Too Close for Comfort?

nebraskaboomOil and Offshore

Nov 8, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Too Close for Comfort?

Exploring t
he Cozy Relationship Between the Fossil Fuel Industry & Dalhousie

University







2

By
Kaleigh McGregor
-
Bales

&
Megan Tremblay

A Report prepared for the

Nova Scotia Public Interest Research Group

TABLE OF CONTENTS

SECTION 1: BACKGROUN
D

4

H
IGHER
E
DUCATION IN
C
ANADA
-

A

B
RIEF
H
ISTORY

4

T
HE
M
ODERN
K
NOWLEDGE
E
CONOMY

5

D
ECLINING
G
OVERNMENT
S
UPPORT
:

N
EOLIBERAL
I
DEOLOGY
R
EACHES
C
AMPUS

5

T
HE
R
ISE OF THE
C
ORPORATE
U
NIVE
RSITY

5

I
NDUSTRY
-
A
CADEMIC
R
ELATIONS

5

G
OVERNMENT
F
UNDING
S
TIPULATIONS

7

M
ANAGING AND
A
DMINISTERING THE
M
ANAGERS AND
A
DMINISTRATORS
W
HO
M
ANAGE AND
A
DMINISTER
U
NIVERSITY
O
PERATIONS

8

B
OARD
M
EMBER
CEO
S

8

A
CCOUNTABILITY AND
S
TUDENT
I
NVOLVEMENT

9

T
HE
E
THICS OF
E
NDOWMENTS

9

F
OSSIL
F
UELS ON
C
AMPUS

10

SECTION 2: GOVERNANC
E & DECISION
-
MAKING

12

D
ALHOUSIE

S
B
OARD OF
G
OVERNORS

12

D
ALHOUSIE
S
ENATE

13

P
RESIDENT
&

S
ENIOR
A
DMINISTRATION

13

S
TUDENT
D
ECISION
M
AKING

14

F
UNDING
P
RIORITIES

14

SECTION 3: FOSSIL FU
EL INDUSTRY ON CAMPU
S

16

F
UNDING FOR
P
ROGRAMS

16


3

G
OT THE
C
REDENTIALS
?

16

S
HELL
E
XPERIENTIAL
L
EARNING
F
UND
(SELF)

17

F
UNDRAISING
:

D
ALHOUSIE

S
B
OLD
A
MBITIONS
C
AMPAIGN

19

I
MPERIAL
O
IL

19

P
OTASH
C
ORP

21

P
ENSIONS AND
E
NDOWMENTS

21

B
ACKGROUND

22

F
UND
M
ANAGER
P
ORTFOLIOS

25

B
ANKS
F
INANCING THE
T
AR
S
ANDS

26

T
HE
C
ORPORATIONS

28

STARS

(S
USTAINABILITY
,

T
RACKING
,

A
SSESSMENT
&

R
ATING
S
YSTEM
)

28

SECTION 4: CONCLUSIO
NS & RECCOMENDATIONS

31

F
OR STUDENTS

32

F
OR
D
ALHOUSIE
U
NIVERSITY

33

REFERENCES

35

APPENDIX A


DECISION
-
MAKERS AT DALHOUSIE

41

APPENDIX B
-

RESOURCES FOR FUTURE

WORK

43

APPENDIX C
-

RESOURCES ON DIVESTM
ENT

45






4

SECTION 1: BACKGROUND

There is currently a democratic
deficit in our society. The federal and
provincial governments prioritize
the well
-
being of big polluting corporations over the
well
-
being of
both
people and the

planet. On
university campuses,
corporate
interests

carry a significant and disproportionate
amount of power over university
affairs
,

while students lack representation

and
decision
-
making power.

In identifying the historic changes
that universities have undergone and the
growing corporatization of campus space,
we seek to shed light on how our campuses
are impacted by academic
-
industry
connections.
Beginning with the advent of
the modern knowledge economy in
universities and the exploitation of this
knowledge by the federal government and
corporate interests
, this report will discuss
why the

increasing industry
-
academic
connection is problematic
. Fol
lowing a
discussion on how universities have begun
to receive and invest their funds, this report
will
specifically
investigate
Dalhousie’s
investments

and fundraising campaigns,

and

expose the cozy relationship between the
fossil fuel industry and
Canadia
n
universities
.

Higher Education in Canada
-

A
Brief History

In the past one hundred years the
structure and purpose of universities has
shifted dramatically. Initially, Canadian
u
niversities were exclusively a place for
upper
-
class men to receive an
education.

The focus was academic rather
than pragmatic, though

the place was
socially

and economically

exclusive.
The
function and structure of, as well as access
to
,

universities in Canada
changed
significantly following

World War II.
During
the war
,

the
re was a rise in focused
research at universities in order to meet

national ‘wartime objectives’
(Franklin,
2000, p.19
)
.

This trend continued after the
war,
as
research became a core purpose of
universit
ies
.
The potential worth of this
research became part
icularly apparent after
the
post World War II economic boom. This
period marked the beginning
of
economic
globalization
,

and
business and government
saw the society
-
wide value in funding hig
her
education (Arsenault
,

2007).

The value they
saw

was

seated in military pragmatism and
capitalist production
, rather than

an

ideal of
education.

In 1966
-
67 the
f
ederal government
increased spending on post
-
secondary
education by 400%, paying out $400 million
to universities,
a dramatic increase

from
the
$99 million
in funding the

previous year

(
Tudiver, 1999, p.24)
.

In

addition, t
he shift
in C
anada’s economy from a resource
-
based
to a knowledge
-
driven economy both
increased university attendance and made
universities a target
for corporate
intervention

(Conlon
, 2000, p.147
).



5

The Modern Knowledge Economy

The government and private
-
interests,

which had

typically operated
outside of and remained sepa
rate from
public universit
ies
,

began to realize the
potential profit of commercializing the
results of

university
-
based

research.
Canadian u
niversities
have been drastically
reorganized as a res
ult of an increase
in

external
influence over the management of
u
niversity education
,

including
how it
receives
funds and
what is included in the
curriculum.

T
ransi
tioning

away from a space
of
learning
, u
niversities

h
ave

become

a place
to

produce research that
has market value
.

Knowledge

is no longer treated as an end in
itself; its merit is now distinguished by its
practicality in the real world
.


Declining
Government

Support
:
Neoliberal

Ideology

Reaches
Campus

The economic changes resulting
from neoliberal globalization in the 1980s
,

which
brought sweeping privatization,
deregulation, and de
-
funding of public
institutions
,

played a major role in causing
the
corporatization of universities.
Canadian
u
niversities suffered
when
the

federal
and
provincial
government
s

withdrew financial
support

as part of the neoliberal agenda
.
In
the 1990s, federal and provincial
governments further cut post
-
secondary
education funding.
U
niversities
had to
cope
with reduced financial support from the
public

sphere
(Eastman
,
2007
)
.

During this
period,
tuition fees increased by a national
average
of 126% and led to a rise in the
average student debt from $8000 to $25,000
(Conlon, 2000, p.148).

But raising tuition
fees was not enough, and universities were
forced

to seek out other sources of funding.
The governments’ funding cuts allowed and
even necessitated industry’s stepping
-
in; and
as a result the power to control and influence
research, was transferred from the public to
the private sphere.

The Rise of the
Corporate
University

Univers
ities attempted to deal with a
loss of

public funding by
seeking out private
sources of funding,
embracing corporate
management principles (Cote & Allahar,
2011,
p.91) and becoming more
entrepreneurial.


Dominant

market ideology asserts
that the ma
rketplace exists to make profit.

C
orporations and
t
he government
increasingly
saw

potential for
universities
to
become a
profit
-
maximizing entity

where

new knowledge and technology
could
enter
the market
pla
ce.

Industry
-
Academic Relations

V
ario
us government sponsored
reports
,
1

partisan think
-
tanks, and ‘quasi
-





1

The Corporate
-
Higher Education Forum (CHEF)
was established in 1983. It included CEOs from
companies including Shell, Xerox, the
Royal Bank,
Nortel and most University Presidents, with little
academic representation. Appointed by Prime
Minister Trudeau, the MacDonald commission
released a report in 1985 recommending an economy

6

academic free
-
market consultants’ reported
that publicly administered institutions were
inefficient and greater corporate
participation in universities was
desirable
(Conlon
, 2000,

p.147).

Universities
started
to
experience the financial benefits of being
able to produce knowledge and technology
in exchange for money

(Bok, 2003).
On the
other end,
corporations

began to view

u
niversities
as a pool of

profitable
knowledge and ideas

that
could contribute to
the economy by conducting
industry
-
specific
research
and forming
sp
in
-
off
companies
2


(Metcalfe
, 2010
).








wide shift to free trade and included that greater
corpo
rate participation in universities was desirable.
The Prime Minister’s Advisory Council on Science
and Technology commissioned the Expert Panel on
the Commercialization of Research. The panel was
made up of leading figures from the high
-
tech
industry, as w
ell as both Canadian and American
University Administrators with experience in the
commercialization of research. There were no
university researchers on the panel. In 1999 the Panel
released the Report of the Expert Panel on the
Commercialization of Resea
rch. The report
recommended major changes to ensure the
commercial potential of university research was
privileged over not
-
for
-
profit research in the public
interest, and tied university funding to the ability of a
university to commercialize its research
.
Marketability became a prerequisite for research
funding.

2

A spin
-
off venture, in relation to universities, can be
defined in two ways, both of which require external
involvement by a private corporation. First, a spin
-
off
venture can be defined as ven
ture that is created in
order to ‘commercialize intellectual property’ that a
company commissions from a university researcher.
This result is then given to the company
(
Simon
Fraser University Innovation Office, n.d.).

As a
result, the university would re
ceive some sort of
compensation from the company such as a share of
royalties (ibid). Secondly, a spin
-
off venture can be
While the fossil fuel industry is
investing more and more money to campus
-
based research there has
actually been a
decline in ‘in
-
house’ research conducted by
fossil fuel
corporations
.
In the 1980s the
research and development budgets of the
four largest o
il companies

ExxonMobil,
BP, Shell and Chevron

were an average of
$6.4 billion (
US) per year. By 2000 it had
declined to $1.7 billion (US), and it has only
increased marginally since

(Washburn,
2010)
.
In the United States, Maria Klawe
and Telle Whitney
3

no
ted that
private

industry
has been

abandoning applied
research
.
As

a result,
these industries have

turned to
universities

to conduct the applied
research that
they now lack

capacity for
(Klawe & Whitney, 2003,

p.171
)
.

This has
resulted in industry
profiting from
commercial research done at universities
(
Graham,
2000,
p.
26)
.

Corporate
interests in

universities,

as
described above
threaten
s the integrity of
universities
.

Corporations

have an increasing
amount of involvement and input over what
is bei
ng researched and published

(
Renke
,
2000,
p.32)
.
Universities are

becoming
economically

motivated
research institution
s







defined as a venture of which a university professor
or faculty member is a principal founder. Such a
venture depends on a technology
developed at the
university (ibid).
Thus, universities are increasingly
treated as an institution to be exploited by
corporations who commercialize the product and
make large sums of money.

3

Maria Klawe is Dean of Engineering and Applied
Science at Prince
ton University and Telle Whitney is
President of the Anita Borg Institute for Women and
Technology.


7

and less
of
a public learning space.

This is
ex
tremely concerning for those
who value
more than the economic bottom line. O
ne of
the maj
or issues with
commercializing
university knowledge for profit is that it is
often done without any regard to whether or
not it is ethical
(Mintz et al.,
2010,
p.6).
Funders provide stipulations

when money is
given
to
universities
,
and if these
are not
followed,
funding can be withdrawn.

This corporate presence and control
ove
r research and curriculum
shapes

how
faculties
and
universities function in the
market economy.

If a corporate donor has
control over when and where funds are
spent, and if

faculties rely on those funds for
their research, the results may favor that of
private interests (
Renke
,

2000, p.
32)
. This
could give
preferential treatment to outside
influences and
can hinder

f
reedom of
thought in academia (K
lawe

& Whitney
,
2003
)
.
Further
,
s
ignificant analytical and
empirical research has found that corporate
-
sponsored research is far more likely to
favour

the company’s products and/or
commercial interests compared to
government or non
-
profit funded research.
4

In addition, industry
-
s
ponsored research is
linked to growing corporate control of
academic data, delays on publication,





4

Studies conducted by Blumenthal et al.
(1996),
Gøtzsche et al. (2008), Mejia (2008), Lexchin et al.
(2003), Barnes and Baro (1998), and Bero et al.
(2007)
; found in
Washburn (2010)
.

increased secrecy, and reduced academic
sharing of research data and materials.
5

Th
e overall structure of the
university
has come to resemble

a private
business more than a public institution of
learning.

Corporate
funders are exerting
their influence in the classroom, labs and
hallways of universities (Klawe

&Whitney
,
2003
,
p.
30).
Universities
are sustaining the
profitability of these corporat
ions by
allowing company logos and values to
infiltrate
classrooms and
campus

space
.


Government Funding Stipulations

When the Canadian government
began to appreciate
the potential
for
profit
from investing in university
entrepreneurship and research, it strategized
and developed specific research funding
agencies.
The federal government

s
changing ideology led it to attach
stipulations to its
funds and encourage more
marketable research

and private don
ations
.
6






5

Companies can require a delay in publication time,
have the right to own the results or approve the final
paper, or terminate trials. This has been shown to
encumber open scientific exchange. Studies
conducted by Campbell, Loui
s and Blumenthal
(1998), Campbell et al. (2000); found in Washburn
(2010). Companies can require a delay in publication
time, have the right to own the results or approve the
final paper, or terminate trials. This has been shown
to encumber open scientific
exchange. Studies
conducted by Campbell, Louis and Blumenthal
(1998), Campbell et al. (2000); found in in Washburn
(2010).

6

Approaches such as matched
-
funds programs where
the government will match funding provided by
private donors or targeted funding fo
r specific
programs or research ‘in the national interest.’


8

Government
investment in Canadian
universities has been increasingly
focused
on

the develop
ment of
new, cutting
-
edge
technologies

intended

to maintain

Canada’s
competitive advantage. The government
’s
current funding
i
s

tied to econ
omic interest
of

and

the
expan
s
ion of
“commercialization,
innovation, and entrepreneurs
hip” (Madgett
& Stoney, 2009, p.148;
Doern & Stoney,
2009,
p.6).


Managing and Administering the
Managers and Administrators
Who Manage and A
dminister
University O
perations

The move to more
scientific
-
research
-
focused universities, the increasing pressure
to bring research findings to the market,

and

the growing need to compete for public
funding and attract private

funders ha
ve

led
to an explosion of non
-
academic staff and
departments on campus (Washburn, 2005).
Lawyers, accountants, regulators, and other
staff are required to manage the new
functions of universities
, through which

a
n
entire meta
-
industry of university
managemen
t has emerged
.

Samuels (2011) elaborates:

“After all, they have to have
administrators and staff to run
compliance offices, regulate research
centres, oversee venture capital
enterprises, and to undertake
fundraising activities. They also need
administrat
ors to watch over the other
administrators, and then they need
staff to collect the information so that
administrators can watch over other
administrators, and of course, these
institutions need computer staff to
compile the data to give to the staff so
th
ey can give it to the administrator
who gives it to another administrator,
and once one gets to this level of
complication, one needs a whole set
of other people to see if everyone is
following the state and federal
guidelines, and the expansion
continues
to infinity.”



This shift has dramatically changed
the landscape of universities and has been a
part of the shift away from learning towards
turning a profit.

Board Member
CEO
s

One of the most dramatic changes

that occurred in Canada during

budget cuts
of the
90s was the importance of fund
raising
to

Canadian u
niversities (Owram,
2004,
p.177).
Fundraising impacted the
organization of universities in two main
ways: by shifting the power between
particular facult
ies

and programs
,

and by
changin
g the organizational structure into
more of a
corporate managerial
style (Fisher
& Atinson
-
Grosjean, 2002,
p.452).

Unive
rsities became much more
depende
nt on alumni and corp
orate funds
. I
n
order to manage these funds efficiently, the

organizational stru
cture of universit
ies

had
to
adapt
.
Budget committees
were
formed
and
administration
became more

managerial
with a heavy focus

on

public relations
to
make
the university image more attractive so
that fundraising

campaigns
would be

more
successful.

T
he
importan
ce of having a

corporate
-
savy Board of Governors to
oversee and encourage fundraising has
led to
more and more representation from the

9

business community. This will be explored
further in Section 2.

Accountab
ili
ty

and Student
Involvement

In their e
fforts to remain financially
viable, universities must attempt

to please
their

wealthy donors.
Where the
interests or
expectations

of the
donors are in conflict
with those of the

students
or

the public, the
wishes of the donors will likely win because
the
universities

are reliant on their funding
(Walker,
2008,
p.47). In these
circumstances

the
university
risks

compromising its values
as an academic institution (Mintz et al.,
2010,
p.17).
Because it is the administration
making these decisions,
the notion o
f
accountability has actually led to a decrease
in student and faculty involvement, and
a
growing environment of secrecy
(Polster &
Newson, 2009)
.

Universities and their administration
are making decisions in order to remain
accountable to corporate in
terests and
their
own interest in maintaining the

financial

bottom line
. A conflict of interest
occurs
where the decisions made by a university
administration for financial reasons are
opposed to

the educational mandates as set
out by
concept of
the university as a public
institution of higher education. (MacDonald
et al, 2002, p.68). Why doesn’t the
university sever its ties with corporations?
We return to the current economic status quo
that has been pushed and maintained within
our
capitalist,
neoliberal
society.

The Ethics of Endowments


The main form of external revenue a
university receives is in the form of
endowments.

These endowments
can
come from
wealthy individual donors or companies
.
The university then invests the money so
that it ca
n use its profits as a
source of
finance in perpetuity
.

How this money is invested can be
challenging to determine as many
univ
ersities keep this information
confidential
. A
lthough
some argue

that
investments are “financial transactions
disconnected from social, political, or
environmental ramifications, this couldn’t be
further from the truth. In providing capital
for...corporations...and environmentally
destructive activities
,

investments
s
upport

unethical

corporation
s and destructive
activities

(
Newton
,

2000,

p.419
-
420)
.
Universities across Canada have been able
to maintain unethical inves
tment practices
based on the argument of ne
utrality.
Stating

that
they

must not compromise
their

rol
e as
What is an endowment?

An endowment is a gift or funds
donated to an institution that is
invested and used as a source of
income.

A portion of the revenue from the
investment is paid out every year to
campus operations, programs or
projects than can be specified by the
donor.

(
Adapted

from wearepowershift.org)




10

an educational institution,
universities argue
that by adopting a social consci
ence
, they
are putting academic freedom and neutrality
at risk

(
Newton
,

2000,

p.421).
An

issue with
this argument is that with such close ties to
corporate interest, and a
decreasing role in
the public sector, universities cannot
maintain their

neutrality.
This is due to the
fact that
profitability remains the guiding
principle of investment practices
, making it
clear that “universities
have more than a
corporate influenc
e; they have a corporate
consciousness” (
Kniffin
,

2000,

p.42).

Fossil Fuels on Campus

Fossil fuel
corporations

have been a
major part of the corporatization of the
university described above. The role of the
fossil fuel industry in universities takes
many forms, including:

1.

Donations to buildings

2.

Funding for Research

3.

Funding for Programs

4.

Recruitment for employmen
t and
participation in co
-
op programs

5.

Advertising on campus



Universities in turn have their money
from pension and endowment funds invested
in these companies.

This cozy relationship is
highly problematic for many reasons.


U
niversities that
advertise as being
supposedly

increasing
ly

committed to
sustainability are compromising their
commitments by
allowing fossil fuels to
play a

progressively larger
role in their
operation
s. Allowing fossil fuel corporation
s
to promote themselves and their gr
een
-
washing initiatives is contributing to a fossil
fuel

culture

(
Fenton,
2011).
According to
MacDonald Stainsby of Oil Sands Truth,
"The idea behind doing sponsorships,
buying up auditoriums and whatnot under
the Shell, Suncor or Albian name is entirely
part of normalization. It gives the image that
[oil companies] are part of your community
to create the impression that they are not
only there, but that they will inevitably
remain there and you need to accept that and
find ways to work with them instead
of
sh
utting them down
"

(
Fenton,
2011).

The
fossil fuel industry has a long history of
denying climate science (Washburn
,

2010,
p. 40) and their marketing and recruitment
on campus should be questioned.



The loss of public funding

described
above

has made universities
increasingly

reliant on funding from
fossil fuel
corporations
. They are left

vulnerable to the
whims and requirements that corporate
funders can stipulate in order to provide
funding. Furthermore, the academic integrity
of universiti
es is at risk from the increasing
influence of
fossil fuel corporations.
An
analysis of research partnerships between
American
u
nive
rsities and fossil fuel
corporation
s showed that most contracts
involved a loss of independence and
academic self
-
governance

for the
u
niversities

(Washburn
,

2010).
The problem
isn’t necessarily inherently that the fossil
fu
el industry is funding research but

whether
or not the fossil fuel industry is using these
research partnerships to advance a pre
-
scripted viewpoint to meet
their financial
gains (
Arsenault
, 2007).




Research that has social value, but

11

which has less potential to generate
commercial profits is
not as

likely to be
conducted
. According to Washburn (2010),
in the area of energy research, this might
include
:
studies comparing the relative
social, economic, energy, and environmental
consequences of various competing
al
ternative
-
energy technologies;
advanced
research to measure carbon and other
greenhouse gas
es emitted from various
sources;

or the development of

effective
carbon caps, taxes, trading, and measuring
systems. The lack of research for the public
-
good of this nature being carried out
independent of indu
stry or special
-
interest
groups

is detrimental to
the
shift to green
economy
.



The lack of
transparency

and
accountability with regard to academic
-
industry partnerships is

also

problematic.
There is no database
or

centralized national
system
that exists
for tracking individual
academic
-
industry partnerships and most
universities will not release

comprehensive
information (Washburn
,

2010).



The fossil fuel industry can see
funding universit
ies

as a means of training
for future employees. Dalhousie (2004)

said
the purpose of ‘
sponsored research’ funding
was to “train and educate highly sought after
graduates for research, technical and
management positions in the energy sector.”

This is in some regard
s

a
mutually
beneficial relationship
: universities

receiv
e

fun
ding for
research and education,

graduates are promised (gainful if not
meaningful) employment
,
and the
fossil fuel
industry

receive
s both

graduates already
trained to work in the industry

and
technology designed for the industry
.
However, the resulting industry
-
specific bias
in
the
curriculum leaves graduates ready to
work
only
for the fossil
-
fuel industry
. These
grads are un
prepared for work in other fields
such as green energy,
are socially and
ethically
normalized to the fossil fuel
industry, and
are often
so

far in
-
debt that
fossil fuel industry

jobs are often the easiest
or only
opportunities available
.
Essentially,
t
hese companies design students who have
no choice but to work for them.



For all the money coming in from the
fossil fuel industry, univers
ities are
,

in

turn
,

financially supporting the fossil fuel industry
through their investments. This will be
investigated further in Section 3
.




12

SECTION 2: GOVERNANCE & DECISION
-
MAKING

This section will look at the

gov
ernance structure at

Dalhousie, including
the

roles of the Board of Governors, the
Senate a
nd the Senior Administration.

The Dalhousie administration has
become intensely diversified and
specialized, re
sembling the managerial style

of large corporations.


University affairs are divided and
managed by
two separate bodies: the Board
of Governors and the Senate (Jones &
Skolnik, 1997, p.282).

The Board and
Senate have committees that form proposals
to bring to the Board and Senate.


The Senior Administration
is charged
with overseeing the implementation of the
decisions made by the Board.


The
Senior Administration
have “leading
executive management

role[s]” (Jones,
2002) and
each
manage
elements of
university operations

like research

and
student services.

There are academic and
non
-
academic departments and offices that
carry out these operations and report to the
Senior Administration.

Dalhousie’s Board of Governors

The Board is composed of

(Dalhousie,
Appointment Process)
:

o

Chancellor

[ex officio]

o

President and Vice
-
Chancellor [ex
officio]

o

Chair of the University Senate [ex
officio]

o

15 persons appointed by the Governor
in Council upon recommendation of the
Board

o

3 persons appointed by the Board

o

4 persons nominated by the Dalhousie
Alumni Association and approved and
appointed by the Board

o

3 persons nominated by the Dalhousie
Student Union and approved and
appointed by the Board

o

2 members of the full
-
time teaching
staff nominated by the University
Senate and approved and appointed by

the Board.


For profiles of some of the current
board members see Appendix A.


The Board of Governors has the
highest degree of
power

and influence over
the university, as it must approve all
recommendations made by our Senate
(academic affairs) and must also appoint the
university President.
Among other
responsibilities, the Board,

appoint
s the
P
resident,
approve
s

decisions relating to

university operations,

design
s

and
implement
s

annual budgets and decide
tuition rates (with input from the Provincial
government).


Dalhousie’s Board has 9 committees,
including

Academic

Affairs & Research
,

and Investment.


I
t is the Board Committees
that do much of
the work and then they report their outcomes
to the Board
. These meeting are held in
-
camera and as such the records are not
available to the public
.
The supposed
accountability of the governance structure

13

falls away for the sake of authorit
y and
efficiency.


Dalhousie Senate


The S
enate has the responsibility of
overseeing academic affairs at Dalhousie
(such as setting academic calendar, giving

out degrees) and must submit all
recommendations to the Board of
Governors. There are 72 members,
with 6
student members.


In 1990
, the S
enate released an
environmental policy for Dalhousie.
We
want to highlight

two important points
mandated

with respect to research
and
cor
porate relationships on campus:

“2)

Dalhousie University will strive to
conduct
its research activities in ways
that are environmentally

appropriate.
Dalhousie University will also encourage
its faculty and associates to conduct
research that investigates the causes and
mitigation of environmental degradation,
as well as social, econo
mic and industrial
pathways towards sustainable
development.

5)

Dalhousie University will play

an
exemplary role by ensuring that its
corporate operations

become as
environmentally sound as allowed by
technology, econo
mics and common
sense.”


We will discu
ss further how these
policies are not maintained
at Dalhousie
University later in this

report
.

President & Senior Administration


The university President is the head
of Dalhousie’s Senior Administrati
on and
sits on the Board of G
overnors, as well as all
o
f its committees. The credentials necessary
to become a university President have
changed drastically due to the necessity for
universities to maintain their financial
viability (Soley, 1995, p.20). Credentials for
this position include administrative
expe
rience and ties with corporations
(Soley,

1995,

p.20:21). It is astonishing that
the President of a university is not selected
based on academic merit or their position
within an academic department, but for their
ability to attract external funds (Soley,
1995,

p.
21). To add insult to academic injury,
university Presidents are receiving six figure
salaries for being successful fundraisers
(Soley,

1995,

p.
25).


The Senior Administration consists
of the President and
five

Vice
-
Presidents.
Each Vice President
is in charge of
overseeing and managing a portion of the
university’s functions
.
T
wo noteworthy
Vice
-
Presidential roles at Dalhousie are

currently held by

Ken Burt,
VP Finance and
Administration
, and Floyd Dykeman,
VP
External
. Vice President of Finance and
Administration is responsible for finances
and also human resources, real estate
management and the Office of Sustainability
to name a few. Vice President of External’s
role is to act as a strategic liaison between
D
alhousie and its external relations and is in
charge of communications and marketing.


14

Student Decision Making


Student
s’

tuition fees compose 32
%

(104, 602 tuition/ 323, 413 total revenue) of
Dalhousie’s revenue

(Dalho
usie

Annual
Financial Report
, 2011
)
.
S
hould students not
then have 32%

representation on the Board
of Governors
, the highest decision
-
making
body
?

As
shown

above, only 3 out of 27
(11%) Board M
em
bers are students. Most of
the B
oard is composed of
old, white men

who have a background in business. Is this
truly representative of the student body?
Only 3 out of 16 members of the Student
Experience Committee (a committee of the
Board of Governors) are students.
Are the
needs of students being heard or addressed
fair
ly?

Funding
Priorities


Fundraising has become critical to
the university. The importance granted to
financial matters and marketing a fundable
image has led to the corporatization of
governance.

The result has been that
he

Board,
Senate and Senior Adm
inistration

are not
representative of the university community.
As such the decisions reflect the values and
priorities of
the corporate
Board, which may
very well differ from
what the students and
community

value and prioritize
.
7







7

For example, the university is empowered to lobby
the government to not cut funding or raise tuition
however these efforts have not been witnessed.

As introduced in Section

1, one of
the changes seen in universities is the
growth in non
-
academic departments and
management.

It is worth noting the amount
of money
that is spent annually on
maintaining speci
alized managerial positions
at Dalhousie
. These positions vary from
secretarial to legal and they are part of the
different departments that have been created
to manage corporate relations, fundraising
initiatives

and marketing research

among
other functions
(Dalhousie Annual Financial
Report, 2011). In 2011, the second hi
ghest
responsibility expenditure of the university
(the first being renewed funding for all
academic departments) was administration.
8



The total spent of administration was
$24, 761, 000.
By comparison, t
he total
expenditure for student services
9

was $ 5
,
776, 000.
10


It is

worth considering whether
t
he priority placed on
student services
(
accessibility services, counselling and other
services for students
)

which
is at
presence

in
the hands of the corporate Board and not the
students who are the core of

intellectual
labour at the university

would be different if
students held more decision
-
making power
.







8

Responsibility expenditure is all non
-
general
operating expenditures. Among others, it includes
Facilities Management, Student Services, Academic
and General.

9

Student Services includes: among others,
counseling, student health, varsity, intramurals &
c
lubs

10

T
hese figures are based upon the actual 2010
-
11
operating budget results, as calculated including the
endowment variance


15




16

SECTION 3: FOSSIL FUEL INDUSTRY ON CAMPUS

This section will examine the cozy
relationship between Dalhousie University
and the fossil fuel industry.
Funding for
Programs

Corporations are now giving
increasingly directed gifts to particular
university departments and their facilities.
These fund
s have become
a major form of revenue
for Canadian Universities
(Soley, 1995, p.146;
Walker, 2008). Although
these funds have become
more and more necessary,
the necessity has been
constructed by external
forces, acting in an
ongoing feedback loop
which re
inforces itself.
Corporate funding replaces lost government
funding, which is rationalized with recourse
to increasing corporate funding. We must
question how these funds permeate through
the fabric of the university and how impacts
can extend through camp
us and community.

One example of where this occurs at
Dalhousie is Shell, who makes equipment
donations annually to the department of
Earth Sciences (specifically, the petrography
lab). This normalizes further the relationship
between students and the foss
il fuel
industry.
It artificially increases students’
opinions of the corporation,

effectively
allowing for a continually increasing
corporate presence.
Other impacts and
considerations

Got the Credentials?


Research
shows that industry
favours
students who
have participat
ed in
field experience
programs. Work
terms are designed
for

students
to
build
direct relationships
with industry
professionals and
gain real
-
life
experience (Klawe & Whitney, 2003). As
noted in Section 1, funding by corporation
s
involves making an agreement and forging
direct tie
s

between
the
university and the
donor (Graham, 2000, p.26). At Dalhousie,
the Department of Earth Sciences and
Engineering have both benefited from
funding by Shell in order to provide real
-
life
experie
nce that links students with industry

(Faculty of Engineering)
. For example, Shell
funds annual field excursions and to
urs for
Earth Sciences students

that take place on
Shell property and various oi
l rich territories
(
Department of Earth Sciences
, 2007
)
.

These excursions are part of an academic
course at Dalhousie. T
his type of
programming

encourages
learning and

17

knowledge advancement in sectors that
cause social and environmental harm.


Shell Experiential Learning Fund (SELF)




Dalhousie is one of
many
universities in Canada that receive funding
from Shell through their national campaign
to support education

(Shell Canada)
. As part
of the Campus Ambassador Program (CAP),
Shell has senior
advisory
officials present on
16 campuses across Canada

(Shell

Canada)
.

These advisory roles at Dalhousie extend
from student mentoring and project adv
isors
to participating in field
-
based excursions

(Faculty of Engineering)
. Under the CAP
program, Dalhousie receives money through
a
fund

called the Shell Experiential

Learning
Fund (SELF)
which was established
to
provide experience for students beyond the
classroom. SELF funds are divided three
ways among the faculties: Design
Competitions for Engineering

students
,
Field Schools for Earth Sciences students
and Student
Research Projects for both
faculties

(Faculty of Engineering)
.

Although experiential learning is an
important component to any field of study, it
is the
focus on

the

fossil fuel related
curriculum, and the reliance on

external oil
funding that is problem
atic. Why?

In 2006,
when announcing SELF f
unding, then
President and CEO of Shell Clive Mather
proudly stated that “As well as forming
strong bonds with the students and faculty,
the Ambassadors will help reinforce Shell’s
reputation as a first class emplo
yer” (
Faculty
of Engineering
). If relationships between
fossil fuel corporations and students
continue to become stronger, the link
between student graduates and Shell as a
potential employer will only grow stronger.

This sort of relationship does not
cor
relate with Dalhousie’s Senate
Environmental Policy, which states that
Dalhousie and its students should be
participating in research activities which
will lead to social and economic pathways
for sustainable development. Fossil fuel
corporations like Shel
l are not sustainable,
as they rely on the profitability of a finite
resource that contributes to climate change,
and causes devastating social and
environmental harm.




When investiga
ting this program we
found very little
specific information, except
for

in an Earth Sciences Newsletter dated
2006. It stated that Shell would donate
$200,000 over a period of three years to
each of

Engineering and Earth Sciences, to a
total of $400,000. Internal departmental
funding also contributed to funds provided
by Shell, as was the case with the Faculties
of Engineering and Science at Dalhousie
which supplemented the fund in 2006 by

18

$45,000

(F
aculty of Engineering)
. A 2011

Unit Review Documentation by the Earth
Sciences Department stated that Dalhousie
has continued to receive between $50,000
-

$60,000 annually from SELF since 2006,
which

now

supports faculties of
Engineering, Management and Ear
th
Sciences. This document noted that SELF
allows students to travel and meet directly
with Shell professionals; supports student
research and field trips and helps students
travel to conferences.


It was difficult to find any specific
information about pa
rticular guidelines and
criteria that Dalhousie must follow as a
recipient of SELF funding. However, there
is a Terms of Reference document available
detailing the relationship between the
University of Alberta and SELF. One term
of reference which struck
us

was

that
:

“project ideas must demonstrate
relevance to course work, and Shell
Canada’s business. Preference will
be given to projects that facilitate
interaction between Shell Canada
employees and students”

(University
of Alberta)


This quote, in relation to student
research project topics,
demonstrates

the
direct relationship and influence Shell has
over the funding received and research
conducted by students. As Dalhousie seems
to have no public record of a SELF Terms of
Reference,

we can only suppose this
relationship at a fellow Canadian university
is similar to other universities that are SELF
recipients.

The source of funding that

faculty
receives can have an impact on the
content

they cover in their courses or the research
tha
t students undertake. For example, an
Earth Sciences professor at Dalhousie
University who has supervised a field
component for a graduate seminar in
Sedimentology, took students on various
excursions in order to get some hands
-
on
experience. A former Geos
cience
Researcher at Chevron Texaco, they led
these field excursions in the same areas
where they used to do excursions with
Chevron Texaco. It has been widely
acknowledged that over the years this same
professor has received funding from fossil
fuel compa
nies like Encana, Shell and
Imperial

Oil

(Department of Earth Sciences,
2011)
.

While this may be cast as the sharing
of experience and resources, it impacts the
lens though which students gain knowledge
and develop opinions.

Although

the example above
ill
ustrates a direct link between fossil fuel
corporation
s and faculty, not all faculty
members

in the Earth Sciences and
Engineering departments receive external
funding
with such stipulations attached. W
e
are

merely illustrating

that
when
money
is
accepted
from fossil fuel corporations it
can
determine research t
opics

taken on by
students and faculty
, content taught in class
(because the research topics of the professor
will have an effect on what they teach,
work
-
term placements, and culture within
the department
(Graham,
2000, p.
26).


19

Fundraising: Dalhousie’s Bold
Ambitions Campaign


Fundraising
has become an
important strategy for universities across
Canada as they struggle to find
new

ways to
attract

extern
al revenue.
Known as
Dalhousie’s $250 million Campaign, Bold
Ambitions

has amassed a series of
noteworthy
donations from alumni and
corporations
. Many of these don
ations have
been from Canadian b
anks,
wh
ich invest in
the tar sands or directly
from foss
il fuel
corporations

such as Imperial Oil.
These
funds

from corporations complicit in
causing social and environmental
devastation, and the banks that support
them
.
By accepting these donations
Dalhousie is sacrificing its integrity as an
institution of

learning
committed to
sustainability

by
fostering relationships with

fossil fuel corporations and b
anks that invest
in
these corporations
.


Dalhousie does not hav
e a screening
process for where

funding comes from. It’s
all about maintaining the bottom line. We
recommend that Dalhousie establish a
fundraising policy that prohibits accepting
money from unethical sources.

Imperial Oil



As part of the Bold Ambitions
campaign, Imperial Oil
Foundat
ion has
donated $400,
000 to be distributed over a
four year period for a program called Math
Circles. Like the Shell SELF program, this
is given annually.
. Quoting the need to “live
in a country with a science
-
based
population,” Imperial Oil suggests that

“...if
(Canada) wants to stay competitive, we need
to spark the imaginations of this generation
in the sciences and mathematics


(DUOER,
2008)

But h
ow does Imperial Oil hope to
spark our imagination? Donations like these
create relationships between fossi
l fuel
corporations

and allow them to influence
what
topics; logos and viewpoints
students
are exposed to

(Graham, 2000, p.26). The
simple presence of the Imperial Oil name
and logo on materials produced by Math
Circles will maintain the image that these
i
ndustries are a
n acceptable part of our
society.




20


Potash Mining in Penobsquis, NB


In order to comprehend why this next case, in our opinion, represents the worst
case of Dalhousie’s implicit support of social and environmental harm in a neighbouring
maritime community, we will briefly outline a few things.
First
, Potash is an umbrella
t
erm representing “all potassium salts that are used as fertilizers” (UNEP, 2001). Potash
mining is an extraction process to collect potash and phosphate rock to produce a
fertilizer (UNEP, 2001). This extraction process causes excessive environmental
damag
e as “dust and exhaust gas are released into the air, while the leaching of toxic
minerals and processing wastes

may end up in the groundwater (
Mining Watch Canada,
2007)
.
” There has also been warning that the extraction process or dewatering can have
an e
ffect on water supplies (UNEP, 2011). PotashCorp Saskatchewan is the leading
producer of Potash fertilizer and in 2004 it began mining operations in the area of
Penobsquis, New Brunswick (CCP, 2012).


In 2004, PotashCorp Saskatchewan began a series of sei
smic testing in the area
of Penobsquis. Seismic testing disrupts the lives of those living nearby as it includes the
plantin
g and detonation of dynamite (CCP, 2012). This

testing is completed by
corporations that are searching for oil or other minerals in
the ground. The damage from
seismic testing in the town of Penobsquis included muddy
and contaminated
tap water
and households shaking (CCP, 2012). When mining activity officially began, residents
lost their water supply. It was not long before residents r
ealised that a loss of water was
linked to the mining activity, as Potash mines require a large amount of water for the
extraction process. Local government officials and the Provincial Department of
Environment knew what was happening, and
only very
poor
solutions have been
implemented. In the end, residents still do not have control over the inflow of water to
their homes. Due to Potash mining in the town of Penobsquis, homes are sinking, air is
being polluted, and water is being lost. Many citizens of Pe
nobsquis have come together
to fight mining activity in their area, but they have slowly learned that
the

relations
hip

between industry and government takes precedence over the lives and health of ordinary
citizens.


Citizens of Penobsquis organized under

the name Concerned Citizens of
Penobsquis and have filed a claim with the Mining Commissioner seeking
compensation. This hearing has been called ‘The New Brunswick Mining Commission
Hearing’ and although currently stalled, will continue in June

2012

(CCP,

2012). This
case brings awareness of the social and environmental harms of mining activity, and it is
happening right here in the Maritimes.



21

Potash Corp



How is Dalhousie tied to
the Potash
case described above
? Dalhousie’s medical
school located in
New Brunswick has
recently accepted a $500,000 donation from
PotashCorp

(
Dalhousie, Medicine
)
,

as part
of
the

Bold Ambitions campaign. But what
sort of Bold Ambitions are being
encouraged, and why is Dalhousie relying
on donations from
corporations

clearly

perpetuating social and environmental
injustice? The PotashCorp donation will be
“used to attract and support a research chair
in occupational medicine

(Dalhousie,
Medicine N.B.
)
.

The trend of targeted
research funding continues.



Arguably the worst
aspect of this
unethical link

between PotashCorp and
Dalhousie is the sort of media coverage
these donations receive.
Even if PotashCorp
does not extend its influence directly over
who is hired by Dalhousie and the topic of
research, this generous donation has allowed
PotashCorp

to extend a financial hand
and to
give the unethical activity of Potash Mining
a good face wit
hin the community. This
quote was found on the Dalhousie media
webpage:


At PotashCorp, we know that
quality of life in our local
communities depends on access to
quality healthcare. We hope that
this investment helps to provide
better care across southern

New
Brunswick and supports our
province’s effort to retain more
young physicians going forward”

-

Mr. Stewart Brown, General
Manager, PotashCorp New
Brunswick


This quote is an insult simply because

it is

widely known that the
health and
environmental effec
ts
of mining are
devastating
.
The company’s very existence
and everyday operation is fundamentally
contrary to its advertised image.


Relationships like this cause
inarguably damaging practises to be
rationalized, normalized, and perpetuated

Pensions a
nd Endowments

Dalhousie’s relationship to
the fossil
fuel industry

goes beyond accepting gifts
and donations from large corporations.
Dalhousie also makes financial contributions
to
fossil fuel

projects by investing the
money it holds in its endowment and
pension funds. Research on Dalhousie’s
particular fund managers and investme
nt
portfolios revealed that Dalhousie
has a
substantial amount of money invested in
various fossil fuel corporations
all over the
world.





22

This se
ction of the report focuses on

the connection between Dalhousie’s pension
and endowment investments and the fossil
fuel industry.

Background

According to the Dalhousie’s Endowment
Management Policy (1990)
,

core edu
cation
programming is
funded primarily
from public (i.e.
government) and
user (i.e. student)
sources.

Enrichment
activities seek
funding from non
-
co
re sources,

primarily
endowments.


Universities
invest both the
endowment money
they receive and
money held

in
their
pension fund
.
11

All together
,

Canadian
universities have $41 billion in investments





11

Pensions are a regular payment made during a
person's retirement from an investment fund to which
that person or their
employer has contributed (google
dictionary). Dalhousie’s Pension Plan is an employer
sponsored, Defined Benefit Plan. This means that
employees receive a specific, predetermined
retirement benefit, and it is solely the employer’s
responsibility to ensure
that the plan is financially
healthy enough to pay out those benefits (DSU
,

2012). The negotiations between Dalhousie and the
Dalhousie Faculty Association that nearly led to a
strike in February 2012 were

largely

focused on the
through pension funds and endowments.
(
CURI, 2011
).
Dalhousie’s e
xisting
endowments are valued at approximately
$364.1 million

(
Dalhousie, 2012
)
.



At Dalhousie
,

the Investment
Committee of the Board of Governors
oversees all investment

policies and
decisions. They
contract investment
management out to 21
investment managers
who are each
responsible for tailoring
an investment portfolio
for Dalhousie. This
means t
hat each
investment manager
invests part of
Dalhousie Pensions and
Endowments in
different
corporations

in order to receive a
rate of return.
Dalhousie uses a
strategy of diversity and aims to
receive

a 7
-
8% rate of return on their investments
(
personal co
mmunication with Rochelle
Owen
,

April
2012).



Dalhousie does not have any
environmental or social responsibility






structure of pension plans.

The Board of Governors
wanted to move to a Jointly Sponsored, Defined
Benefits Pension Plan, which still promises members
certain benefits; however it is responsibility of both
the employer and employee groups to ensure that the
plan is financially health
y.

Dalhousie as a Shareholder

When Dalhousie invests its pension and
endowment
funds, it becomes a
shareholder

in corporations that it owns
stock in. As a shareholder in the company
Dalhousie has certain rights to vote on
particular corporate matters and to make
statements (directly or by proxy) at the
shareholder meetings. Dalhousie
’s
shareholder voting records are available
only to Trustees and Senior
Administrators and their fund managers
handle the shareholder voting
(
Sustainable Endowments Institute,
2011).


23

criteria for their investments. Dalhousie does
not invest in renewable energy funds or
c
ommunity development loan funds
(
Sustainable
Endowments Institute, 2011).


Within their Endowment Management
Policy (1990), it is stated that a donor can
request that certain financial managemen
t
constraints be placed on the

endowment,
which woul
d be agreed upon

by the Board
(ie.

no tobacco
-
related i
nvestments),
however no record was found of instances
where this
occurred.



The cozy relationship between fossil
fuel corporations and universities includes
the financial resources that the fossil fuel
industry receives from direct and indirect
university

investments.



Fossil fuel corporations look to
investments, bank loans and other financing
to support the expansion of dirty energy
projects.


When
universities’ and banks’
investments support dirty energy projects
like tar sands expansion or new
coal
-
fired
power plants, it serves to lock Canada into a
polluting and dest
ructive industry that
violates I
ndigenous rights, pollutes
communities downstream and contributes to
climate change.




24

Table 1

Overview of Dalhousie’s Pension and
Endowment investment fund managers.

Dalhousie University Pension &
Endowment Fund Managers:

Asset Class:

Greystone Managed Investments Inc.



Canadian Equities


Burgundy Asset Management


Canadian Equities

CIBC Global Asset Management

Canadian Equities

Ashford Capital Management

US Equities

Wedge Capital Management L.L.P.

US Equities


iar来⁃ap

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啓⁅煵r瑩e猠


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p灲畣eg牯癥 f湶n獴se湴n䵡湡ge浥湴

乯k
J
乯k瑨⁁浥物ra渠䕱畩u楥i

c楲獴⁅ig汥

乯k
J
乯k瑨⁁浥物ra渠n
q畩u楥i

p瑡瑥⁓瑲te琠䝬潢慬⁁獳tt⁍ 湡ge浥湴


C畲ue湣y⁨ d来s

CfBC⁇汯扡氠䅳獥琠䵡na来浥湴m

Ca湡摩慮⁂潮搠


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Ca湡摩慮⁂潮摳o


ac瑩癥

B污l歒潣欠䅳獥琠䵡湡来浥湴m

Ca湡摩慮⁂潮摳o
J

ac瑩癥

Ca湳漠f湶e獴se湴⁃潵湳ol

Ca湡摩慮⁂潮摳o
J

ac瑩癥

C潭o潮晵o搠da灩pal

m物癡瑥⁅煵楴y

gm 䵯牧an

m物癡瑥⁅煵楴y

ma湴桥潮

m物癡瑥⁅煵楴y

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䅢獯汵Ae⁒e瑵牮t


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䝬潢d氠䵡l牯

B汵敃牥獴⁃a灩pal

䝬潢d氠䵡l牯

iaza牤⁁獳整s
䵡nage浥湴

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gm 䵯牧an

䝬潢d氠䵡l楴業e

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䝐d

Ca湡摩慮⁒da氠䕳la瑥

Ca湡摩慮⁕牢an

Ca湡摩慮⁒da氠䕳la瑥


Methods

During the period of May 1st to May 3rd
we
investigated
the stock holdings of
Dalhousie’s Fund Managers using online

stock reports. Investments in tar s
ands
corporations

were noted. A review of media
articles provided supplementary information

on the
fund mana
gers’ connections to fossil
fuel
corporations
. No quantitative data was
gathered pertaining specifically to
Dalhousie’s direct monetary investments in
fossil fuels

because this information is not
disclosed publically
.
Types of
corporations
includ
ed in the
analysis include
corporations
involved in
extraction (ie. operating in the tar sands, coal
mining, offshore drilling),
production/processing (ie. natural gas
production

and oil refining
) and distribution
(ie. involved in pipeline manufacturing or

construction) of fossil fuels.

This method
was chosen because the exact investment
portfolio
that

each fund manager
has for
Dalhousie
is unavailable
to the
public.


25

Fund Manager Portfolios

Table
2

The table below shows the

fossil fuel

corporations
that
some of

Dalhousie University’s
Pension and Endowment Fund Managers were invested in at the time of the research.
12


Fund Manager

Fossil Fuel Companies where fund manager holds stocks

Greystone Managed
Investments Inc.

TransCanada, Suncor
Energy,

Canadian Natural Resource,
Baytex Energy, Bank of Nova Scotia*, Bank of Montreal*,
Potash Corp of Saskatchewan, Kinross Gold, Goldcorp,

Wedge Capital
Management

Talisman Energy Inc, Exxon Mobil Corp, Encana, Nabors
Industries Ltd, Chevron Corp, Ro
yal Dutch Shell, Conocophilips

Ashford Capital
Management

Trican Well Service Ltd,
Royal Gold Inc
, Kinder Morgan
Energy Partners Lp, Clean Energy Fuels Corp, Halliburton Co,
Exxon Mobil Corp, Core Laboratories Nv, Kinder Morgan
Management Llc, Conocophill
ips, Anadarko Petroleum Corp,
Chevron

BlueCrest Capital

Halliburton Co, Marathon Oil Corp, Sunoco Inc, Valero Energy
Corp, Hess Corp, National Oilwell Varco Inc, Baker Hughes Inc,
Anglogold Ashanti Ltd

Lazard Asset Management

Halliburton Co, Eqt Corp, Co
nocophillips, Petroleo Brasileiro
Sa, Devon Energy Corp, Consol Energy Inc, James River Coal
Co, Cameron Internatio
nal Corp,
Newmont Mining Corp
,
Chevron Corp, Occidental Petroleum Corp, Noble Energy Inc,
Valero Energy Corp, Cenovus Energy Inc, Spectra Ene
rgy Corp,
Alpha Natural Resources Inc, Hess Corp, Seadrill Ltd, Royal
Dutch Shell Plc, Noble Corp, Cimarex Energy Co, Exco
Resources Inc, Marathon Oil Corp, Helmerich Payne Inc, Exxon
Mobil Corp, China Petroleum Chemical Corp, Key Energy
Services Inc, Apac
he Corp, Anadarko Petroleum Corp, Ecopetrol
Sa, Rowan Cos Inc, Suncor, Yamana Gold Inc, Enbridge Energy
Partners Lp, Gmx Resources Inc, Diamond Offshore Drilling
Inc, Aviva Plc, Canadian Natural Resources Ltd, Tesoro Corp,
National Oilwell Varco Inc, Oil S
tates International Inc,
Petrochina Co Ltd, Hercules Offshore Inc, Atwood Oceanics Inc,
Kinder Morgan Energy Partners Lp

JP Morgan

Talisman Energy, Cen
ovus Energy, and Nexen Inc.

(Geisi, 2010)


Note: d
ata on all of the fund managers was not available and

so only those where data was
available are included in the table.








12

The sources used were
http://mffais.com and http://www.tickerspy.com


26

Banks Fi
nancing
the
Tar Sands



During our

investigation
we learned

that some of Dalhousie’s fund managers
hold shares in major banks. In addition
major banks manage some o
f Dalhousie’s
pension and endowment investments. Using
data released by the Rainforest Action
Network

(
van Gelder et al.
,

2008)
,

additional
information

on these institutions


involvement with the fossil

fuel industry
was obtained.


Table
3

The table below displays the money that the banks have loaned to
corporations
operating
in the tar sands
between 2007 and 2009.
13

Bank

Loans to tar sands companies (Million USD)

JP Morgan

$13,895

CIBC

$10,467

ING

$119

Bank of Montreal (BMO)*

$4,467

Bank of Nova Scotia *

$4,685

*BMO and Bank of Nova Scotia are not fund managers for Dalhousie but the portfolios of
Dalhousie’s fund managers include

investments in

BMO and Bank of Nova Scotia.






13

This
information is from a study done by the Rainforest Action Network.
The method used to obtain the data was
to look at all financing (underwriting, direct financing, corporate
loans, etc) from the financial institutions back to
the companies with large holdings in the tar sands using Bloomberg tables.

(Rainforest Action Network, n.d.)


27


Table 4

This table compares the
investments banks have made in fossil fuels compared with
renewable energy
14


Total investments in C$
million

% of total corporate
investments


Renewable

Oil, gas &
Coal

Renewable

Oil, gas & Coal

CIBC

2,181

27,430

0.98%

12.35%

Bank of Montreal
(BMO)

831

30,297

0.29%

10.45%

Bank of Nova
Scotia

1,505

19,819

0.66%

8.74%






14

Data from
van Gelder, W. et al. (2008). See this report for the methodology, industries inclu
ded and more
information on the role of banks in the expansion of the fossil fuel industry.


28

The
Corporations

This section will provide more detailed
information on some of the fossil fuel
corporations
listed above
in
which
some
of
Dalhousie’s
fund
managers hold

stocks
.

Canadi
an Natural Resources


Canadian Natural Resources is a
Canadian oil and gas production
corporation
active in

Canada, the United Kingdom, Côte
d’Ivoire and Angola in which
some

of
Dalhousie’s pension and endowment
managers hold stock.


In 2007, the
corporation

produced
331,232 barrels of oil per day and 1,668
million cubic feet of natural gas per day. JP
Morgan Chase has been a lead manager of
the stock offering of Canadian Nat
ural
Resources and BMO Financial was one of
the banks that underwrote this issue (
Gelder,

et al., 2008, p.16)
.



Baytex Energy


Baytex Energy is a Canadian
corporation

that is active in the acquisition,
development and production of oil and
natural gas in
the Western Sedi
mentary
Basin in Canada. In 2007,

Baytex Energy
produced 27,575 barrels of crude oil and
Natural Gas Liquids and 51.9 million cubic
feet of gas daily. BMO Financial is one of
the banks that have underwritten the stock
offerings of Baytex En
ergy

(
Gelder
et al.,
2008, p.28)
.

EnCana


EnCana is a Canadian energy
corporation

involved in unconventional
natural gas and tar sands developments in
the United States and Canada.
It has

th
ree tar
sands properties and is

also investing in
exploration opportunities in Brazil, France,
Greenland, Oman and Qatar. In 2007, the
daily production of EnCana
totalled

107,340
barrels of normal crude oil, 26,814 barrels of
synthetic crude oil and 3,566 million cubic
feet of natural g
as.

CIBC is one of the banks
that have underwr
itten the stock offerings of
EnCana (
Gelder

et al., 2008, p.68
).


STARS (Sustainability, Tracki
ng,
Assessment & Rating System)



The Sustainability Tracking,
Assessment & Rating System (STARS) is
self
-
reporting

system for colleges and
universities to measure their sustainability
performance.


For Dalhousie, Rochelle Owen, the
Director of the Office of Sustainability
completed the assessment.

Overall,
Dalhousie achieved a Silver
rating (
AASHE,
2011).



In the
category for Investment, Dalhousie
scored 2.47 out of 16.75.

Points in the investment category:

Committee on Socially Responsible
Investment
--

0.00 / 2.00

Shareholder Advocacy
--

0.00 / 5.00

Positive Sustainability Investments

--

2.47 /
9.00

Student
-
Mana
ged SRI Fund
--

0.00 / 0.25

Socially Responsible Investment Policy
--

0.00 / 0.25

Investment Disclosure
--

0.00 / 0.25


29



Discussion



This investigation was intended to
uncover links between Dalhousie’s
investments and the fossil fuel industry. The
results are by no means exhaustive and the
intent was to uncover connections between
fossil fuel
corporations
and Dalhousie’s
investments bas
ed on information available
considering that this information is kept
confidential

by both the university and its
fund managers. This secrecy and lack of
transparency is characteristic of universities
under their corporate management styles.


As the report

by Rain
forest Action
Network stated, “s
topping climate change
requires ending our addiction to fossil fuels
by shifting capital to new, renewable energy
infrastructure and energy efficiency
measures, which can meet energy needs and
create jobs while decar
bonizing the
economy.”


Canadian banks and Dalhousie’s fund
managers that were investigated have lagged
behind in investing in energy efficiency and
renewable energy. Fossil fuels still account
for a far larger amount of bank financing.


The loans and in
vestments in fossil
fuels contribute to the expansion of
destructive projects. Financing the
expansion of dirty energy is locking us into
infrastructure that commits our economy to
fossil fuels far into the future. The impacts
of climate change and toxic d
evelopment are
felt the most

(locally in Nova Scotia, and
globally)

by those who contribute the least
to the problem. Dalhousie’s investments
make us complicit in the devastating social
and environmental harms caused by fossil
fuel extraction and use.

Other dirty investments


While this investigation focused on
fossil fuel
corporations
, the research
uncovered that many of the fund managers


portfolios included mining companies
including GoldCorp that are known to be
complicit in Human Rights violations
around the world

(
Mining Watch Canada,
2009
)
.

Dalhousie Sustainability


Dalhousie
has made

progress in
certain aspects on sustainability suc
h as
ongoing campus greening initiatives
undertaken by the Office of Sustainability
and Dalhousie Student Union Sustainability
Office, as well as the sustainability
education
opportunities

in the College of
Sustainability; however the fossil fuel
industry’
s free rein on campus remains the
elephant in the room that keeps Dalhousie
complicit in large
-
scale social and
environmental destruction.

Government’s Dirt

Energy Priorities



The Canadian government favours
dirty energy

over education
. The
government
subsidizes the fossil fuel
industry by $1.4

billion dollars a year,
despite the fact that

the
fossil fuel industry is
already rich, and students and universities
are not.
Fossil fuel companies operating in
the tar sands have combined revenues of 1.2
trilli
on dollars, 1.1 trillion of which goes to
foreign owned corporations. The money that

30

Canada spends subsidizing this multi
-
trillion
dollar industry could pay off 2/3 of the
student loans taken out this year

(
Climate
Action Network Canada, n.d.
)
. It could al
so
go directly to universities so that they are
not dependent on corporate funding, or it
could be invested in the emerging renewable
energy sector. The opportunities in the green
market are rapidly growing, but Canada is
not investing in this sector, whic
h means
graduates

are losing out on

potential

job
opportunities as manufacturing contracts go
elsewhere
.
Is the government acting with its
head in the sand, the Canadian government

continues to invest in the oil and gas
industry, a sector of employment that wi
ll be
phased out in 10
-
20 years?

Do they
personal interests and investments in this
industry?






The government’s
funding

of
destructive polluters

at the expense of
peo
ple and

and the planet, and the
consequences for ed
ucation could be
explored at length, however for the purpose
of this report, we simply wish to highlight
the fact that the connection between
polluting corporations and universities is
caused in part by th
e fact that the
government has neglected education in
favour of these destructive industries.





31

SECTION 4: CONCLUSIONS &
RECCOMENDATIONS


On
-
going cuts in public funding have
forced Canadian

universities into a
precarious financial situation. This has led to
the pervasive corporatization of most aspects
of the university.
For one, university
management

today

eerily resembles that of a
corporation
. Secondly, corporate funding
and sponsorship

have become an important
source of funding for university programs
and facilities.
Under the guise of austerity or
innovation, universities are adopting a
corporate structure to attract external
funding and to commercialize knowledge for
prof
it. Universit
ies now resemble
business
es

and not institution
s

of higher education.


Control over the university is in the
hands of business
-
people

and
most

specifi
c
information pertaining to university
operations
is regarded as confidential, even
though those decisions

affect the whole
university community. Mean
while students
lack representation and decision
-
making
power

in this process
.



The interests of corporate sponsors
affect our education overtly and covertly.
Since corporate funding has become the
lifeline, Canadian universities have
grown

accountable to their corporate sponsors,
which can come at the expense of
transparency and acco
untability to the
public. Corporate funding for research has
incentivised marketable, industry
-
relevant
research. The topics available to st
udy, the
thoughts we are le
d
to think and the books
we a
re offered to read, are all influenced by
a set of

external

forces,

which include
corporate interests who have an increasing
ly

powerful voice.


As part of the overall corporatization
of universities, a cozy relationship between
the fossil fuel industry and universities has
developed. Fossil fuel
corporations

are
f
unding research, programs, equipment and
infrastructure at universities
. At the same
time, university

pension and endowment
funds are directly and indirectly invested in
fossil fuel corporations.


The ongoing expansion of the tar
sands, the world’s dirtie
st energy
project

is
enabled by funding from banks and
investors
, and universities play a part in

supporting

this system. We need a rapid and
fair transition to a green
economy

but
universities, who could potentially play an
incredibly influential an
d
important role in
this transition,
remain
closely tied to the
fossil fuel industry.



These trends are seen at Dalhousie,
where fu
ndraising has become critical to the
university, and the importance granted to
financial matters has also led to the
corpora
tization of governance. We see
polluting corporations fund buildings,
programs, equipment and research. Despite
Dalhousie’s highly marketed and publicised
commitment to sustainability these corporate
contributions are highly
sought and praised
.
Given the financial reliance on these
donations, perhaps it is not
surprizing that
Dalhousie has remained silent on harms
associated with th
e industry
-
academic

relationship.


32


In that regard
, it is important to
remember

that another piece of the puzzle
that

explains these relationships is the
government’s ongoing neglect of education
in favour of dirty energy.
, A
ddressing the
federal government

self
-
serving

and
destructive
commitment

in fossil fuels is a
critical part of reclaiming our campuses.




Althou
gh not extensively explored in
our report it is important to note
that

cuts to
public funding to universities not only led to
an increase in corporate funding but to
increases in tuition fees and the privatization
of student aid. This is another
sign of

capitalist interests in universities, as rising
tuition fees and increasing student debt
reproduce social inequalities and make it so
that only the wealthy can access education.
Education is a right, not a commodity nor a
privilege. Under the pretext of a
usterity
measures the gover
nment is disregarding the
right

of all people to education.


W
e have made the following
recommendations to Dalhousie and to
students and community members.

For students who are not only
facing rising tuition fees but an
increasi
ng corporate campus:

1.

Hold Dalhousie accountable and
demand transparency.


Students currently lack official
channels of representation and the
Dalhousie
administration is shrouded in secrecy. We
deserve to know what decisions are being
made and how they
influence our campus
and community. Students must take action
to demand fair representation in decision
-
making as well as transparency regarding
financial decisions and other decisions that
impact students.

As students, we must become more engaged
not only

on a student level, but on a higher
a
dministrative level to be heard.
We must
reclaim the democratic means of
participating
in our own university
community, and
fight to protect our right to

education.

Appendix B contains some information and
resources
that could be useful in this
struggle.

2.

Fight austerity in all its forms.


The austerity agenda that is forcing
universities to form relationships with fossil
fuel corporations is
also
causing tuition and
student
-
debt to rise, leading to the growing
inequa
lities in our society and

causing
destruction of the environment
.


We need to reject capitalist ideology
that tells us there isn’t enough money to
fund public services, by fighting for social,
economic and environmental justice o
n
campus and in our comm
unities. We should
stop allowing ourselves to be cast as
voiceless customers of our schools and
governments, and fight for democratic
involvement in our institutions.

3.

Start a Fossil Fuel divestment
campaign.


33


Our university’s money should not
be supportin
g the social and environmental
destruction caused by the fossil fuel
industry. Appendix
C

contains resources to
check out in order to start a campaign to get
Dalhousie to stop investing in the fossil fuel
industry.


For Dalhousie University

1.


Give students at least 32
% of
the seats on the Board of
Governors.


Student tuition
accounts for 32
% of
the universities revenue and as s
uch they
should hold at least 32
% of the decision
-
making power.

Students are the core of
intellectual labour at the university, and
deserve to be respected as the most
important members of the university

community.

2.

End the secrecy around
investment.


Dalhousie should make its
investments public so that students can
know where the university’s money
is going
.

Divestment:

Divestment is withdrawing

financial support from a
corporation that is abusing the
environment, the community,
or larger society.

(Adapted from: wearepowershift.org)


34


3.

Form a
multi
-
stakeholder
Socially
Responsible Investment
Committee that reports to the
Board of Governors


A committee should be formed that
includes students and community members
that

reports to the Board of Governors. This
committee should examine all of
Dalhousie’s current in
vestments and work
with Dalhousie’s fund managers to develop
socially responsible investment portfolios
that are fossil
-
fuel free.

4.

Make shareholder statements
public and engage in
Shareholder
activism


Until Dalhousie fully divests from
fossil fuel corporations, Dalhousie can use
its power as a shareholder in these polluting
corporations

to address the social and
environmental consequences of climate
change and fossil fuel usage

by voting and
submitting
statements to shareholder
meetings
.

5.

Divest from dirty fossil fuel
companies.


To fulfill the commitments that
Dalhousie has already made to sustainability
Dalhousie must divest from fossil fuel
corporations
. This will involve working with
the Socially Resp
onsible Investment
Committee and Dalhousie’s fund managers
to develop investment portfolios that are in
line with Dalhousie’s commitments to
sustainability.


6.

Explore investment opportunities
in community
-
driven renewable
energy.

Dalhousie should explore socially
responsible investment opportunities, in
particular those that support local,
community
-
driven initiatives in Nova
Scotia. One option is for Dalhousie to invest
in Community Economic Investment Funds
(CEDIFs) that are deve
loping renewable
energy in Nova Scotia.

CEDIFs are

a pool of capital that is
raised through the sale of shares, and is
managed to operate or invest in local
initiatives. In Nova Scotia there are many
CEDIFs that are invested in renewable
energy projects,
and represent an
opportunity for Dalhousie to invest in the
emerging green energy economy.




35

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(2007).
A new paradigm for paying the piper: Access, control and
c
ommercialization at Halifax Universities
. Halifax:
Nova Scotia Public Research Interest
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Association for the Advancement of Sus
tainability in Higher Education
(AASHE
).

(2011
).
STARS:

Sustainability, Tracking, Assessment & Rating System: Dalhousie University
.
Retrieved from

https://stars.aashe.org/institutions/dalhousie
-
university
-
ns/report/2011
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08
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12/

Bok, D.

(2003).
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Boyko, L., & Jones, G.

(2010).

The roles an
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Santiago, & T.
Carvalho (Eds.),
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(pp.83
-
102). Dordrecht: Springer.

Canadian
Association of University Teachers
(CAUT)
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(2012)
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University corporate linkages
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Ca
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Salaries

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New initiative to help
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41

Appendix A



Decision
-
Makers at Dalhousie


Note:

This only covers some of the decision
-
makers relevant to this report.

Bill Black,
Chair of Dalhousie’s Academic
Affairs & Research Committee


Role
: “Foster Academic Innovation, Supporting Research Excellence”
(Dalhousie, Academic Affairs & Research)

Corporate linkages: Board of Directors of Bank of Canada
,
Shaw Group
Limited, Standard Life Assurance Company of
Canada

(CAUT, 2012)


Stan Spavold,
Chair of Dalhousie’s Investment Committee

Role:

Ensuring financial stability. To oversee and manage endowment funds, write appropriate
investment policies and monitor the activity of Dalhousie Investments

(Dalhousie, Investment
Committee)
.


Current Corporate linkages: Clearwater Seafoods Income Fund as Corporate
Secretary


President
Tom Traves

also currently serves as Director of
Clearwater Seafoods Income Fund

Other companies: Clearwater Seafoods (vario
us positions), Columbus
Communications Incorporated, FP Resources Limited, High Liner Foods Incorporated, Lion
Foods Holding limited, Ocean Nutrition Canada Limited

(CAUT, 2012).

Tom Traves,
President of Dalhousie University



Role
: Management of the Univ
ersity and its affairs. He is accountable to the
Board of Governors and Senate. Since becoming President in 1995, student
enrolment and external funding have increased greatly. Mr. Traves boasts about
making Dalhousie one of the most profitable universitie
s in Atlantic Canada and
the top of innovation and research. He is currently 1 of 2 members of the
Executive Team for Dalhousie’s Bold Ambitions Campaign. The other Executive member is
Floyd Dykeman, VP External (Dalhousie
, President
).

Salary

(CBC, 2012)
:
$ 393,264 (2011/12)


42

Current Corporate Linkages: Chairman and Trustee of Clearwater Seafoods Income Fund
(Spavold is also an employee), Board of Directors of InnovaCorp

(CAUT, 2012)

*It is worthy to note that previously he was a member of the board of Marit
ime Life Assurance
Company, of which Bill Black was CEO. Bill Black is the standing chair of Academic & Affairs
committee at Dalhousie. These close friendships continue to become closer as the Board
resembles a professionals, “exclusive invite
-
only” senior
s club.

Mr. Ken Burt,
Vice President Finance and Administration


Role
: Ultimate financial planner and manager of endowment and investment funds. He holds
professional degrees in economics and business administration and is currently
a member of the Canad
ian Association of University Business Officers. He sits
as Ex Officio of the Investment Committee, which monitors investment
performance. In 2011, the University
-
sponsored Pension Plan had an
investment return of 11.4%, and according to the 2011 Annual F
inancial
Report, Dalhousie invested in “high
-
quality companies”

(Dalhousie Annual
Financial Report, 2011)
.
Exactly which companies, we cannot know.
Investment relationships between the university and the investment company are confidential,
and the
specific blend of investments in our portfolio is the intellectual property of the
investment company. The fact that there is no accountability to the public about Dalhousie’s
financial investments is exceedingly problematic

(Dalhousie, Vice
-
President Fina
nce and
Administration)

Floyd Dykeman,
Vice President External


Role
: This position is occupied by someone who knows the business of universities and how to
foster relationships between external institutions and the university. On Dalhousie’s website, th
is
position does not have a detailed description but instead, a biography is given
about Mr.

Dykeman’s past fundraising experience and his fundraising success at
Dalhousie. Vice President of external is also in charge of communications and
marketing. This
means communicating particular messages about the university
in order to receive more external funding. A position that is inherently
managerial, Mr. Dykeman is seen as the perfect candidate as he understands the
“academic model [and] the business of unive
rsities”

(Dalhousie, Senior Administration)

Currently, Mr.

Dykeman’s main project is the Bold Ambitions Campaign, which he leads with
Dalhousie University President Tom Traves. This campaign has seen enormous success, with
generous gifts being given by alu
mni and large corporations such as BMO and PotashCorp.



43

Appendix B

-

Resources for Future Work

So
you

think that the corporatization of campus is uncool and want to do something about it?
Here are some resources and information for you. Some of these are tidbits that didn’t quite fit
into the report but could be useful and others are resources or informat
ion to help you fight the
corporatization of campus.

Board Meetings


These meetings are open to the public and records

(minutes)

about the meeting are
written and submitted to the university, to be kept on file. A member of the public or student
attendin
g the
meeting is not allowed to speak up or ask questions unless the board unanimously
agrees to allow them to speak. Also, students and the public must leave for
in
-
camera

portions of
the meeting.
In
-
camera

sessions occur when the Board discusses confiden
tial matters, including
anything about a Board Member or complex financial matters.
In
-
camera

sessions are also not
recorded in the meeting minutes and are therefore, not made available to the public.


Dalhousie’s Board of Governors
delegates

responsibili
ty to various committees. It is the
Board committee meetings where many particularly important decisions happen, yet all those
meetings are held
in
-
camera

and therefore, not open to the public and with no
publically
-
available records.

Exposing Corporate
Ties

Because there is no single publically
-
available database where Dalhousie records all of their
corporate ties finding information requires some investigation.

Some good places to look are:



Dalhousie’s Industry Liason and Innovation office, responsible

for linking industry with
campus
-
based research, and for marketing and patenting research

(
http://innovation.dal.ca/companies/aboutili.php)



Dalhousie’s Media releases

and promotional propoganda (dig through
http://media.dal.ca/)



The Canadian Association
of University Teachers has an online tool for finding
connections between university Board Members and corporations:

http://www.caut.ca/corporatelinkages.asp?cid=768



Corporate annual reports for mention of Dalhousie

An

important channel for accessing prote
cted information is through the
Freedom of Information
and Protection of Privacy (FOIPOP) Act. Nova Scotia's Freedom of Information and Protection

44

of Privacy (FOIPOP) Act covers universities and requests about Dalhousie can be filed directly
to

Dalhousie’s
FOIPOP

Coordinator
. More information and the application form can be found at:

http://foipop.dal.ca/index.php

We have filed an Access to Information Request but have not heard back at the time of writing
this.

After digging up the information
, make connections

and explore the companies and how they are
exerting their influence on campus.


For information on specific corporations check out: http://www.corporatewatch.org.uk/

or
http://www.corp
-
research.org/




45

Appendix
C
-

Resources on Divestment

This investigation is just the beginning for students who think that the relationship between
Dalhousie and the fossil fuel industry is too close for comfort.

We want to see Dalhousie

move
their pension and
endowment
investment

out of
polluting fossil
fuel

corporations

and reinvest
the

funds responsibly.
Students and community members can start
a campaign to put pressure on Dalhousie to live up to their commitments to sustainability
and
at
the same time put pressure
on the
fossil fuel

industry to
stop i
ts social and environmental
destruction by

diminishing
the industry’s

influenc
e and financial power.

Part of this process is continuing to do research.
The researchers were limited by fact that
Dalhousie keeps a lot of information protected or confidential
, and the time to retrieve this
information was not available.

No quantitative data was gathered pertaining specifically to Dalhousie’s direct mone
tary
investments in fossil fuel corporations
. We recommend that this information be requested
directly from
the Board of Governors

and that if it is not given that an Access to Information
Request be submitted
.

Other steps to take include
making clear goals for the campaign, spreading the word, contacting
the decision
-
makers at Dalhousie and using actions and a
dvocacy tactics to reach the goals.

Get in touch with NSPIRG to find out what resources and support they can offer
. They are

located in room 314 of the Student Union Building (you can also check
-
out nspirg.org).

Here are some other resources that can
help

your campaign
:

For more information on the destruction caused by the

fossil fuel industry check out
http://oilsandstruth.org/

The Responsible Endowment Coalition has lots of information and resources for getting
universities to invest responsibly. Che
ck them out at
http://www.endowmentethics.org/about
-
us

For information from a U.S. based campus
-
wide coal divestment campaign check out
http://www.wearepowershift.org/campaigns/divestcoal

The Canadian Youth Climate Coalition is a youth
-
driven organization starting up a clean energy
campus campaign in Canada. Check it out at
http://www.ourclimate.ca/wordpress/projects
-
campaigns/clean
-
energy
-
campuses/

The Coalition of Universities for Respons
ible Investing has some additional info at
http://www.curi.ca/


46