang Li believes? Or does
Jeffrey Blustein provide a more accurate
explanation when he suggests it is because parents, often going above and beyond the duties of
parenthood, provide their children with unique opportunities to feel gratitude which must be
returned? And how do these
and other views handle the advent new reproductive technology,
creating more complicated family trees than ever before
is anything more owed to rearing parents
than genetic contributors or surrogate mothers? If so, why? My Summer Fellows project has
d to place different theories about filial piety in more direct dialogue with one another and
modern situations, as well as to offer critiques and my own viewpoint.

Alex Niedmann

Finding Subject in Object: Perceptual Anti
Individualism and the Nature of

Philosophy and Religious Studies

Mentor: Roger Florka

It is almost trite to conceive of objectivity as a kind of ―view from nowhere,‖ to borrow
Thomas Nagel‘s phrase; a unique sort of higher
order perspective achieved (perhaps never wholly)

transcending an inherently limited first
order perspective on the world. This construal of
objectivity holds it as necessary that perspectives, in virtue of being ―views from somewhere,‖ are
originally and constitutively subjective. On this view, therefor
e, objectivity is always something
achieved by the modification of a prior subjectivity, firmly excluding it from any account of the
nature and origins of perspective. Tyler Burge‘s recent work,
Origins of Objectivity

(OUP 2010),
elaborates a rich and inte
rdisciplinary explanatory framework, called perceptual anti
through which fundamentally rethinking the place of objectivity in the nature and origins of
perspective becomes possible. Brought to bear directly upon the question (only obliquely

addressed by Burge himself) of what it is to be a perspective, perceptual anti
individualism lends
credence to a striking possibility:
Though traditionally opposed, objectivity and subjectivity achieve
a functional unity as

aspects of the n
ature of a single phenomenon: perspective.


Ross Whitehurst

Hallucination and the Veil of Perception

Philosophy and Religious Studies

Mentor: Roger Florka

Within the philosophy of perception, one is faced with two very difficult and pressing
questions: th
e first being how does a human being perceive the world around him and what is his
relation to that perceived world? The second question, once one has answered the first, asks what
are the epistemological consequences of the first answer? What does the way

in which man
perceives the world say about what we can and cannot ever truly know and what is his relationship
with the external world? The purpose of this analysis is to examining the various theories on the
function of sensory perception. Once these the
ories have been examined and the most accurate
have been chosen, I will attempt to answer the latter question stated above, showing that the two
most capable theories of sensory perception have unforeseen consequences about man‘s relation
to the external r

Michael Agiorgousis

Optimization Code for Submitting Simulation Jobs to the Ursinus College Cluster


Mentor: Lew


We are developing software to find the best fit between simulated and measured gamma
ray spectra, by varying the ene
rgy of the gamma rays and the lifetime of the states that they de
excite. Using the Geant4 physics simulation software developed at CERN we can simulate the
collision of a nuclear beam with a target and the resulting reactions. The emitted gamma rays,
ulting from the reactions, will be detected using the CAESAR (CAESium iodide Array) that is
also present in the Geant4 software. Currently e
ach simulation,

corresponding to different energy
and lifetime values, will run with one million events; which can
take significant time to complete.
Using the Ursinus College parallel computing cluster we can run multiple sets of simulations at the

time drastically cutting down

the run time. Once all of the simulations are complete the best
fit is determined by u
sing a chi squared analysis on all of the data to eliminate any subjectivity.
Also when the first set of fitting simulations are complete our software will find smaller ranges of
values that fit the data well and refit them by changing the nearby energy an
d lifetime values
slightly to potentially find a better fit. This process will be repeated
until a best fit is found with
reasonable error tolerance. Ultimately fitting of the simulations to measured spectra will allow us to
calculate the probabilities of

populations excited nuclear states in the reactions that we study.
These probabilities will then be compared with the theoretical nuclear models, allowing us to learn
more about nuclear shell structure of atoms and the evolution of the magic numbers.

lexander Mellus

Oscillations in Dipole
Dipole Transitions from Nearly
Degenerate Rydberg States


Mentor: Thomas Carroll

excited ultra
cold Rydberg atoms can exchange energy through long
range dipole
dipole interactions. We model these inter
actions for a system in which the atoms are excited to a
superposition of initial states closely spaced in energy. Because of the nearly
degenerate nature of
the system, there are multiple possible ways the atoms can interact. These multiple paths can
rfere quantum mechanically causing oscillations in the energy exchange. We present
simulation results that agree reasonably well with preliminary experimental results.


Scott Paine

Optimization and Characterization of a Magneto
Optical Trap



Thomas Carroll

Atoms in a magneto
optical trap (MOT) are cooled and spatially confined through the use of
a magnetic field and lasers. Two diode lasers have been characterized and locked to proper
frequencies using saturated absorption spectroscopy. T
he laser beams have been aligned,
properly polarized, and directed into chamber filled with rubidium atoms. Anti
Helmholtz coils
create a magnetic field used to help direct atoms toward the center of the trap and contain them.
We present a progress repor
t in trapping atoms in our MOT.

Samantha Wildonger

Experiment Planning Using Simulated Data


Mentor: Lewis Riley

Our proposed experiment is to use the Ursinus College Liquid Hydrogen Target as well as
the CAESAR (CAESium iodide ARray) array (both

located at the National Superconducting
Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University) to measure the probability of populating the first
excited states of
Ca and
Ca. These measurements will provide information about the shell
structure of the nuc
lei in relation to magic numbers (in this case Z=20). In order to prepare for this
experiment, we used Geant4, simulation software developed by CERN, to run simulations of our
intended experiment. The simulations produce gamma ray energy spectra which we w
ere then
able to fit using various energies and lifetimes. The number of emitted gamma rays inform us of
the probability of populating energy levels of each isotope. By analyzing the simulated data, we
will be able to evaluate the precision we expect to

obtain in the actual experiment. Our next step is
to run the experiment at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, analyze the real data,
and compare it with our simulated data.

Eva Bramesco

One Size Does Not Fit All: Democracy Promotion in

Kyrgyzstan, Venezuela, and Mauritania

Politics and International Relations

Mentor: Joseph Melrose


is not a ―one size fits all‖ operation, though it is often treated in this way. It
is not enough to simply enter a country, declare it a dem
ocracy, hold a ―free and fair‖ election,
install the winner, and assume not only that every citizen will welcome this, but also that this
strategy will establish a viable democracy. A declaration is not enough: there is work to be done.
But what is this wo
rk, and how is it accomplished? Must there be a revolutionary war, or a coup?
Why do some states make this transition nearly seamlessly while others must wade in the blood of
their own people to achieve their definition of freedom? And why is it that some
democracies ―stick‖
and others crumble? Are there elements or characteristics of a society that predispose it more
readily towards democracy? The main goal of this examination is to determine the answers to
these complex questions. By comparing states that

have successfully made the transition to
democracy against states that have yet to do so, (whether they presently display the inclination or
not), ideally, similarities and dissimilarities will emerge, enabling us to isolate the main
characteristics that
promote democracy, as well as those that thwart it. In this first section of the
investigation I determine how we define democracy as well as how the drive for democracy
originates. I then examine how these theories and practices exist in the countries of
Bhutan and
Kyrgyzstan, with an examination of other nascent democracies to follow in an Honors Project.


Elliott Covert

War and State Formation in Post
Colonial Africa

Politics and International Relations

Mentor: Rebecca Evans

Saharan Africa has been
one of the least stable regions in the world over the past 50
years. Many countries within the region have experienced protracted internal conflicts along ethnic,
religious, cultural, and political lines. There have been relatively few instances, however,
intrastate warfare in Sub
Saharan Africa. This paper will focus on the material and normative
factors which have lead the region to experience so many internal conflicts and so few conflicts
between states. In particular, this paper will examine the eff
ect of colonialism on conflicts within the
Saharan region, and evaluate the effect of international norms legitimating Africa‘s pre
colonial borders on regional stability.

Emily Koppenhofer

Devils: Comparing and Contrasting Prominent Female Nazi
War Criminals with Female
Soldiers at Abu Ghraib

Politics and International Relations

Mentor: Rebecca Evans

Imagine a women smiling for the camera as she points to a cluster of naked, tortured men.
Or imagine her brutally whipping an emaciated prisoner

over whom she has complete control.
These disturbing images are only a few examples of the atrocities committed by women working as
Nazi concentration camp guards, and serving in the US military at Abu Ghraib. Despite extensive
research on the violent b
ehavior of men in military settings, little research has been done on the life
and crimes of the apparent ―fairer sex.‖ This project compares and contrasts prominent female
Nazi war criminals with female soldiers at Abu Ghraib to explore various explanati
ons for cruelty
and aggression, considering whether there is a difference between men and women in their
propensity to engage in brutal acts of violence. Although statistically men are more likely to
engage in violent behavior than women, this research su
ggests that neither sex is naturall
y more
violent than the other.
However, because of constraints placed on the female sex and their
involvement in the military, these types of institutions have been historically masculine. Women,
for the purposes of ove
rcoming biological and societal restrictions, in addition to familial or
personal circumstances in their lives, are increasingly

choosing to join these types of institutions.
Although gender stereotypes exist, there are no gender biases when it comes to c
violence. Hence, even if there were just as many women in military institutions as men, there
would still be a large number of abuses. This not only points to shortcoming
s in human nature, but
elements of immorality that exist within these

types of institutions. If people, already
inherently equipped with violent tendencies, enter an unjust institution where the likelihood of
committing atrocities is high, gender is blind. While male aggression may be an accepted cultural
norm, violent wo
men offer a fascinating contradiction to the idea that females are more nurturing
than males. Women are not by nature more nurturing, only by nurture are they more nurturing.
This preliminary study is part of a larger body of work that will take the form

of an Honors thesis.


Audra Lins

Day Slavery in the Home of the Free and the Brave: Human Trafficking of Children

Politics and International Relations

Mentor: Joseph Melrose

Very few individuals ever thought that slavery would exist in the twent
first century,
especially in the United States. Nevertheless, the complex nature of international community has
created an environment where the demoralizing problem of human trafficking can occur. Human
trafficking of children specifically for sex and l
abor is on the rise, globally and in the United States.
While many Americans are aware of the larger problem of human trafficking, they assume that
human trafficking of children only occurs outside of the United States and they cannot change the
gruesome s
ituation. Nonetheless, in 2007 it was estimated that between 14,000 to 18,000 children
were trafficked into America, annually. In fact, American children are often the victims of human
trafficking, particularly in the commercial sex trade. This research pa
per will enlighten the reader on
the current slave trade and describe the horrid circumstances these children face. This document
will expose the stigmatized effects of being a victim and how many are prejudged and deemed
criminals. Secondly, it will analy
ze and critique the United States government‘s response to this
growing issue and further investigate the federal and state legislation that attempts to ―solve‖ the
problem. However, this problem is not simply a governmental issue; various economic, social
, and
moral questions are raised by children being involved in this industry. Ultimately, the paper
searches to suggest practical and applicable governmental options to assist the victims of human
trafficking and search for ways in which local communities

and individuals can make a difference in
this global problem. This project can only further light a small candle in a very dark place in the
American society; therefore it will be continued into an honors thesis in the upcoming school year.

Jason Mullins

The Arab Spring: What has happened, Why and Where is it going?

Politics and International Relations

Mentor: Joseph Melrose

Those with an eye for the news may have noticed the series of anti
government protests
spreading across the Middle East and North A
frica in 2011. And yet, a leisurely following of the
events fails to provide the analytical depth necessary to adequately understand how such a
momentous transnational movement has materialized. Therefore my Summer Fellows project
investigates the various
factors prompting unrest in the Arab world in an effort to gain a more
thorough understanding of the situation. What exactly has occurred and where have the effects of
unrest been felt with particular intensity? Stemming from that question, why have some r
remained noticeably stable when some of their contiguous neighbors teeter on the brink of civil war?
By delving into open
source materials

mainly online news and recent academic articles

I hope
to attain a firm grasp of the parallels, differences an
d nuances amongst Arab regimes; in turn, this
will highlight possible reasons why unrest has exploded in some countries while others have
remained politically quiescent. This will lay the groundwork for honors research assessing the
future of the region, i
ncluding implications of US foreign policy during such a tenuous,
unpredictable period.


Joshua Stricoff

Politics and

in the heart of Dante’s

Politics and International Relations

Mentor: Paul Stern

It is no secret that the
Divine Comedy

is one of the most intensely debated texts in the
history of Western literature. My examination focuses on the middle cantos of
¸ which
constitute the mathematical center of the
as a whole. These cantos provide a cogent
political theory t
hat stresses the necessity for effective temporal governance and demonstrates the
impact that politics have on human good. Moreover, Dante also provides a scathing critique of the
Church and its claims to political authority. Thus, on a deeper level, I arg
ue that Dante implicitly
questions the truth of Christianity and its function in the political community. Demonstrating this
claim requires examining the principles nature, human nature and the human soul that premise his
political theory. That is, I attem
pt to explain how Dante‘s beliefs on what we are and the
environment we inhabit govern how we should live our lives. Then, I argue that Dante‘s conclusion
inevitably resigns the Church to a surprisingly minor role in an ideal society. In this regard, I foc
on Dante‘s treatment of scripture to depict how the poet undermines the Church‘s spiritual authority
and declarations of infallibility. In short, I believe the heart of
contains a two
purpose: to stress the importance of effective tempor
al government and to convey the urgency for
societal reform.

Molly Blew

The Effects of Commercial Media Literacy Education on Body Satisfaction and Media
Internalization in Young Adolescent Girls and Boys


Mentor: Kneia DaCosta

The current stu
dy seeks to examine the effects of a school
based commercial media
literacy program on body dissatisfaction and media ideal internalization among young adolescent
girls and boys to determine if the effects of this type of program may be dependent on gender

three 8

graders, 12 female and 11 male, participated in an 8 session program consisting
of 35
40 minute interactive sessions. Lessons focused on raising awareness of influential
commercial messages. Body dissatisfaction and media ideal internali
zation were measured prior to
instruction and after the last day of instruction.

Results indicate that the program had a differential
effect on males and females in regards to media internalization in which males showed an increase
in media ideal internal
ization at post
intervention while females showed a slight decrease in media
ideal internalization at post
intervention. This result was significant in males on the SATAQ
General subscale. Both males and females showed a slight decrease i
n body
dissatisfaction at post
intervention. These findings contribute to efforts in discovering the most
effective interventions for reducing the harmful effects of media on the youth and suggest that
further research must be done in the area before concl
usions can be drawn regarding the
effectiveness of these interventions.


Abigail M. Robinson and Elizabeth Van Horn

Magic Mumfry to Taylor the Explorer:

How providing misinformation lead to the quest for accuracy


Mentor: Gabrielle Principe

earch says that more than 100,000 children are called to the witness stand each year.
They are expected to accurately recount a past event that they have witnessed in a courtroom
filled with people who are waiting for what they call the 'truth'. What man
y do not understand is
that this is an extremely large task to ask of a young child. Children do not have fully
autobiographical memories; however, once a child makes a claim that involves illegal activity, that
claim cannot be taken back. This

idea led Dr. Principe and other researchers to develop the Magic
Mumfry experiment, where children were interviewed about a fictitious rabbit being loose in their
school. The data from these interviews, which we have analyzed this summer, will hopefully
some light on just how inaccurate a child's testimony can become, especially when the adults they
trust leak misinformation to them, either intentionally or unintentionally.

Because not much research has been done on the actual accuracy of child
iographical memory, we have decided to focus our honors project on the topic. This project
idea resulted from working with Dr. Principe on the Magic Mumfry experiment. We have come up
with an experiment we call ‗Taylor the Explorer‘. This year
long expe
riment will focus on how much
parents can influence their child‘s imagination, and how they can influence the accuracy of the
child‘s autobiographical memory, depending on the motivation of the parents. We hope to show
people just how fragile child autobi
ographical memory really is.

MaryElizabeth Ashley

The Healing Power and Presence of Dance Movement Therapy

Theater and

Mentor: Cathy Young

Dance movement therapy is a branch of psychotherapy that relies on the integration of both
the psyche and so
ma. Unlike clinical psychology, which utilizes mostly, if not all verbal cues and
dialogue, the strong connection between the mind and body is the central focus of this therapy. Its
reliance on both verbal and non verbal aspects bridge together what we fe
el, say and do. The
healing power can be seen in attitudes, postural adjustments, overall presence, and the like. Carl
Jung, innovative psychologist, spent a great deal of time researching this connection. He
discovered that through self
investigation one

can achieve ―wholeness‖ as he works through the
injured parts of his being. These facets of our being are most commonly found within creativity
driven aspects of our personality. Dance movement therapy stresses, as well then, the importance
of creativity

in the therapeutic process. In my research I examined its beginnings, its present place
in the community today as well as its many connections with the world of psychology and the
overall healing power it contains for any and all individuals. It is the
reestablishing of one of our
most basic needs, communication, whether this is communication intrinsically or in the
relationships we hold with others.


Annabel Clarance

A New Extreme Formalism in Modern Dance

A Method
and Program
for Computerizing the Ch
oreographic Process

Theater and Dance

Mentor: Cathy Young

In the world of modern dance, people are constantly looking for new and different ways to
explore the choreographic process and how dance can be related to other academic disciplines.
Recently th
ere have been great strides made to connect modern dance and the world of
mathematics. The developments in dance have been trending to enhancing the appearance of
dance on stage with virtual projections or being able to quantitatively assess choreography.

I have
developed a
method, combing Labanotation and the Mathematica software,
to generate
movement with

the computer and thus eliminate the hum
an intentions traditionally utilized

modern dance. In this paper
explore what modern dance is, the hi
story of collaboration of dance
and technology, how and why the computer is capable of generating movement, and what the
value of computer generated movements can be. This is a detailed look at what makes dance
worthwhile and why modern technology has suc
h a huge role to play in the future of dance.

Emily Arndt

Ursinus College

Safe Spaces: Undergraduate Resources for LGBTQ Students


Mentor: Gregory Weight

Safe Spaces are programs that have existed for two decades with the focus of providing
safe campus for LGBTQIA students. Through examination of the current Safe Spaces
programming that exists on various campuses along with the research surrounding educating allies
on LGBTQIA issues, I reviewed the challenges that these programs face in bo
th being effective
and measuring their effectiveness. I address how these programs can fall short of addressing the
root of homophobia and heterosexism on campuses and how they often assume effectiveness
without any quantitative data to support this claim
, among other issues. I then propose and
develop a Safe Spaces program that would be best suited for the Ursinus community. With
additional data gathered through a campus climate assessment survey administered to the Ursinus
campus, I hope to identify ho
w to construct a program best suited to ensure that LGBTQIA
students consider Ursinus to be a safe and supportive environment. This project culminates in a
paper addressing Safe Spaces programs in general as well as identifying the aspects of a program
Ursinus that best suit it to this campus. Program materials and a Safe Spaces training
presentation have also been developed.

Rachel Benders

Washington College

Washington College’s Recruitment of Minority Students


Mentor: Andrew Helms

The r
ecruitment of a culturally diverse student body is a delicate and challenging matter for
many institutions. This research sought to examine the processes used by Washington College to
recruit minority students and suggest changes that could be made to impr
ove the number of
underrepresented students who choose to attend this institution. Data was to be collected through
interviews, articles about minority student involvement in higher education, and reviewing
brochures and mailings from the Admissions Office

and the Office of Multicultural Affairs. At the
conclusion of this research, Washington College uses a broad search to identify qualified

candidates for admission based on performance on standardized testing from the states that
current Washington College

students most commonly hail from. Any students who self
identify as
minorities are then contacted by the Office of Multicultural Affairs. Improvements that could be
made to increase attendance include changing the mission statement of Washington College,
promoting campus understanding of the mission statement, more ethnic studies classes and

Allyson Gilmore

Washington & Jefferson College

Diversity at W&J: The Story of Charles “Pruner” West


Mentor: Jennifer Harding

College sports are

an important part of American culture. However, in the past, some
athletes did not always have the same opportunities as others because of their race. White teams
sometimes refused to play against black athletes. My research, which was primarily archival
included newspaper sources and college yearbooks, focused on one African American‘s athletic
career at Washington & Jefferson College in the 1920s and the opportunities that helped him to
advance. His name was Charles ―Pruner‖ West and he was arguably
one of the greatest athletes
of his time. He was the first black quarterback to play in the Rose Bowl and also earned a spot on
the 1924 Olympic track team. This presentation will focus on one specific game that was
scheduled on October 6

1923 between W&
J and Washington and Lee, but was not played.
Washington and Lee refused to play unless W&J sat out West. West and his coaches decided that
if he did not play, the rest of the team did not. The decision was supported by the College and
showed a strong stan
d for civil rights by a small, predominantly white, northern college. When
examined in the context of the time and the progress of civil rights, the rarity and pioneering nature
of this decision becomes apparent.

Ian Goldman and Monay Threats

niel College

Study of Media as a Catalyst for Diversity

Diversity and Global Community

Mentor: Robert J. Trader

In modern times, the world has become infinitely smaller and more connected. Due to the
advancement of technology, an increasing amount of huma
n beings from different corners of the
Earth have access to one another. Many people, through the power of the Internet, are exposed to
different cultures, lifestyles, perspectives, and ideas. Within the McDaniel College community,
there has been a large f
inancial investment in the gadgets that are able to make such profound
. We

found that even though the financial investment has been made, the community
investment to utilize these useful tools has been, for the most part, neglected. Our team ha
developed inexpensive, convenient, and practical approaches to better use the technology that

already available to us so that we may extend the metaphysical boundaries of the campus, and
absorb and consume more perspectives and ideas than we already d


Omari Jeremiah

Goucher College

Diversity within Goucher
riendship circles


Mentor: Janet Shope

Diversity is an important component of any higher learning institution, but perhaps even just
as important as having students from diverse backgr
ounds is how these students are treated by
their fellow peers once they become members of a higher learning institution. By addressing
diversity in various dimensions (such as race, social class, sexual orientation, religious
backgrounds,etc) this project

aims at painting a picture of how accepting Goucher students are of
people of different backgrounds by examining the social construction and composition of their
friendship circles. Some of the questions that this project aims to answer are as follows: wh
at are
the prevailing attitudes towards students of different backgrounds within the Goucher student
community? Is one‘s circle of friends reflective of their attitude towards diversity? And how do
Goucher students tend to engage students that come from di
fferent backgrounds? Based on 15 in
depth interviews and data from the National Survey of Student Engagement, this study aims to
paint a picture of how accepting Goucher students are of other students from different
backgrounds by examining who they choose

to be their close friends, how they treat people they
are not closely associated with, and how various elements of diversity are linked to these choices.

Sylvia Murray

Goucher College

Race, Class, Gender, and Sexuality in Course Offerings at Goucher Coll

Peace Studies

Mentor: Seble Dewit

In collaboration with the Teagle Diversity Scholars Program, Goucher College seeks to
enhance its formal curriculum pertaining to academic diversity. The purpose of the conducted
study was to research the percentage
of courses officially listed in Goucher College‘s academic
catalogue that contain/concern themselves with the issues of diversity in terms of race, class,
gender, and sexuality. The perspective of the study was to recommend strategies for improving
ty in the formal curriculum. Research was performed by reading Goucher College‘s
academic catalogue in addition to three years worth of syllabi for courses available at Goucher.
Upon the collection of data, documents were created to display the results of
how many courses at
Goucher pertain to s
pecific parameters of diversity. The findings provide a deeper understanding of
Goucher‘s current curriculum and how it can further advance and develop to incorporate more
diversity learning in its liberal arts education.