Understanding Ethernet & IP Technologies

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Oct 24, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Understanding Ethernet & IP Technologies

H N N e t wo r k s


E n d e l l i o n


Mo n e y R o w Gr e e n


H o l y p o r t


B e r k s h i r e


SL 6 2 N A

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F a x: 0 1 6 2 8 6 7 2 8 1 3


W W W: h t t p://w w w.h n
-
n e t w o r k s.c o.u k


1 Introduction to, Overview of and History of Ethernet



Protocol concepts and a practical perspective on the ISO seven
-
layer model



What are LANs and what are they used for?



The background to Ethernet
-

ALOHA
-

Xerox, DEC, Intel and Xerox (DIX) and IEEE 802
.3


2 Ethernet Media and the various Ethernet “Speeds”



Overview of LAN cabling



Coaxial, Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP), Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) and Fibre
-
optic



The older Ethernet standards
-

10BASE5 (Thick Ethernet) and 10BASE2 (Thin Ethernet)



Using
repeaters with 10BASE5 and 10ASE2



Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP)



Standards
-

Category 5 (Cat 5), Category 5 Enhanced (Cat 5E) and Category 6 (Cat 6)



RJ45 connectors



The UTP hub (multi
-
port repeater)



Fibre
-
optic cabling and connectors



Fast Ethernet (100Mbi
t/s)



Fast Ethernet repeaters



The Media Independent Interface (MII): The 100Mbit/s equivalent of AUI



Various types of Fast Ethernet: 100Base
-
TX, 100Base
-
FX, 100Base
-
T2, 100Base
-
T4



Gigabit Ethernet (1Gbit/s)



How it works
-

A look at IEEE 802.3z



Carrier exten
sion and frame bursting with Gigabit Ethernet



Gigabit Ethernet repeaters



Using Gigabit Ethernet in a switched environment



10 Gigabit Ethernet (10Gbit/s)



Introduction to 10 Gigabit Ethernet



Various types: 1000BASE
-
LX, 1000BASE
-
SX, 1000BASE
-
CX & 1000BASE
-
T



3 Ethernet frames, MAC addresses, collisions and CSMA/CD



Frame formats:



Ethernet V2 specification



IEEE 802.3



Ethernet Sub Network Access Protocol (SNAP)



The MAC address
-

Physical/Unicast, Multicast and Broadcast



Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Coll
ision Detect (CSMA/CD)



Causes of collisions and the performance limitations as a result of collisions



Methods to reduce collisions



LAN switching



Full
-
duplex Ethernet



Some general packet related terms
-

Runt/Fragment, Jabber, Jam, Inter
-
Packet Gap, Slot
-
time
etc…


H N N e t wo r k s


E n d e l l i o
n


Mo n e y R o w Gr e e n


H o l y p o r t


B e r k s h i r e


SL 6 2 N A

T e l: 0 1 6 2 8 6 2 2 1 8 7


F a x: 0 1 6 2 8 6 7 2 8 1 3


W W W: h t t p://w w w.h n
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n e t w o r k s.c o.u k

4 Switched Ethernet



Introduction to bridging and switching



Separation of collision domains
-

LAN segmentation



Overview of transparent bridging



Ethernet switching:



MAC address learning



Forwarding and filtering of frames



Broadcast, multica
st and unknown unicast frame handling



Cut
-
through switching / Fragment
-
free switching / Store and forward switching



Full duplex operation



Auto
-
negotiation



Flow control



Why moving from shared to switched Ethernet can create problems



Loops in bridged/swi
tched networks



The problem



The solution
-

Spanning Tree Protocol (STP)


5 Spanning Tree with Ethernet switches



The IEEE 802.1d Spanning Tree Protocol
-

STP



Overview of the Spanning Tree algorithm



The Spanning Tree Protocol explained



Ports and The Sp
anning Tree



Root Bridge election



Root Port selection



Designated bridge and Designated Port selection



Bridge (Switch) Port States



Responding to network changes



The IEEE 802.1w Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol



Port Roles



Root port, designated port, alte
rnate port, backup port and disabled port



Port States



Rapid Convergence



Demonstration of the Spanning Tree Protocol


6 VLANs


Virtual LANs using Ethernet switches



Overview of VLAN concepts and operation



Trunking between switches using IEEE 802.1Q



Us
e of the Cisco 2950 to demonstrate VLAN configuration and operation


7 Internet Protocol (IP) Fundamentals



Introduction to the Internet Protocol (IP)



OSI layer 3 functions



Path selection (routing), interaction with layer 2, network layer addressing, rou
ting
protocols



The IP packet header



IP addressing



Dotted decimal notation and binary view

H N N e t wo r k s


E n d e l l i o
n


Mo n e y R o w Gr e e n


H o l y p o r t


B e r k s h i r e


SL 6 2 N A

T e l: 0 1 6 2 8 6 2 2 1 8 7


F a x: 0 1 6 2 8 6 7 2 8 1 3


W W W: h t t p://w w w.h n
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n e t w o r k s.c o.u k



Converting between dotted decinal notation and binary



Class A, Class B, Class C (Class D and Class E) addresses
-

The first octet rule



Network address masks



Co
nverting IP addresses between decimal and binary format



Subnetting



Subnet masks and prefix notation



Using the logical AND function to find network/subnet and host numbers



Subnetting on an octet boundary



Breaking the octet boundary



How many subnets an
d hosts per subnet are available?



Subnet zero and the all
-
ones subnet



Calculating subnet number, subnet broadcast address and the range of host addresses in a
subnet using binary.



Calculating subnet number, subnet broadcast address and the range of host

addresses in a
subnet without using binary.



IP subnetting guidelines to meet a given design requirement



Variable Length Subnet Masking
-

VLSM



Classless Inter
-
Domain Routing
-

CIDR



Private Addressing



Network Address Translation (NAT) and Port Address
Translation (PAT)



Other layer 3 functions:



Address Resolution Protocol (ARP)



Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)



Reverse Address Resolution Protocol (RARP)



Bootstrap Protocol (BOOTP)



Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)



Domain Name System



8 Routing the Internet Protocol (IP)



Routing



Routing tables



Static routing



Routing protocols



Routed vs. Routing Protocols



Dynamic Routing Protocols



Interior Gateway Protocols (IGP) and Exterior Gateway Protocols (EGP)



Routing Metrics



Types of D
ynamic Routing Protocol



Distance Vector routing protocols



Routing Information Protocol (RIP) Version 1



RIP Version 2



Link
-
State Routing Protocols



Open Shortest Path First (OSPF)



Integrated Interior System to Interior System (IS
-
IS)



The Internet EGP
-

Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)


H N N e t wo r k s


E n d e l l i o
n


Mo n e y R o w Gr e e n


H o l y p o r t


B e r k s h i r e


SL 6 2 N A

T e l: 0 1 6 2 8 6 2 2 1 8 7


F a x: 0 1 6 2 8 6 7 2 8 1 3


W W W: h t t p://w w w.h n
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n e t w o r k s.c o.u k

9 Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP), Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and
User Datagram Protocol (UDP) Fundamentals



Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)



OSI layer 4 functions



Connection oriented vs conne
ctionless protocols



Reliable and un
-
reliable protocols



The use of port numbers



Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)



User Datagram Protocol (UDP)



A brief look at some TCP/IP and UDP/IP applications



File Transfer Protocol (FTP)



Telnet



Simple Mail Tran
sfer Protocol (SMTP)



Domain Name System (DNS)



Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)



Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)



Post Office Protocol
-

version 3 (POP3)



Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)



End of Training Outline