Critical Reading

natureplaygroundAI and Robotics

Nov 14, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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“Readi ng f ur ni shes
t he mi nd onl y wi t h
mater i al s of
knowl edge; i t i s
t hi nki ng t hat
makes what we
r ead our s.”



John Locke

CRITICAL READING

Goal: Do you understand?

Writing to Inform

Reporter Questions: who,
what, when, where, why, how

Accuracy of Information

So what?

Author’s interpretation

Goal: Are you convinced?

Writing to Persuade

Clearly Defined Terms

Fair Use of Information

Clear Logic

Emotional Weight

EXPOSITORY FORMS

All critical reading begins
with an accurate
summary.

Why are you reading this text?
Your purpose influences
which aspects of the text are
important to your summary
and which are distractions.

STEP 1: SUMMARY

Highlight or
underline key
points

Brackets around
quotable
passages

Connect related
ideas with lines

Outline main
ideas in the
margin (like
Cornell Notes)

Circle words
needing definition
or investigation

Comments and
questions in the
margin

Annotati ons
refl ect
your
obser vati ons
of detai l s i n
the text,
questi ons the
text rai ses,
new i deas i t
suggests,
and
personal
reacti ons.

ANNOTATION &
NOTE
-
TAKING

Does the author have a particular bias (stated or unstated)
that affects the presentation of evidence?

Does the author have more than one purpose? Which
purpose has priority? Do the purposes conflict?

Is the text:

Aesthetic/

Entertaining

Persuasive (like an
argument)

Descriptive/

Informative (like a
summary)

STEP 2: AUTHOR PURPOSE (SPIN)


Summary: Sam
-
I
-
Am
offers breakfast to an
unnamed narrator.
The narrator refuses
to eat under any
circumstances.
Finally, he surrenders
and tries the food,
discovering that he
likes it.


Description: A
children’s story told in
rhyme and repetition
that describes a
persuasive argument
between Sam
-
I
-
Am
and the narrator.

EXAMPLE:
GREEN EGGS AND HAM



Dr. Seuss may intend the narrator (whose lack of a name
makes him universally identifiable) to represent a child
unwilling to try new things, no matter what enticement or
logical reasoning is offered. The repetition of increasingly
silly situations shows children that their objections can
easily become unmoored from logical reality.


Based on the apparent age difference between Sam
-
I
-
Am
(shorter and younger than the narrator), I also think that the
story might be a social satire on how older people reject the
ideas of the younger generation out of hand. The book was
written in 1960 (as the Beat writers were challenging the
political status quo), and Dr. Seuss himself was a political
cartoonist known for injecting social satire in his work on
other occasions.

PURPOSE AND
INTERPRETATION

Identify
points of
agreement or
disagreement

Why do you
agree or
disagree on
each point?

STEP 3: DO YOU AGREE OR DISAGREE?

Divide and Conquer

Read for General Overview

Read Deeper

One Sentence per Major Idea

Thesis Statement

Put the Pieces Together

Check for Accuracy

Revise!

SUMMARIZING: 8 EASY STEPS

Document!

Weave into your argument

Compare to confirm meaning

Combine or divide sentences

Change up the language to fit

Change the order to fit your purpose

Locate the major ideas

SUMMARIZING: 7 EASY STEPS

Virtual
-
reality systems can represent physical space by
using cyberspace, even to the extent that people can
feel
telepresent

in a scene that is transmitted, perhaps
Mars or the deep ocean (Heim 80).

We can achieve the illusion of being present in remote
locations, for example the planet Mars or deep parts of
the ocean, by using virtual
-
reality equipment that
creates a cyberspace representation of the real world
(Heim 80).

SUMMARIZING IN ACTION

Original Version:


Virtual
-
reality systems can use cyberspace to represent physical
space, even to the point that we can feel
telepresent

in a
transmitted scene, whether Mars or the deep ocean.

This article covers the topic of measuring the extent of
global deforestation. The article discusses the reasons
for concern, the technique, the results, and the project’s
current goal.

According to the author of “Seeing the Forest,” the
extent of global deforestation was difficult to measure
until satellite remote sensing techniques were applied.
Measuring the extent of global deforestation is
important because of concerns about global warming
and species extinctions. The technique compares old
infrared LANDSAT images with new images. The authors
conclude the method is accurate and cost effective.

SUMMARIZING IN ACTION