Cooperation Programm URB-AL Final Document - Prefeitura de São ...

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S
ÃO
P
AULO
A
ND
N
ET
10


FIGHT

AGAINST

POVERTY


C
OOPERATION PROGRAMM
URB
-
AL

FINAL

DOCUMENT





SÃO

PAULO

CITY

HALL

MUNICIPAL

SECRETARIAT

OF

INTERNATIONAL

RELATIONS




SEPTEMBER
,

2005






This document was prepared with financial support by the European U
nion. The contents
are under total responsibility of Network 10 Coordination and do not necessarily reflect the
opinion of the Coordination of URB
-
AL Program.


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S
UMMARY

I.

Presentation Letter of São Paulo Mayor,
JOSÉ SERRA


II.

Presentation Letter of Inter
national Relations Secretary,
H
ELENA
G
ASPARIAN

III.

Introduction: the cities international role in the XXI Century

IV.

Globalization and urban poverty combat: the cities’ great challenge

V.

The URB
-
AL Program: an innovative proposal of international coope
ration

VI.

São Paulo and the Net 10 (2002
-
2005)

VII.
Conclusion: experiences in urban poverty combat and new challenges

VIII.

Bibliography

IX.

Appendix




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I. Presentation Letter of São Paulo Mayor,
JOSÉ SERRA


S
ÃO
P
AULO AS A GLOBAL ACT
OR

Over the last ye
ars, sets of changes have made the cities look for foreign resources to
guarantee a sustainable economic development. The objective made possible the creation
and the implementation of public policies turned to solve problems derivatives from urban
growth.

São Paulo is always a pioneer when it has to face a challenge. The international actuation of
the city, that has these characteristics of a big metropolis, is, in the sense of modernization,
focusing the improvement of life quality of its population. As a

cause of that, São Paulo was
always ahead of its time, looking for cooperation, the affirmation of a detach place in the
world.

The extern actuation of São Paulo City Hall has been detached, because of the conventions
assigned or internationals pacts, or
because the strategies of creation divulge activities,
investments attraction and participation in the main nets of cities.

Because of this all, São Paulo reached its place in international scenario. The Cooperation
Program URB
-
AL, promoted by European Com
mission, represents an important project of
international cooperation in which took place our city, whose results, is it show in this
Document, are positive in what concerns to the debate of urban poverty.

This program proposal


in which São Paulo coordi
nate Net 10, Urban Poverty Combat


incentive more the approach with other cities in Latin America and Europe, producing
innovative proposals and detaching the leadership of the city of São Paulo.

Through this cooperation, during these three years, we real
ize that is possible look for
united solutions to problems that are common in several areas, and for those, the collective
action could come as the best alternative. The approach with several cities results in a new
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way to do politics, in what adopts the c
ooperation as a central axle to build common values.
On

Net 10 the URB
-
AL Program, São Paulo could offer its experiences to small cities, and
learn with new partners. The Net growth and the possibility to share experiences mark the
several activities of Sã
o Paulo City Hall and the Secretariat of International Relations.




We keep on working in order to amplify the city net of cooperation, and to this partnerships
results in the creation of better public policies, in the poverty combat, in the development
a
nd economic growth of São Paulo and the inclusion of its citizens.

São Paulo does not stop to grow and because of this, look to the world with the objective of
building a better future.










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II.

Presentation Letter of International Relations Secre
tary,

H
ELENA
G
ASPARIAN



INTERNATIONAL

COOPERATION

AND

CITIZENSHIP

The cooperation has became, over the last decades, one of the central activities of new
actors that started to get space in international scenario. The cities are included in this roll of
n
ew international actors that got to project interesting, got results that had positive impacts
on the citizens life, either guarantee a bigger society inclusion, either improving the
democracy quality.

In the case of the cities, cooperation has became one
of the ways of finding share solutions
to common problems. One of the main problems that we are following is the urban poverty.
To fight against it, several studies show the implementation of governmental policies that
could be improved, though the knowled
ge and understanding of successful internationals
experiences.

With the objective to solve problems and create sustainable policies, that promote the
growth of the city, and the welfare of population, the São Paulo City Hall faced and
assumed initiatives i
n several areas in the international field during the last years.

One of the main experiences of URB
-
AL Program, a cooperation decentralized program of
European Union that has as a target incentive the interchange between the cities of
European Union and L
atin America. The proposal is develop direct partnerships among
local governments, regional and civil society, creating an environment to interchange new
experiences and knowledge.

The city of São Paulo had the privilege of participating in this innovative

program,
assuming the coordination of Net 10, on August, 2002, promoting the thematic debate
“Fight Against Urban Poverty”. We could, during these last years, collaborate with the
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debate about the improvement of quality of local public policies to combat

the urban
poverty in the cities, and stimulate reflections about the alternatives to reinforce the
citizenship.

This final document of Net 10 of URB
-
AL Program is a result of three years of work, that
was looking for development of solutions to local prob
lems and regional common to


different cities, The stimulation of cooperation and the search for set solutions is detached in
the whole projects and activities developed during this period.

This report shows that the City of São Paulo, though its Internat
ional Relations Secretariat,
has been working for the improvement of society quality of life, count on the cooperation as
a parameter to more effective international action.

With the conscious that is necessary continuous working in order to give to all ci
tizens a
better life and warranty rights, São Paulo keeps the commitment of incentive the debate
about the urban poverty combat. And continuous looking for new partnerships to amplify,
each time more, its net of cooperation.


















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S
ÃO
P
AULO
A
N
D
NET

10



F
IGHT AGAINST POVERTY

F
INAL
D
OCUMENT

By: Janina Onuki
1


International Relations Teacher of PUC/SP and researcher of CAENI/USP.

September, 2005


I
II.

I
NTRODUCTION
.

THE CITIES INTERNATI
ONAL ROLE IN
XXI

CENTURY

The cities roles in politic and eco
nomic international scenarios. The new paradigm of
contemporary international relations. The international acting in the city of São Paulo.



I
NTRODUCTION

The target of this report is showing the activities results of “Net 10
-

Fight against urban
poverty”
, a member of Cooperation Program URB
-
AL. This program started in 1995 and
has the objective to incentive the decentralized cooperation between cities in Europe and
Latin America.

The proposal of URB
-
AL program is creating an international net of cities, o
rganized
thematically, stimulated in exchanging experiences and establishing cooperation around
common themes of interest among cities. Besides the cities direct involvement


without the
intervention of the central government


at this initiative, the oth
er program objective is to
stimulate the participation of non
-
governmental actors (foundations, union organizations
and academic institutions).

The job methodology is based on organizations of common projects that seek to deepen the
debates of a common th
eme among the several partners. The members of a Net are
coordinated by a city that shows the project in one of the convocatories calls by European
Union.




1

This report counted on Karoline Antunes collaboration (graduation student at International Relations Course
at USP and assistant researcher of Caeni
/USP).

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In the case of NET 10, coordinated by the city of São Paulo, since August, 2002, the
proposal is to

debate the theme “Combat the Urban Poverty”. The Net has the objective to
improve the quality debate of local public policies to combat urban poverty in the cities
involved in the project. The Launch Conference of Net 10 took place in São Paulo, on Apri
l,
14 thru 16, 2003, when the work groups were organized due to the elaboration of the
projects.

During this two
-
year period, Net 10 advanced in the debate of common project of
decentralized cooperation and in the formulation of new public policies that a
llow a search
for alternatives to combat urban poverty and the reflection of options to straighten
citizenship. The URB
-
AL program experience, and its several Thematic Nets, revealed that
in the last decade the perspectives of cooperation among the subnati
onal units, the cities in
particular. The incentive to cooperation, for regional and international organizations, took a
bigger approximation between the cities, and emerged strongest as an alternative to the
development and solution of local problems, in
a complementary operspective of local
government actions.

The deepen of economic interdependency took the necessity to search for alternatives for
the non
-
governamental and subnational organizations to solve social problems. It became
clear that the povert
y question demands intervention, not only of public policies in a federal
level, but also, in the regional and local levels, able to realize more specifically the problems
dealed by its populations.

This final document reports the main advances conquered b
y Program URB
-
AL Initiative
and “Net 10


Fight against urban Poverty” and confirms that programs like this from
European Union could stimulate more the cooperation and the search for mutual solutions
for common problems.

The results of this analyses show
s the possibility to spread this cooperation, the creation of
patterns to bigger participation of the cities as international actors, and the definition of
concepts that could be a model to reflect about the possibilities to spread the citizenship and
redu
ce social exclusion and the poverty levels.

This report is divided in three main parts:


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I
-

The first part debates how the cities won a stand outed role in the international plan in the
last years, and how the cooperation wide this space. The first part
s of this report also give us
an analysis of how the academic literatures of Internationals relations adopt this theme as a
research object.

II
-

The second part debates the concept of urban poverty and social exclusion, emphasizing
the evolution of studie
s in this field, and the subsidy of this researches to the proposals
elaboration and the new policies to combat social problem of poverty.

III
-

The last part explains how the cooperation URB
-
AL program works and the projects
developed by Net 10, its evolu
tion and results.

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T
HE INTERNATIONAL ROL
E OF THE CITIES

In the last years, the counties started to protagonist a never seen before role in the
international scenario, as organizers of a new foreign policies agenda or as entities of public
power with own i
nterests and policies, destined to serve demands in local level so far
inexistant. This movement started with the debate of globalization since the 80’s, and with
the entrance of new actors in the international relations: NGOs, labor unions and civil publi
c
or private associations that started to influence national States, the multilateral organisms
and the transnational companies.

At that period not much attention was given to the counties and states governments debate,
as new actors of international relat
ions. But in the last years, the fact of subnational units
look for own resources to their development, made it get a straight attitude in the regional or
international integration process. The increase of interdependency and the expansion of
globalization

process started to locate the subnational units in a new level that all are
considered agents in the economic development, qualified to look for own resources and act
internationally. (VIGEVANI, 2005).

The counties involvement in the constitution of an ow
n international agenda has two main
vectors. The first refers to intermediate of interests, by municipal secretariats responsible for
policies representation, throughout projects, intermediate resources that deals with public
policies on interest of the Co
unty, in several different areas (health, education, social
programs, administrative staff training, etc); the second refers to the international insertion
properly, starting from a new agenda of elaboration and obtaining results from public
policies that
were introduced in the municipal level.

Not so much time ago, the counties international activities were to represent the County in
events and follow the protocol requested. Some few Counties, the biggest ones, could get
resources in financing agencies for

social programs and the International Relations Adviser
articulates the local power involvement in this projects.


Regarding the subnational units limitations in terms of formulation process of foreign
policies (constitutional limitations), in the last ye
ars the arise of International Relations
Secretariats in several Counties and State Governments, put it as an independent actor of

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international relations, in the way it started to act not only in the foreign representation, but
also in what refers to th
e resources caption policies in investments area and trade.

We should mention also the emergency of new themes in internationals relations
(investments, human rights, terrorism, environment degradation, etc), in the line of counties
and State government at
tributions.

The grow of cities actions in the international level create academic studies and a debate
among different theories lines in Social Sciences. But it’s still insufficient the debate about
this sbject in the field of International relations. Beca
use the main theories lines of
International relations, emphasize the National State role as the main actor in the
international system and dedicate zero weight to subnational entities. Some lines of studies
emphasizes the role of interest and pressure gro
ups, but do it having in mind other groups
(ONGs, businessman, ecc.).

Nevertheless, starting from the 80’s, it emerges two new generations of studies dedicated
specifically to understanding the role of subnational entities in the international plan.

The f
irst generation of studies about this subject was dedicated specifically to understand
the relation between federalism and foreign policies, it means, was worried about analysing
the subnational units competence in international relations.

The second gener
ation of studies in this area, about the emergency of cities as international
policies actors in front of the globalization process and economic internacionalization,
become strong in the 90’s, and it was made properly in the theoric field of Sociology. Th
is
way of thinking tries to understand the emergency of global cities, most of all in the role of
transnational net formation.

The central worry of the first chain


“federalist”


was to understand the emergency
phenomenum in the subnationals entitities i
n the international relations plan, under the
optica of “competence spheres”. It means, understanding the inter
-
relation between the
subnational powers (in the state and municipal level) and the Central Government in the
formulation process and the conduct
ion of foreign policies of countries
2
.




2

See: MICHELMAN, H. e SOLDATOS, P. (eds.).
Federalism and International Relations: the role of
subnational units
. Oxford: Oxford UniSeesity Press, 1995. ALDECOA, F. e KEATING, M. (eds).
Paradiplomacy in action: the foreign relations of subnational
goSeenments
. Frank Cass Publications, 2000.

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What is stand outed in this chain is the effort of conceptual definition to subnational units
actions. Two concepts were used to understand and distinguish these actions: the
paradiplomacy

(considered as legal activ
ity, inside the subnational actors role of
competency (municiples and state governments, called by the literature of “non
-
central
governments”) constitucionally estabilished). And the
protodiplomacy

(that is defined by
the set of called illegal activities
)
3
.

The second generation of studies turned specifically to analyse the role of subnatinals units
(particularly the cities), is the corrente sociologic that become strong starting from the 90’s
(Saskia Sassen, Borja e Castells etc.)
4
. This approach is foc
used on the simultaniety of
State
-
Nation crises in front of the toughness of globalization process and the emergency of
transnational powers, which them, the cities as global actors.

According these studies, the cities emergency as key global actors came
from a whole of
process in distitive dimensions: interdependency increase between cities; share of common
problems tipically pertinant to local circuit, the concentration of power resources
(population, investiments, trade transactions, ecc.) and the ident
ity criation.


T
HE
I
NTERNATIONAL PERFORM
ANCE IN THE CITY OF
S
ÃO
P
AULO

Taking the change context in international relations and the definition of subnationals units
as international actors, the city of São Paulo started to act more organized in the sense
of a
paradiplomacy. Some Brazilian cities had already counted on the experience of a
Secretariat (or assistance in some cases) turned exclusivelly to international relations.

São Paulo created its International Relations Secretariat (SMRI) in 2002. Since

then, the city
created an agenda, starting from the definition of some prioritary axles of actuation that it
would organize all the activities in the City Hall of the city. The main objective of this




3
. See BACHE, Ian e MITCHELL, James.
Globalization and UK Regions: the Prospects for Constituent
Diplomacy
.
Paper apresentado na seção de workshops, Mannheim, 26
-
31, março, 1999.

4
. See CASTELLS, M e BORJA, J. “
As cidades como atores políticos”.
Novos Estudos CEBRAP
, n º 45, julho
de 1996, pp. 152 a 165; BORJA, J. e CASTELLS, M.
Local y global: la gestión de las ciudades en la era de la
información.

Taurus Pensamiento, 1997 e SASSEN, Saskia. “Whose City Is It? Gl
obalization and the
Formation of New Claims”. In: LECHNER, Frank J e BOLI, John (Eds.).
The Globalization Reader.

Blackwell, 2000.

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Secretariat was “amplify the participation and the ci
ty interaction as a actor paradiplomatic
of internationals relations”. It means, its creation emphasizes a project that englobava all the
policies developed to the city had an amplified participation in international spaces often by
several internationals
actors non
-
states, whose the acting was incrising in the last years.

Since then, the actuation of International Relations Municipal Secretariat is amplifying and
covering several areas. Among the main activities developed by IRMS since 2002, we could
stand

out four items:
1
-

Internationals Cooperation.
2
-

Relations with Foreign Comunities
3
-

Participation in International Nets of Cities
4
-

Development Promotion and Foreign
Investments Atraction.
5

From this list, the item that should be stood out is the coop
eration area. It’s clear the
attribution priority to international insersation policies and to perform it totally, the
responsabilities were divided between the responsable coordinations for the international
cooperation development in specific areas in th
e world, counting on also with the direct
participation of International Relations Secretary and the Gabinete Chief in several contacts
and actions inside this field.

We could affirm that the biggest project of internacional cooperation developed by the Ci
ty
Hall, from 2002 to 2004, was the URB
-
AL Program (which for was created a exclusive
coordination), counting on the techinical and financial support of European Union.

In what concerns to the importance of policies of international insersation, the parti
cipation
in international nets of cities and local authorities should be stood out. These internatinal
nets have the objective of joining cities to acting together in several important themes to
international relations.

There are specific nets, as the ICL
EI (Local Governments for Sustainability) that is
concentrated in the sustenable development, in more amplified nets, as the CGLU (Cities
and Local Governments United) that has the representation assured in cities all over the
continents and seach for act
in a more active way next to United Nations Organiztions and
its agencies turned to the urban development. São

Paulo also participates activelly in the




5

Maurício Fronzaglia organiza e analisa, na sua dissertação de mestrado, todos os sete eixos de atuação da
Secretaria de Re
lações Internacionais da Prefeitura de São Paulo. See: FRONZAGLIA, Mauricio.
Unidades
subnacionais e Relações Internacionais. O caso da cidade de São Paulo (2001
-
2004).
Unicamp, 2005.

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Mercocities Net, that act in the circuit of regional integration, followed by the well succed
example
of Eurocities, that had an important role to cities inclusion and local governments
in the policies and administrative struture of European Union.

Analyzing, in a more amplified way, the whole activities developed by IRMS during the last
three years, it’s
clear that the emphasis of actions in the first two years looked for
amplification and concretization of international decentralized cooperation, was it in
thecnical caracther or financing and, in the last year, to the development promotion and
foreign inv
estments atraction. Part of the positive results of these actions could be seen in
the evaluation of the main activity which envolved the São Paulo City Hall: the URB
-
AL
Program, object of this report.


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T
HE
I
NTERNATIONAL COOPERA
TION AS A PRIORITY

The i
nternational cooperation got importance in the 80’s, it’s because of the arise of several
regimes and international organizations that started to regulate the actors behavior in several
areas, or because the non
-
governmental actors start to use cooperation

to increase the
legitimazy and the positive results of its actions.

In the case of subnationals actors


the city of São Paulo, in particularly


the cooperation is
used to deepen the relationship among other actors, and the financial resources transfers
and
techinical knowledge. The ccoperation emerge as the main tool to incentive the
development of set projects that attends to search solutions to common problems.

The fact is that the cooperation was always stronger in the nationals state level, most of a
ll
because the prerrogative of taking decisions alsways belonged to this actor.Nevertheless, we
could say that the cities started a new pattern of cooperation, that is llegal limitated, it has
showed specific results in what concern to resources conquer an
d technology experiences
and policies came from developed countries.

It has gotten an increasement in decentralized cooperation, which takes place on the
subnational units, and has resulted in the identification causes of main problems and in the
looking
for new public policies. The decentralized cooperation become na important
channel to resources transfer and exchange experiences, as much that European Union
created its own agency to decentralized cooperation, the URB
-
AL Program.
6


In the case of Subnati
onals units, and in the specific case of the city of São Paulo, the
international cooperation happened as one of the main axles of actuation. The cooperation is
dentify in the agreement or convention signature, intention letters, and other complementary
ac
tivities to the agreements cooperation stabilished between Brazil and the other
governments or organizations.

About the development way, the cooperation could be technical (transfer and exhanging
experiences and/or knowledgement), financing (envolving the

financing resources transfer)
or could contemplate these two dimensions. In what concerns to cooperating partners, it




6

Also the World Bank keeps na agency to this kind cooperation, the Citi
es Alliance.

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could configurate in horizontal cooperation (the one immplemented by the other subnational
units) or as a vertical cooperation (designe
d by the cooperation done between the
subnational units and States or International Organizations).

Since its creation, the Municipal District of São Paulo, throught of IRMS, assigned several
international cooperation agreements having as partners, the su
bnationals units, central
governments and multilaterals organiztions. The reach areas of these agreements are also
diverse, envolving big part of municipals secretariat.

As we will notice on this report, the cooperation became one, among others, of the way
s to
do the international activites of São Paulo City, obtaining positive results in a short period
of time. And, in this area, the URB
-
AL Net become the main program under the
responsability of International Relations Secretariat.

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IV
.

G
LOBALIZATION AND
FIGHT AGAINST URBAN
POVERTY
:

THE GREAT CHALLENGE
TO THE
CITIES

Conceptuals aspects of urban poverty. Public Policies and fight against poverty experiences.
The Net 10


Fight Against Urban Poverty.



C
ONCEPTS
A
SPECTS OF
U
RBAN
P
OVERTY

In the last years, we
’ve had lots of advancement in the debate and in the definition of a
poverty and social exclusion concept. This advance accompanish the problems evolution
arising from the cities urbanization and the asocial assimetry and the economic growing,
even though
it has not been always accompanied by the implementation of strong enough
public policies to combat it.

The debate around the poverty question increased in the 80’s, starting more dynamic studies
that searched to cover the complex thematic that this subjec
t demanded. These studies
represented a step ahead in the researches about urbanization theme, so far concentrated in
literature produced by urban sociology. (MARQUES 2005).

Overcoming this emphasis that prevailed during the 70’s, these new studies looked

for
debating the poverty question not only as position diveded by international position of
National State as subdeveloped actor, made by its dependency condition in relation to rich
countries. But developed works that had the focus on the attempt to iden
tification of
poverty reasons and debating colecttive intervention manners that could give better
conditions of living to a specific population.. “The predominant tedency in the studies field
was replaced by this structure without a subject to subject wit
hout structure”.
7

Meanwhile, as showed by Eduardo Marques
8
, is not possible homogeneity

the poverty
concept, and create na unique way to mesure it. It’s because the heterogeneidade of
problems, its origin, the locality that it refers, creates “multiple dim
ensions of





7

KOWARICK, Lucio.
Escritos Urbanos
. São Paulo: Editora 34, 2000. Apud MARQUES, 2005.

8

MARQUES, Eduardo e TORRES, Haroldo (orgs.).
São Paulo: segregação, pobreza e desigualdades
. São
Paulo: Editora SENAC, 2005. Capítulo 1.

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poverty”
9
?´7KH?GLILFXOW\?WR?GHILQH?D?XQLTXH?IRUP?WR?PHVXUH?WKH?SRYHUW\?DQG?VRFLOD?H[FOXVLRQ?
is clear in the sevaral proposals showed for countries and for international organizations.
10

It’s possible consider the general pattern to guide evalu
ations in studies therms (what
sevaral agencies are trying to do to evaluate in a comparative wy, the level of poverty and
exclusion), but is not possible to ignore the sevaral ways and poverty origins that demand
interventions and distinguish public polic
ies.

Several agencies of international organizations, governments and non
-
government
organizations, are searching for define general criteria to calculate the urban poverty
11
.
There are several factors that try to explain the poverty determination: since th
e low
scholarity, low salaries, unumployment, dificulties to have a residence, halth, ecc. In fact,
the variables should be considered, according to the area, and the conditions of each
locality, looking for situate the poverty in time,”considering the soc
ial structure and
institutional valid, not only express in funtion of gains”.
12

Vasconcelos and Batista
13

put attention on a concept defined by the economist Amartya
Sen: “so important as having their own basic necessities answered is have conditions


ways
to function and a set of habilities
-

that allows to satisfact this necessities”. It means, the
level of well
-
being and the social inclusion conditions should be consider not only the
property of materials goods, but also avaiable conditions to real access
opportunities to
realization of necessities. For this reason is difficult to keep criterias of comparison between
developed countries and in development.

But to assure therms of comparison, it is necessary to adopt an analyses methodology. In
this sense th
e literatures have adopted, more commonlly, the poverty line as an analitic
structure. Generally, poverty lines are defined in absolute therms or relative. The absolutes




9

ROCHA, S.
Pobreza

no Brasil: afinal do que se trata?

São Paulo: Editora FGV, 2003.

10

It’s necessary to remember that poverty and social exclusion concepts are concepts treated, many times, in a
separeted level. Nevertheless, their treatment in a associated way, as mentione
d by Eduardo Marques (2005),
from the idea that they are a process built together, makes as they can be thought only in a dynamic way.

11

For a global s ight about the meas urement models of urban poverty conducted by different international
agencies and the

diferentiation of variables that mus t be included on the evaluation of the coutries from Latin
America and Europe, See: VASCONCELOS, Fredimir e BATISTA, Sinoel.
Documento de Base
.
Coordenação da Rede 10


Luta contra a pobreza urbana. 2004.

12

LAVINAS, Le
na.
Documento de Base
. Rede URB
-
AL 10


Luta contra a pobreza.
2004.

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poverty lines adopt as defining elements of poverty level “the minimum gains necessa
ries to
a family survive”. Instead the relative poverty lines adopt “ the wider definition of poverty,
normally associate to specific public policies”.

The adopted methodology in the last decades took some basic elements: employment,
residence, education,
health and adolescence. During the 90’s, there were some advances in
the debate about criterias to define poverty levels, including new themes, as a definition of a
bigger participation in decisory process of a social life
14
. This criterias has been built a
nd
adopted as common mesures to calculate the diference between countries, with the objective
of search coordinated activites to improve quality life in diferent populations.

The result of this debates was shown, inicially, in the World Cupula about Social

Development, organized by United Nations (ONU) in 1995. This meeting was central to the
stabilishment of a commitment among the 117 participants countries, in the sense to
erradication poverty until 2015.

Creating a general criteria, it’s possible to assu
re therms of comparison, including countries
in Europe and Latin America. This evaluation is relevant in the sense that also guarantee the
possibility to improve cooperation proposals between actors in diferent areas, as it is the
experienced case of URB
-
A
L Program.

The PNUD (United Nations Program to Development) propose the creation of Human
Development Indicator to mesure poverty. The IDH consider non
-
monetary factors and
mutidimensions that allow comparisions in international level answering the necessi
ty of a
pattern to mesure poverty.
15

Besides the advance in serveral studies, it seems that there isn’t a single information about
what poverty and exclusion are. But it is necessary to deal with these themes as a social
question related directilly to the c
ity, and strating from this conscious, looking for the
implementation of specific public polices distinguished to these areas.






13

VASCONCELOS, F. e BATISTA, S.
Op. Cit
.

14

VASCONCELOS, F. e BATISTA, S. Op. Cit.

15

Vas concelos e Batis ta s tand out a new qualitative methodology created by three entities


NEPSAS from
P
UC/SP and the NGOs INPE e Polis


that proposes the built of an index of social inclusion (defined by a set
of variables


autonomy, life quality, human development, equity, democracy, citizenship and happiness) for
the elaboration of local strategies due

to reducing poverty.

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The recent studies stand out the necessity of a complementation to these two proposals.
“The poverty could not only be defined i
n terms of surviving material levels, but also it
should consider individuals that, despite of the fact that they could survive above the
minimum, don’t have access to important benefits of urban modern society, as education,
basic sanitation, health, cult
ure and social integration”.
16


P
UBLIC
P
OLICIES AND
E
XPERIENCES OF FIGHT
AGAINST URBAN POVERT
Y

The work advance, in the 80’s, about the urban poverty subject, was followed about the fact
that its combat was strictally related to the subnationals units cpaci
ty in the implementation
of public policies, in a way to complete the actuation of federal governments, considered
more efficient to solve problems and criation of social citizenship.

This perception was incrising in the manner that the cities and the muni
cipals got to
mobilizate in a fast way, other actors, private or non
-
governamental organizations. It
became more evident that the policies to combat poverty and exclusion should configurate a
“mix national
-
local”
17
, and the cities


however with specifities

in what concers to local
problems


could exchange its experiences in a way to acquire new tecnologies and
implement new policies whose the results showed positives.

Some examples of public policies to combat urban poverty that were succed, are mentioned
in the Document Guide of Lena Lavinas, at that time, senior econmist of OIT: the program
example of minimun wage in Portugal is interesting. Starting from the program, it was
created Local Companions Comissions (CLAS), formed by a net of partners with the
objective to promote social inclusion, increasing the autonomy of beneficiaries families
(with trainning ocupational courses, support in searching for a job, formation, health,
residences, ecc.).

This experience shows the programs consistences whose manage
ment and implementation
are decentralized. The programs of minimun wage concepeted by central government in




16

MINGIONE, E. “Urban PoSeety in the Advanced industrial world: concepts, analysis and debates”.
MINGIONE, E. (org.).
Urban PoSeety and the Underclass
. London: Blackwell, 1996. Apud MARQUES,
2005.

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countries as France, Belgium, Portugal and some areas of Spain, are success because the
decentralization in the implementation process. Lavinas al
so shows that in the case of
Brazil, some strategies more well succeed to combat poverty, come from local iniciative.


T
HE
NET

10



C
OMBAT AGAINST URBAN
POVERTY

The São Paulo City, counting on the support of several European cities and Latin American,
con
quered in 2002, the net 10 coordination of URB
-
AL Program, called “Fight Against
Urban Poverty”. The main objective of Net consists, basically, in the quality improvement
of local public policies to combat urban poverty in the european and Latin America ci
ties.
Throught the constitution of a Net of partners cities, the proposal was the implementation of
exchange experience information developement and the knowledge of public policies
between the several local government envolved.

Preceding the Net lauch co
nference, the sending of a questionnaire to the partners, to
evaluate the urban poverty concept, in a way to verify if it was possible some kind of pattern
(conceptual and in the measure way) to starting from this point, starting to debate ways to
overcome

this problem. With the questionnaries answers, made by the European and Latin
American members of Net, it was possible to create a map of how each partner cities
interpretate the poverty and exclusion notion.

Verifing that there are several concepts, alw
ays directlly associated with the main problems
that each city face of. So, we could reaffirm the fact that poverty comprehension cross
multidimensions factors.

Vasconcelos and Batista, already mentioned, synthetize in a Net 10 base document, the
evoluti
on of work and partners contacts: On Net 10, the concept of “poverty was defined as
lack of citizenship. In such case, its combat pass though the building of citinzenship,
democracy and
empowerment
, give voice to populations in poverty situations”. This
d
efinition came from the perception that “the seach for multisectorials indicators and
multidimensions is a demand for the majority of projects turned to build local strategies to






17

See: LAVINAS, Lenas.
Rede 10 URBAL



Luta contra a pobreza urbana
. Document guide. Mimeo, 2004.
SARACENO, C.
Social Assistance Dynamics in Europe
. UK: THe Polity Press, 2002.

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reduce poverty, as pointed in the final conclusions of
Special Program for
Public
Management and Citizenship


18
.

These were the objectives that guide the actions in the city of São Paulo, in the program
URB
-
AL.




18

Summary document.
Práticas Públicas e Pobreza
. São Paulo: FGV, 1999. Apud VASCONCELOS E
BATISTA.

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V.

T
HE
URB
-
AL

P
ROGRAM
:

A
N INOVATIVE
P
ROPOSAL OF
I
NTERNATIONAL
C
OOPERATION

Cities Net and inernational cooperation. Hi
storical of creation and fuctioning of Net URB
-
AL, its proposals and activities. Approved projects and developed. Concluded Projects.



C
ITIES
NET:

NEW PATTERNS OF INTE
RNATIONAL COOPERATIO
N

In the last decade, we could identify the capacity amplificationof

non
-
state in the
international plan. The most part of these actions are conducted by identification and
coodination of interests, and seardh for information that could contribute to local and
regional development. This coordination happens, generally, wit
h the formation of nets.

This nets are manners to overcome the relative local isolation produced by the process of
globalization. Some actors call attention to a the fact of existence of cities net


and other
nets too is an indicative of creation and str
eighten of civil global society, accept that is
through cities net organizations canalize the citizen actuation, and if create concrete
institutional spaces to coletives actions.
19


The cities nets represent, therefore, a high level of organization that sho
ws a horizontality
relation, breaking this way the common hierarchyzation to tradicional international entities.
Mauricio Fronzaglia
20

stand out the “main characterists of cities net:

a)

Absence of a central command


in the cities net, the relation among them
, happens
in a horizontal way, don’t have na hierarchy. There is a division of fuctions and
responsabilities, principally in the part related to financial control of net and the adhesion
control. There is a thematic nucleous around the cities that meet an
d mobilize in the search
for common objectives.

b)

Geographic Global Reach and Regional Mark


the cities net act in an international
scenario with a reach never before immagined, its principal net


CGLU


has a global
reach and is a source of cooperation wi
th the international comunity. In the same way, the
macro regional of nets has influenced the regional integration process. And, even the nets




19

TEIXEIRA, E. “
Participação cidadã na sociedade civil global”.
Lua Nova
, 46, 1999.

20

FRONZAGLIA, Mauricio.
Op. Cit.

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with more specific objectives, has the mundial reaching cohesion and proximity to its
partners.

c)

Agility


As it
s horizontal structure na the new techonoliges use, the nets are fast as
taking decisions.

d)

Actors Wealth


the nets aglomerate and insert in the international scenary, lots of
policies actors


governamentals or not


that, in another, way would have a fra
gile
insertation. The wealth of actors
-

several cities and foreign partners, as in the case of URB
-
AL
-

stimulates the dialogue and the democratization of big international themes.

e)

Democratization of Knowledgement


conffirmed by the characteristics listed

above,
the nets allow the knowledgement sharing that is in fact, a democratization to combat some
specific problems that are common to its members. Besides, it has became vital to stand out
through nets the smallest cities that without too much experience

in international area could
participate in international cooperation activities.

f)


Members proximity


fundamental characteristics to deepen democratic dialogue in
the looking for common objectives”.

Starting from this characteristcs, we could identify a n
ew pattern of cooperation among the
subnational units, marking the paradiplomatic action in an efective way in what concerns to
the results. The experience conduct by European Union, with the cooperation program
URB
-
AL, that we will read about in the next
chapter, shows the way the cities, particularlly,
the city of São Paulo, started to wide its actions in the international scenary.









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T
HE
URB
-
AL

P
ROGRAM

Among all the international cooperation activities developed by the city of São Paulo in
actual
management, the URB
-
AL deserves special attention. First of all, because is the first
knowing program and exclusivelly developed to increase the decentralized cooperation
among cities of Latin America and European Union, there are no participation or
inter
ference of central government. Second, is not only a resources fund that should be sent
to projects elaborated by a specific city. The URB
-
AL Program is a trully international net
of decentralized cooperation, where the cities should be organized in groups
, debate the
projects elaboration, to then receive the financial resources avaiable to this.i

The URB
-
AL is a decentralized cooperation program of European Union turned to main
area of urban public policies, destinated to Latin America and Europe local col
lectivities
participation, as well other urban sectors that demonstrate interest to come in.

The criation of URB
-
AL Program, in 1995, answered the demand for development of
decentralized mechanisms of cooperation, in local level, keeping in mind the increa
sing role
performed by cities, as European cities as well Latin America cities, in the improvement of
social
-
economical conditions and in the population quality of life.

Become, strating from this point, a reference in the international area among cities
of
different continents, being recognized in Cimeira of Rio the States Chiefs and Government
of these two areas, as an important toold to concretization of priorities related, most of all, to
fighting against poverty and the social exclusion, the promotion

and the protection of human
rights and the development of na information society.


The URB
-
AL Program is included among the policies priorities of coopertion between
European Union and Latin America, defined in three Comission communications:
“European Un
ion
-

Latin America
-

actuality and perspectives of partnership reinforcement
(1996/2000)”, “A new partnership European Union/ Latin America in
dealbar

of century
XXI”, “First and Second Cimeira between Latin America, the Caibas and European
Union”.



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It
s laws bases are structured in the CEE nº 113/92 Regulament, of European Council, on
February,25, 1992, that deals with the financial and technical support and economic
cooperation with the in development countries in Latin America and Asia.

Participating
in the project local collectivities, named cities, urban aglomeration, regions
and provinces since their authorities has been elected in a democratic way.

It’s also possible the participation in another entities that are not classified in the local
collect
ivities categories, but are dedicated to work in urban sector, for example ONGS,
associations, foundations, universities, companies, unions.



In European Union, the program embodies inicially the following countries: Germany,
Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Spai
n, Finland, France, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg,
Netherland, Portugal, United Kingdom and Sweden.



In Latin America, the creation of Net, it could participate collectivities of Argentina,
Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador,
Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras,
Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela.

The basic idea consists in interchange the experience between several localities as a way to
search fixed solutions to main challenges faced by the cities. It
s proposal embodies a
decentralized developement system and activites managements, allowing the free clustering
of participants, according to theirs tune in, in one or more themes related to the cities. As a
result, expect the increasing of international c
ontacts betwen the two regions, which will
serve as a base to development of new projects.

The main objective is stregthen the locals collectives capacity action to promotion of
economic social and policies development. The viability of this effort is cond
itioned, by one
hand, to formation and capacitation of human resources next to local authorities, and, by the
other hand, the partnership promotion between the local collectivities and civil society
representants. Obviouslly, the development proposal shou
ld be role by observance of local
specificities. There is a special worried to garantee to small and medium cities more space
in cooperation in international level.

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The URB
-
AL is in its second phase. The first phase was a result of European Union
decisio
ns on December,20,1995 and on February,19,1998, that determineits organization
around eight themes (Nets):


N
ET

C
OORDINATED CITY

1
-

Drugs and city

Santiago of Chile

2
-

Conservation of urban history contexts

Italian Province of Vicenza

3
-

Democracy in
the city

Issys
-
les
-
Moulieaux, France

4
-

The city as promoting economic
development

Madrid, Spain

5
-

Urban Social Policies

Montevideo, Uruguay

6
-

Urban Environment

Malaga, Spain

7
-

Management and Urbanization Control

Rosario, Argentina

8
-

Urban Mob
ility Control

Stuttgart, Germany


The fuctioning structre is the following : to each theme, is created a net, that embodies all
the participants interested on cooperating together in this area, being coordinated by only
one local collective. To the net co
ordinator competes garantee the indformation difusion
among the participants, organize periodical meetings of work and keep permanents contacts.

Inside de thematic nets are elaborate and execute common projects, that aim at to deep the
central theme in re
lation to specific themes. The exchange experience is key factor to look
for possible solutions and concrete to main problems around the phocus theme.

In the first phase of the program, it was developed more than 50 common projects,
involving thematics, su
ch as: the information system about drugs, the municipal

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management guide about the impact of turism in historical context, the mechanisms of
consultation to reinforce the democracy in the city, the creation of democratics schools and
participatives to y
outh, transnational agency to employment, health promotion, solidary
economy, and others. These themes consolidate as a important field research about the
urban problems, among several common projects.

The total budget for this first phase, that took 4 yea
rs long, was E 14 million euros.
Common projects role were priorized by a geography diversity, counting with a co
-
financing of 50%, until the limit of E100 thousand euros each. There was just one kind of
common project, turned essencially to good pratices
difusion, with the maximum duration
of 3 years long.

The direct consequence of efforts was the program consolidation as a field of urban
problems investigationc without precedents in Europe and Latin America, counting with the
participatin of more than 120
0 localities.

The projects sucess of first phase made with European Comission decided in December,
2000, gave continuity to URB
-
AL program, wider and diversification its activies and
increasing its financing resources. The second program phase results fro
m the decisions of
December, 19,2000 and July, 31,2001, has been choiced five new themes to complete the
first phase,as show
21
:



N
ET

C
OORDINATED
C
ITY

9
-

Local Financing and participative budget

Porto Alegre

10
-

Fight against urban poverty; residence

São

Paulo

11
-

Women Promotion in the local decisions
instances

Barcelona, Spain

12
-

Cities and information society

Bremen, German




21

The formation of Net 11 was foreseen, Habitation in the city, but there was no candidate city approved by
European Union.

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13
-

Citizen Security in the city

Valparaiso, Chile


The second phase reach a period of 5 years long, with an amplified budg
et of 50 million
euros. To this phase, was built a net to each theme, coordinated by a local collectivity,
grouping, in the maximum,200 local collectivities. The comunitary financing conceded to
nets coordination cover, in the maximum, 70% of costs, could

reach the amount of 500
thousand euros, including a period of 3 years. The coordinator of thematic net will assume
the other 30% of costs.

Inside of the thematicss nets, are developed two types of projects:A and B, with the
maximum duration of two years.

The participants have wide autonomy to choice the
common projects to be developed inside the thematics nets, since it keeps relation with the
focus theme. The number of participants of a common project could vary from 5 to 15,
respecting the geographic di
stribution beetween European Union and Latin America.

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There are two common projects type:



The
type A

projects aim at develop experiences exchange between the participants and
allow the pratices difusion, corresponding to common projects of first phase.



The
type B

projects, that consist on the news at URB
-
AL Program, dedicated to
concretization, by realizations, of the results in exchanging experiences, should occour,
necessarilly, in projects of first phase or projects of type A of second phase already
c
onluded. The type A projects have as main targets the exchange experiences, the lectures
realization, elaboration and realization of programs, everything turned to formation; the
development of dignosis missions and factibility studies, also the reinforcem
ent mesures of
municipals actions visibility. Contain from 5 to 15 participants, with a minimum of two
participants of European Union and 3 of Latin America; proceed from at least four diferent
coutries. There is the possibility of an extern member inclusi
on for each group of 5
participants.

The balance proporcioned between Europe and Latin America respect the proportion 1/3
-
2/3. The co
-
financing is at the limit of 70% of costs, respecting a maximumof 250 thousand
euros. The methodology consists in the ela
boration of common project, with priorization of
activites consummated in the set of local collectivities.

The projects type B, in it turns, turns to the functioning of services and collective
equipments, the consummation of a masterplan project that coul
d be reproduced in other
local collectivites that participates in a common project, the restauration of cultural goods
with a common patrimonial value and the transfer and adjusting of system information
opened to local collectivites

The proportional balan
ce among the European and Latin
-

American participants is the same
of projects type A. The co
-
financing is also of 70% of csts, but could reach 800 thousand
euros. The methodology used consists in the colective elaboration of common project, under
the resp
onsability of coordinator and with the support, if necessary, of coordination cell,
being possible the concentration of activities in a local colectivity.

The participation on URB
-
AL Program is possible though proposal presentation, that will be
evaluate b
y European Comission, in charge of conception, development and following the
program, also deciding about the subvention of attribution. Once is select the proposal, is

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celebrate a subvention contract between the Comission and the net thematic Coordinato
r or
the common project, according to the circunstances.

In January, 2001, the Federative Relations Advisory of External Relations Ministery sent to
São Paulo City Hall informations about the deadline and the inscriptions conditions to the
cities intereste
d in coordinate new nets of URB
-
AL Program. The city of São Paulo, by
IRMS, started to work in the elaboration of a project of work to coordinate the program Net
10 : “Combat the Urban Poverty”.

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VI.

S
ÃO
P
AULO AND THE
N
ET
10

(2002
-
2005)

Launch Conferenc
e: São Paulo and the coordination of Net 10 (April/2003). Objectives of
Net 10 (improve the quality of local public policies to combat urban poverty). Identification
of common problems, work agenda.Workgroups formation. Peoject proposals showed to
European

Comission.Results.



H
ISTORICAL OF
N
ET
10

The theme of fight against urban poverty, including the second phase of the URB
-
AL
Project, took to the creation of Thematic Net Number 10, whose the several proposals was
showed to its coordination.

The São Pau
lo locality showed a coordination project, under the title of Fight Against Urban
Poverty, askig to European union the amount of 500 thousand euros, corresponding to 63%
of the total cost.

The imperatives in the sense of developement of policies to combat

poverty is necessary in
São Paulo. The locality has a population of 10,4 million people (2001), from this number
589,1 thousand families chiefs are in poverty situation and 3 million of people live in slums,
tenement
-
houses or irregular settlements. From
the 96 districts, in 73 of them, where live 8
million people, the situation is majority of exclusion. The data, speak for itself, showing the
motive of interest in this thematic.

The proposal essence showed consisted in the formulation of new pratices of e
labortion and
implementation of public policies turned to combat poverty, though a decentralized system
of management, with emphasis in the exchange of participants cities, that would have access
to new approach of quantitaty and quality identification of
urban poverty.

The expected result, in a period of 3 years, was the improvement of local public policies
quality turned into the combat of poverty in Latin America and Europe. There was a
prediction of building a net of cities from both areas, turned into
exchanging information,
knowledgement and experience, keeping in mind the construction of durable bowknots
between the local autarchy to viabilize future projects, to be possible though a common


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project proposal type B, coordinated by the city of São Pa
ulo, that will be show, on
April,2006.

The project also showed to foresee the construction of tools and instruments to allow the
local authorities identify the poor population in a qualitative and quantitative way, keeping
in mind the existent problems and

poverty repoduction, as also the common dificulties faced
by the cities, the solutions formulation and the implementaion in a short or medium period
of time.

The specific objectives contained in the proposals were:


1.Incentive the permanent exhange by a

fast process of comunication and information
transfer between the members of Net 10 “Fight Against Urban Poverty” and reach its
absolute funcioning in latin
-
american cities and the European Union that adhere to Net.

2.Promote partnerships and motivate the

formation of sub
-
nets between cities to the
development of common projects united with other social actors as civil society entities.

3. Identify the main problems, experiences and commmon interests of cities in the thematic
of Fight against Urban Povert
y.

4. Divulge and dissemintae good pratices of local public polices development, giving
visibility to Net and URB
-
AL Program.

5. Reinforce internal structures and work pluri and intersectorial inside the São Paulo City
Hall and other autarchie and local p
owers.

6. Become national and international in the theme of combat poverty and social inclusion
and motivate a increasing number of cities to integrate the Net though the increasing of
capacity to combat poverty and social development of urban areas.

The l
ocal proposal of São Paulo was selected by European Comission. Since October,
2005, compete to City Hall, the coordination
of Net 10


Fight Against Urban Poverty
,
that has as a main target the improvement of local public polices quality to combat poverty

in Latin American and Europe. With the porpose to reach this goal, act as an articulation
between the local autarchies in the creation of partnerships that result in the implementation
of long term actions, with support of European Union.

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In the quality
of thematic net coordinator to combat poverty, competed to São Paulo City
Hall organized it strating from a the constituion of a coordination cell, responsible for
animation, management, exchange experiences and net members information,as well the
promotio
n to abroad of its activites. Besides this, would be in charge of select a group of
experts, responsabile for the elaboration of a base Document, to serve as a set reflection
about the theme, offering techinical support, and for the realization of a Launc
h Seminary,
that would mark the befinning of the activites of Net, with the forecast of two annual
meetings.

The Coordinator Group was composed by the International Relations Secretariat and the
the Social Assistence and Development, Labor and Solidariet
y, Habitationand Urban
Development Secretariats. Untill the end of the govern in 2004, the Executive Coordination
of Net 10 count with five advisors, in several areas(projects, communications, information,
accounting).

At the beginning, the Net had 140 par
tners, of this number 108 local governments and
regional, and 32 extern, composed by cooperation agencies and civil society institutions. In
the total were envolved 24 countries, 17 of them were from Latin America: Argentina,
Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colomb
ia, Cuba, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico,
Nicaragua, Ecuador, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela; and 7 of European
Union: German, Belgium, Spain, France, Greece, Italy and Portugal.

The base document was elaborated in three guide docu
ments, elaborated by David Gordon,
of Bristol University, Lena Lavinas, of OIT/ONU and Gustavo Riofrio, of Desco, and the
questionnaries answered for the partners of Net 10. In the final version, search to
contemplate specially the contributions provenient

of conferences.

NET 10
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35





C
HONOLOGY OF
N
ET
10

P
ROJECT

Net 10 support activally the elaboration of common projects type A to be shown in the
European Comission Convocatory.

The comunication and animation of Net were developed through several instruments, that
help
ed on the work divulges, in the contact between the partners and the incentive to
exchange experiences.

It was constant the analyses of several indicators of poverty, adopted in the national and
international circuit, whose debate were consignated in the g
uide and base document. It
tryed to point out ways to change the actual poverty indicators of urban poverty, that
envolves access to health, education, culture, citizenship exercise, social inclusion.

During this project, it was adopted the following instr
uments of communication: daily
accompany of all electronic messages sent to coordination cell of Net 10, from the partners
as well the other people and entities interested on Net 10 work; periodic communication of
partners by e
-
mail; telephone contacts wit
h representan of cities/entities; internet website
and monthly electronic bulletins and cominicates/invitations to events organized by Net 10.

The Net 10 website,
www.urbal10.sp.gov.br
, transformed in an import
ant vehicle of
divulgation of work development, being available in four official languages of URB
-
AL
Program.There was a preocupation with the continuous improviment, by reestruction layout
and the facility of partners access and web visitors. On June, 200
4, took place the Official
Launch of new website, during the Fair and International Congress of Cities, Urbis, 2004,
that count with three great areas: Net 10 ( what is the program), urb
-
al (the net, partners,
programming, projects and coordinations)and Mi
dia (links to interviews with specialist and
partners, divulgation of events).

The divulge of information occured also by bulletins sent by e
-
mail, translated into the four
official languages of the program. The electronic bulletins were elaborated in the
total of 29
and two of them were special: Andine America and Sucre.

The base document had the objective of conceptuationof urban poverty and social exclusion
phenomenon, pointed out its main agents and looking for ways to face it. The initial text
was elab
orated starting fromthree documents guide:
Subsidy to the Construction of Fight

NET 10
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36





Against Urban Poverty



Lena Lavinas
; Urban Poverty in Europe and Latin America: a
European View



David Gordon;
Poverty and Desiquality in our Cities: A vision to urban
auth
orities



Gustavo Riofrio. After this, it was incorporated the themes debated in the
Launch Conference.

The sistematization of the base document was written by the economic journalist Fredimir
Vasconcelos. Besides the guide documents, it was used a documen
t elaborated by the Santo
Andre City Hall and another write by Professor Antonio Elizalde, principal of University
Bolivariana of Chile.

The
L
AUNCH
S
EMINARY OF
N
ET
10,

took place on April, 14 thru 16, 2003, in São Paulo,
Brazil. During these three days of
work, 12 countries were representanted, 62 local/regional
governments and 23 civil society organizations, in the total of 230 partners that contributed
to the elaboration of 25 common projects. Also, some under experienced cities received
some technical vi
sits such as the cities of Diadema, Guarulhos, Santo André and São
Bernardo.

The debates were about the following thematic axles:

a) employment, wage, micro
-
credit, autonomy construction and the role of emancipatories
policies,

b) net protection to citi
zenship and social risk monitorization

c) social habitation,

d) management of public policies of cities;

e) indicator and concepts: mesure of urban poverty and evaluation of policies to combat it.

The conclusion pointed some aspects and necessities, in

what concerns to face problems
related with poverty:

1. Articulation and constitution of social protection systems, through the formation of public
policies nets, in a way to coordinate and articulate multisectorally the access to public goods
and service
s, indispensable to social inclusion strategies construction and the stregthen of
society participation in the government decisions assure this way, the absolute exercise of
citizenship;

NET 10
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2. Formulation and management of public policies of combat poverty a
nd social inclsuion
promotionin a integrated way inter and intra sectorially;

3. Defense, next to nationals gestors of macroecomics policies formulation, of actions
generates of wages, wage redistribution and iniqual combat;

4. Promotion the popular and so
lidary economy, to local economic development and the
generation of employment and wage;

5. Stregthen of micro
-
credit programs destinated to small and micro companies;

6. Promotion of policies of education, health, socail habitation, basic sanitation, secu
rity and
urban mobility as a way to garantee the attedance of population basic necessities and avoid
the consolidation of formation cycle of urban poverty composed in great part by absence of
wage and access impossibility to goods ans public essencial sevi
ces.

7. Streghten of institutional capacity and techincal hability of public gestors,as well the the
strgthen and formation of social capital next to civil society to the implementation and
projects management integrated inter and intra
-
sectorially;

8. St
reghten of participative process in the management, conception, implemetnation and
public policies evaluation of goods production and public services;

9. Studies of identification of sustenable financing sources to combat poverty actions and
social inclusi
on promotion;

10. Strategy adoption of monitoring (though indicators) and permanent evaluation of
impacts produced by the action of implementation of public policies to combat urban
poverty and social inclsuion promotion.

Continuous efforts were made in th
e sense of increasing the number of partners in the net.
The second step, the focus turned into the incoporation of new partners of North Europe.
The Net, in this final phase, counted on 378 members, from this amount 269 local
government and 109 extern par
tners, of 28 countries in European Union and Latin




NET 10
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38





America
22
, overpassing the previous number. There was special emphasis in the search of
adehasion of small and medium cities.

The net 10 arrives to its third year with the number of partners bigger t
han foreseen for the
three years of activities. This is a refletion of mobilization work and continue animation on
2005, that has one of characteristics the incorporation of a big number of small and medium
cities. The ampliation is most of the divulgatio
n results of Net 10, always emphasizing the
quality of net and its sustenable.


Parnters AL/EU

October 2003

October 2004

October 2005

Local Governments

167

228

269

Extern Partners

58

99

109

TOTAL

225

327

378



The nets URB
-
AL has a stipulate limit of
200 local government and any number of extern
partners (entities, foundations, universities, companies, unions and NGO´s). As NET 10
shows a tendency to transpass quickly this limit, creatd the figure of observatories
-
partners


local governments with the
same rights, but the expenses to participate in net meetings
should be pay by their own.

The Net 10 partners , 117 are from European union and 261 from Latin America and
distributed as follow :


Partners Distribution

Latin America

European Union

TOTAL

P
artners of Full Powers

122

58

180

Observators Partners

64

25

89

Extern Partners *

75

34

109

* This number includes three international NGO´S)





22

To the 17 countries in Latin
America, incorporated after, the Costa Rica. And the group of countries in
Europe, associated to Finland, Holland and England.

NET 10
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FINAL DOCUMENT PARTNERS NETWORK 10
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39





Partners cites origin:



Latin América:

Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, El Salva
dor, Equador,
Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and
Venezuela



European Union
:
Germany, Belgium, Spain, Finland, France, Greece, Holland,
England, Italy and Portugal.


To elaborate the diagnosis regarding to poverty co
mbat, two questionnaries were sent to
partners, whose information were tabulated.

The Net 10 act in the elaboration and construction of common projects proposals introduced
in the Convocatories of European Comission. Meeting were organized to debate the lo
gic
mark, structure and proposals content and have permanent contact with partners to clarify
doubts.

By the intermediation of Net, the local governments could show a common project proposal
to European union, obtaining the financing to a project tht reun
ite a minimum number of
cities. The porposals could be sent in the two convocatories, on April, 30 and October,31.
During this three years of activities, were showed to Brussels 49 projects type A, 18 of them
were approved (17 of type A and one type B). T
here is the foreseen to send at least six
proposals in the Convocatory of October, 2005.

Besides the Launch Conference and the Annual Meetings stabilished as obligatories by
European Comission, were assigned partnerships to the realization and other semina
ries
turned to thematic debate of poverty and the difusion of concepts and methodologies
adopted by Net.

The national/regional meetings were possible by entities alliance, intitutions and local
governments. They are looking for:



Stregthen of cooperation in
struments between net partners of intersectorial form,
feerative and between this and the internationals agencies.

NET 10
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-

FINAL DOCUMENT PARTNERS NETWORK 10
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40







Assure that net was a reference in the ambit of URB
-
AL Program territory in the fight
against urban poverty with the realization of debates,

problematic studies, information
library and cooperation forms.



Formation of work groups to deepen the debate in several thematic axles of faces the
problem.



Presentation of a dynamic fuctionament of URB
-
AL Program and the thematics nets.

The following me
etings took place:



First Regional Meeting of Fight Against Urban Poverty in San Salvador (El Salvador).
June,2003.



Second Reginal Meeting of Fight Against Urban Poverty, on Mexico City
-
DC (Mexico).
December, 2003.



Third Regional Meeting of Fight Against
Poverty, in the city of Sucre, Bolivia.
September, 2004.



VII Social Policies Comitee of UCCI and IV NET
URB
-
AL 10

Meeting of fight against
urban poverty( Latin America) on November,2004, São Paulo


On the
first

convocatory

of European Union, in April, 20
03, it was sent a common project
type A proposal, named “Methodologies and tools to creation of Social Inclusion
Observatories in the cities”, coordinated by the city of Saint Denis (France). This project
was approved and it already has its activites concl
uded. The project type B apporoved in
the Convocatory of April,2005, named “Ciudades Y Ciudadanos/As Por La Inclusión
Social”, coordinated by the city of Montevideo, come from the sub
-
net envolved in this
project, from the acumalated experiences in its de
velopment.

From the 27 formulated, 16 were approved to
the second convocatory
on October, 31,
2003, being approved 4 of them (stood out), as it is shown in the next table.


NET 10
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41




P
ROJECT


C
OORDINATED CITY

El Municipio Como Ente Promotor del Desarroleo Local:
In
tercambio de Experiencias Sobre el Desarroleo de Estrategias
Económicas y Sociales

Ayuntamiento de Alcalá
la Real


p灡án

Ca灡cáíacá 摥⁤ rágeníes 摥a ec潮潭áa s潬á擡ráa ó
f潲íalecáãáe湴漠 摥潳 ací潲es re灲eseníaíáv潳 摥l secí潲

Aóuníaãáe湴漠 摥
Ba摡l
潮a


p灡án

p潣áal fnclusáçn íh潵gh fníersecí潲áals m潬ácáes?

Bel漠e潲áz潮íe Cáíó eall


Brazál

hn潷 h潷 í漠çare


daraníee 潦 ⁣hál搠 an搠a摯descence rághí án
灥rs潮al an搠s潣áal rás欠sáíuaíáçn í漠ç⁦aãáláar c潮vácence

Caã灩nas Cáíó eall


Brazál

ia a摭
ánásíracáón l潣al c潭漠garaníe 摥a aíencá a潳
a摵lí潳 ãaó潲es ó genera摯da 摥uev潳 óacáãáení潳 摥
eã灬e漮ç fníercaã扩漠 摥 ex灥ráencáasⰠ revásá 摥⁰潬ííácas ó
ela扯bacá 摥⁰ 潰çesías

C潮sell C潭arcal 摥
l’Alt Empordá


p灡án

f摥níáfácaíáçn 潦 án
síruãenís 潦 ánceníáve í漠w潲欠e摵caíá潮

aáa摥ãa Cáíó eall


Brazál

fníegraíe搠 janageãení 潦 s潣áal 灯pácáes í漠ç⁢ gger
effecíáveness an搠unáversaláíó án c潭扡í 潦 灯períó

duarulhçs Cáíó eall


Brazál.

fnsíruãeníaláze íhe l潣aláíáes í漠ç潭扡í 灯períó


gacareí Cáíó eall


Brazál.

qurásã漠 摥⁣alá摡携 fací潲 摥⁩摥níá摡搠 l潣al ó genera摯d 摥
eã灬eç

Aàuníaãe湴 ⁤ ⁌l潲eí 摥
jar


p灡án.

NET 10
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-

FINAL DOCUMENT PARTNERS NETWORK 10
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42




Intercambio de Experiencias en la administración de Bancas
Sociales de Asistencia Financiera y Programas de Micro Crédit
o
a Micro y Pequeñas Empresas Urbanas

Municipalidad de Palpalá


Argeníána

pecuráíó Aláãe湴aró fn摩caí潲s án 潵r cáíáes

máracáca扡 Cáíó eall
J

Brazál

C潮síruccá 摥潤çl潳 s潣áales 摥 áníercaãbá漠 摥⁢ enas
灲ácíácas en el area⁤ a mlaneacá p潣áal

oegá潮e 摥⁍arche


fíaló

mu扬ác 灯pácáes duá摥 潦 healíh í漠c潭扡í 灯períó an搠áã灲潶e
煵aláíó 潦 láfe †

oá漠dran摥 摡⁓erra Cáíó
eall


Brazál

i潳 kuev潳 m潢çes
J

esíraíégáasⰠ ãéí潤潳 ó herraãáenías 摥a
lucha c潮íra la nueva 灯扲eza ur扡na ó 灡raa

ánclusáón s潣áal

C潭une aá o潭a


fíaló

bvaluacáón 摥⁉ã灡cí漠p潣áal 摥as m潬ííácas 摥⁥ã灬e漠eã
cáu摡摥s 摥⁁ãéráca iaíána ó la rná bur潰ça

junácá灡lá摡搠 摥
deneral pan jaríín


Argeníána

fníegraíe搠 janageãeníW new waó í漠fághí íhe 灯períó an搠s潣á
al
exclusáçn