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Nov 14, 2013 (3 years and 4 months ago)

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Chapter 6:

BI Implementation:

Integration and Emerging
Trends




Business Intelligence:

A Managerial Approach
(2
nd

Edition)


Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

6
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2

Learning Objectives


Describe the major business intelligence (BI)
implementation issues


List some critical success factors of BI
implementation


Describe the importance and issues in integrating BI
technologies and applications


Understand the needs for connecting BI systems
with other information systems


Define on
-
demand BI and its advantages/limitations


List and describe representative privacy, major legal
and ethical issues of BI implementation


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Learning Objectives


Understand Web 2.0 and its characteristics as
related to BI and decision support


Understand social networking concepts, selected
applications, and their relationship to BI


Describe how virtual world technologies can change
the use of BI applications


Describe the integration of social software in BI


Know how Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)
data analysis can help improve supply chain
management (SCM) and other operations


Describe how massive data acquisition techniques
can enable reality mining


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Opening Vignette…

“BI Eastern Mountain Sports Increases

Collaboration and Productivity”


Company background


Problem description


Proposed solution


Results


Answer & discuss the case questions


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Opening Vignette

Collaborative Decision Making at Eastern Mountain Sports


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Implementing BI


An Overview


Decisional Factors in BI Implementation


Reporting and analysis tools


Features, functionality, flexibility, scalability


Database


Scalability, performance, security


ETL Tools


Accessibility, efficiency, usability


Costs


Hardware/software, development/training


Benefits


Tangibles/intangibles
-

time saving, improved
decisions/operations/customer satisfaction/


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Implementing BI


An Overview


Critical Success Factors for BI Implementation

a.
Business driven methodology and project
management

b.
Clear vision and planning

c.
Committed management support and sponsorship

d.
Data management and quality issues

e.
Mapping the solutions to the user requirements

f.
Performance considerations of the BI system

g.
Robust and extensible framework


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Managerial Issues Related to BI
Implementation

1.
System development and the need for
integration

2.
Cost

benefit issues and justification

3.
Legal issues and privacy

4.
BI and BPM today and tomorrow

5.
Cost justification; intangible benefits

6.
Documenting and securing support systems

7.
Ethical issues

8.
BI Project failures


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BI and Integration Implementation


Types of Integration


Functional integration


different [physically separate] applications are
provided/used as if it is a single system


Physical integration


packaging the hardware, software, and
communication features required to accomplish
functional integration


Primary focus in BI (and in this book) is
functional
-
application integration


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BI and Integration Implementation


Why integrate?


To better implement a complete BI system


To increase the capabilities of the BI
applications


To enable real
-
time decision support


To enable more powerful applications


To facilitate faster system development


To enhance support activities such as
blogs, wikis, RSS feeds, etc.



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BI and Integration Implementation


Levels of BI Integration


Functional integration can be within the
same BI or across different BI systems


Integration across different BI systems can be
accomplished in a loosely coupled fashion


input output passing, messaging (SOA)


Integration within a BI system is more cohesive
with several sub
-
systems constituting the whole


Embedded Intelligent Systems


Serving as the intelligent agents within BI



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Connecting BI Systems to Databases
and Other Enterprise Systems


Virtually every BI application requires
database or data warehouse access








Multi
-
tiered Application Architecture


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Connecting BI Systems to Databases
and Other Enterprise Systems


Integrating BI applications and back
-
end
systems


Web scripting languages (e.g., PHP, JSP, ASP)


Application integration servers (e.g., WebLogic)


Enterprise application integration


integration of
large systems (BI to ERP, SCM, CRM, KM, etc.)


Integrating BI and ERP for DSS


ERP captures and stores data


BI converts data into information/knowledge


Middleware?









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On
-
Demand BI


The limitations of Traditional BI


Complex, time
-
consuming, expensive


The On
-
Demand Alternative


On
-
demand computing = Utility computing


SaaS (Software as a service)


Allows SMEs to utilize affordable BI


On
-
demand function alternatives


Internally sharing licenses within a firm


Sharing licenses with many firms via an ASP


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Benefits of On
-
Demand BI


Ability to handle fluctuating demand


Flexible use of the BI technology pool


Reduced investment/cost


Hardware (servers and peripherals)


Software (more features for less)


Maintenance (centralized timely updates)


Embodiment of recognized best practices


Better flexibility and connectivity with other
systems via SaaS infrastructure


Better RIO




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The Limitations of On
-
Demand BI


Integration of vendors’ software with
company’s software may be difficult


The vendor can go out of business, leaving
the company without a service


It is difficult or even impossible to modify
hosted software for better fit with the users’
needs


Upgrading may become a problem


You may relinquish strategic data to strangers
(lack of privacy/security of corporate data)


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Issues of Legality, Privacy and Ethics


Legal issues


Liability for the actions of advice provided by BI


Who is liable, if the software advice fails?


Privacy


Right to be left alone and the right to be free from
unreasonable personal intrusions


Collecting information about individuals


The Web and information collection


Mobile user privacy


Homeland security and individual privacy




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Issues of Legality, Privacy and Ethics


Ethics in Decision Making and Support


Electronic surveillance


Software piracy


Use of proprietary databases


Use of intellectual property such as knowledge


Computer accessibility for workers with disabilities


Accuracy of data, information, and knowledge


Protection of the rights of users


Use of corporate computers for non
-
work
-
related purposes (personal use of Internet
while working)



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Issues of Legality, Privacy and Ethics

Typical problem
formulation
(
T
.
O
.
P perspective
)
Integration of moral
intensity
components
Problem
formulation
expansion
Conversation
Typical problem
formulation
(
T
.
O
.
P perspective
)
Stakeholder
expansion
Problem
definition
“Unfolding” to control expansion
S
S
S
S
S
S
=
Stakeholder
S
A Model of Ethical Problem Formulation


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Emerging Topics in BI


An Overview


Web 2.0 revolution as it relates to BI in
(Section 6.7)


Online social networks (Section 6.8)


Virtual worlds as related to BI (Section 6.9)


Integration social networking and BI
(Section 6.10)


RFID and BI (Section 6.11)


Reality Mining (Section 6.12)


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Emerging Topics in BI


An Overview

The Future of BI


Web 2.0 revolution as it related to BI
(Section 6.7)


Online social networks (Section 6.8)


Virtual worlds as related to BI (Section 6.9)


Integration social networking and BI
(Section 6.10)


RFID and BI (Section 6.11)


Reality Mining (Section 6.12)


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Emerging Topics in BI


An Overview


In 2009, collaborative decision making emerged as a new
product category that combines social software with business
intelligence platform capabilities.


In 2010, 20 percent of organizations will have an industry
-
specific analytic application delivered via software as a service
as a standard component of their business intelligence portfolio.


By 2012, business units will control at least 40 percent of the
total budget for BI.


By 2012, one
-
third of analytic applications applied to business
processes will be delivered through coarse
-
grained application
mashups.


Because of lack of information, processes, and tools, through
2012, more than 35 percent of the top 5,000 global companies
will regularly fail to make insightful decisions about significant
changes in their business and markets.


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The Web 2.0 Revolution


Web 2.0: a popular term for describing
advanced Web technologies and applications,
including blogs, wikis, RSS, mashups, user
-
generated content, and social networks


Objective: enhance creativity, information
sharing, and collaboration


Difference between Web 2.0 and Web 1.x


Use of Web for collaboration among
Internet users and other users, content
providers, and enterprises


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The Web 2.0 Revolution


Web 2.0: an umbrella term for new
technologies for both content as well as how
the Web works


Web 2.0 has led to the evolution of Web
-
based
virtual communities and their hosting services,
such as social networking sites, video
-
sharing
sites


Companies that understand these new
applications and technologies

and apply the
capabilities early on

stand to greatly improve
internal business processes and marketing


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The Web 2.0 Revolution

Characteristics of the Web 2.0


The ability to tap into the collective intelligence of
users. The more users contribute, the better.


Data is made available in new or never
-
intended
ways. Web 2.0 data can be remixed or “mashed up”.


Web 2.0 relies on user
-
generated and user
-
controlled
content and data (enhanced collaboration).


Lightweight programming techniques and tools let
nearly anyone act as a Web site developer.


The virtual elimination of software
-
upgrade cycles
makes everything a
perpetual beta

or work
-
in
-
progress and allows rapid prototyping, using the Web
as an application development platform.


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The Web 2.0 Revolution

Characteristics of the Web 2.0


Users can access and manage applications entirely
through a browser.


An architecture of participation and
digital democracy

encourages users to add value to the application as
they use it.


There is a major emphasis on social networks and
computing.


Information sharing and collaboration is greatly
supported.


This allows for rapid and continuous creation of new
business models.

“dynamic content, rich user experience, metadata,
scalability, open source, and freedom (net neutrality)”



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The Web 2.0 Revolution


Ajax (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML)


An enabling technology for Web 2.0, resulting in
rich, interactive, fast
-
response, user
-
friendly GUIs


Makes Web pages feel more responsive by
exchanging small amounts of data with the server
behind the scenes (eliminated the need for
reloading the complete Web page)


Leads to improved Web page interactivity, loading
speed, and usability


Many companies and new business models
have emerged based on Web 2.0


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Online Social Networking


Basics and Examples


A
social network
is a place where people
create their own space, or homepage, on
which they write blogs; post pictures, videos,
or music; share ideas; and link to other Web
locations they find interesting.


The mass adoption of social networking Web sites
points to an evolution in human social interaction


The size of social network sites are growing
rapidly, with some having over 100 million
members


growth for successful ones 40 to 50 %
in the first few years and 15 to 25 % thereafter


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Online Social Networking


Social Network Analysis Software


It is used to identify, represent, analyze,
visualize, or simulate networks with


Nodes


agents, organizations, or knowledge


Edges


relationships identified from various types
of input data (relational and non
-
relational)


Various input and output file formats exist


SNA software tools include


Business
-
oriented social network tools such as
InFlow and NetMiner


Social Networks Visualizer, or SocNetV, which is a
Linux
-
based open source package


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Mobile Social Networking


Social networking where members converse and
connect with one another using cell phones or other
mobile devices


MySpace and
Facebook

offer mobile services


Mobile only services:
Brightkite
, and
Fon11


Basic types of mobile social networks

1.
Partnership with mobile carriers (use of MySpace over
AT&T network)

2.
Without a partnership (“off deck”) (e.g.,
MocoSpace

and
Mobikade
)


Mobile Enterprise Networks


Mobile Community Activities (e.g.,
Sonopia
)



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Major Social Network Services


Facebook
: The Network Effect


Launched in 2004 by Mark Zuckerberg (former
Harvard student)


It is the largest social network service in the world
with over 500 million active users worldwide


Initially intended for college and high school
students to connected to other students at the
same school


In 2006 opened its doors to anyone over 13;
enabling Facebook to compete directly with
MySpace.


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Major Social Network Services


Orkut
: Exploring the Very Nature of Social
Networking Sites


The brainchild of a Turkish Google programmer


It was to be Google's homegrown answer to
MySpace and Facebook


Format is similar to others: a homepage where
users can display every facet of their personal life
they desire using various multimedia applications


A major highlight of Orkut


ability to create and
control communities


Also supports many languages


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Implications of Business and
Enterprise Social Networks


Business oriented social networks can go
beyond “advertising and sales”


Emerging enterprise social networking apps:


Finding and Recruiting Workers


See Application Case 14.2 for a representative example


Management Activities and Support


Training


Knowledge Management and Expert Location


e.g., innocentive.com; awareness.com; Caterpillar


Enhancing Collaboration


Using Blogs and Wikis Within the Enterprise …>


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Implications of Business and
Enterprise Social Networks


Survey shows that best
-
in
-
class companies
use blogs and wikis for the following
applications:


Project collaboration and communication (63%)


Process and procedure document (63%)


FAQs (61%)


E
-
learning and training (46%)


Forums for new ideas (41%)


Corporate
-
specific dynamic glossary and
terminology (38%)


Collaboration with customers (24%)



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Virtual Worlds


Virtual worlds have existed for a long time in
various forms


stereoscopes, Cinerama,
simulators, computer games, …


They are artificial worlds created by computer
systems in which the user has the impression
of being immersed


Examples:


Second Life (secondlife.com)


Google Lively (lively.com)


EverQuest (everquest.com)

Avatars ?


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Second Life as a
DSS


Advantages:


Easy access and low cost


Experienced and dedicated designer/builders


Tools and venues for communications
-
driven
decision support (DecisionSupportWorld.com)


A large, dedicated user base


Impression management / creativity enhancement


Time compression


Easy data integration from real life using RSS feeds


Encourages active participation and experiential
learning


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Second Life as a
DSS


Disadvantages:


Learning time and training costs


Distractions are numerous


Pranksters and spam are common


Technology problems persist


Chat is a very slow communication tool


Resistance to use


Addiction


Participation in most of these virtual environments
requires downloading of a "plug
-
in"


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Virtual Tradeshows

See iTradeFair.com


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Social Networks and BI:

Collaborative Decision Making


Collaborative decision making (CDM)


combines social software and BI


CDM is a category of decision
-
support system for
non
-
routine, complex decisions that require
iterative human interactions.


Ad hoc tagging regarding value, relevance,
credibility, and decision context can substantially
enrich both the decision process and the content
that contributes to the decisions.


Tying BI to decisions and outcomes that can be
measured will enable organizations to better
demonstrate the business value of BI.


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How CDM Works


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RFID and BI


Wal
-
Mart's RFID mandate in June 2003


DoD, Target, Albertson's, Best Buy,…


RFID

is a generic technology that refers
to the use of radio frequency waves to
identify objects.


RFID is a new member of the automatic
identification technologies family, which
also includes the ubiquitous
barcodes

and
magnetic strips.


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How does RFID work?


RFID system


a tag (an electronic chip attached to the
product to be identified)


an interrogator (i.e., reader) with one or
more antennae attached


a computer (to manage the reader and
store the data captured by the reader)



Tags


Active tag versus Passive tags


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Data Representation for RFID


RFID tags contain 96 bits of data in the form
of serialized global trade identification
numbers (SGTIN) [see epcglobalinc.org]


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RFID for Supply Chain BI


RFID in Retail Systems


Functions in a distribution center


receiving, put
-
away, picking, and shipping


Sequence of operations at a receiving dock

1.
unloading the contents of the trailer

2.
verification of the receipt of goods against
expected delivery (purchase order)

3.
documentation of the discrepancy

4.
application of labels to the pallets, cases, items

5.
sorting of goods for put
-
away or cross
-
dock


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RFID for Supply Chain BI


RFID in Retail Systems


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RFID Data Sample


RFID in Retail Systems


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RFID for BI in Supply Chain


Better SC visibility with RFID systems


Timing/duration of movements between
different locations


especially important for
products with limited shelf life


Better management of out
-
of
-
stock items
(optimal restocking of store shelves)


Help streamline the backroom operations:
eliminate unnecessary case cycles, reorders


Better analysis of movement timings for
more effective and efficient logistics


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RFID + Sensors for Better BI



Knowing the location and health of goods
(i.e., exception) during transportation


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Reality Mining


Identifying aggregate patterns of human
activity trends (see sensenetworks.com by
MIT & Columbia University)


Many devices send location information


Cars, buses, taxis, mobile phones, cameras, and
personal navigation devices


Using technologies such as GPS, WiFi, and cell
tower triangulation


Enables tracking of assets, finding nearby
services, locating friends/family members, …


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Reality Mining


Citisense:
finding people with similar interests

See
www.sensenetworks.com/city
sense.php

for real
-
time
animation of the content.

A map of an area of San
Francisco with density
designation at place of
interests


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End of the Chapter




Questions, comments


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All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,
stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any
means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise,
without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the
United States of America.

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.


Publishing as Prentice Hall