Biotechnology Unlocking the secrets of life - North Cobb High ...

mutebabiesBiotechnology

Dec 6, 2012 (4 years and 8 months ago)

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Biotechnology

Unlocking the secrets of life

What is Biotechnology?


Definition:

The use of living organisms to
make or improve a product



Bio

(life)



technology

(the application
of knowledge for practical
use


Where did it begin?


Ancient bread baking


Wine brewing


Cheese making


Yogurt fermentation


Animal and plant breeding

Biotechnology Today


Focuses on how to change
microorganisms, plants and
animals


Scientist isolated and made
changes to DNA in the early 1970’s


DNA carries the “Blueprint”


Genes are units of DNA


Techniques

Biotechnology

Gene Mapping

Tissue Culture

Biofermentation

Gene Mapping

Cloning

Gene Transfer

Genetic Engineering


Manipulation of genes is called
genetic engineering or
recombinant DNA technology


Removes gene(s) from one
organism and either:


Transfers them to another


Puts them back in the original with a
different combination


Transgenic

Techniques


Genetic Mapping


Locating specific genes within heredity
material


Tissue Culture


Modified cells can grow into whole plants


Biofermentation


Mass production of modified
microorganisms


Cloning


Reproducing genetically identical animals

Biotechnology in Agriculture

(Plants)


Crops


Built in insect and herbicide resistance


Built in tolerance to environmental
conditions


Improved color and quality


Pharmaceuticals


Plants that produce edible vaccines


Food


Improved taste and nutrition


Improved handling qualities

Biotechnology in Agriculture

(Plants)


Industrial


plants that produce plastics, fuels,
and other products


plants for environmental cleanup


Other


pesticides made from naturally
-
occurring microorganisms and insects



Biotechnology in Agriculture

(Animals)


Breeding


Disease tolerance


Exact copies of desired stock


Increased yields


Health


Microorganisms introduced into feed for
beneficial purposes


Diagnostics for disease and pregnancy
detection


Animals engineered to to produce organs
suitable for transplantation into humans

Biotechnology in Agriculture

(Animals)


Food


Increased milk production


leaner meat in pork


growth hormones in farm
-
raised fish that
result in earlier market
-
ready fish


Pharmaceuticals


Animals engineered to produce human
proteins for drugs, including insulin and
vaccines

Assignment

Develop a timeline of events outlining
advances in the field of biotechnology.
You may use the World Wide Web in the
Career Center to search for these
events.

Your timeline should have at lease five
events.

The search engine
www.google.com

is a
good start.

History of Biotechnology


1860’s
-
Botanist Gregor Mendel
recognizes heredity information is
stored in units (now called genes)


1870’s
-
chromosomes are
discovered


1953
-
DNA Double Helix is
discovered by James Watson and
Francis Crick (England)


History of Biotechnology


1968
-
a process was developed for
identifying chromosomes
(Switzerland)


1973
-
First successful combining of
DNA from unrelated organisms
(recombinant DNA) (USA)


1978
-
First test tube baby (Louise
Brown) was born in England


History of Biotechnology


1984
-
Sheep and goat embryo cells
are fused together to create a
sheep
-
goat


1986
-
Light
-
producing gene of
firefly is transferred to tobacco
creating tobacco plants with
glowing leaves


1987
-
calf cloned from an embryo

History of Biotechnology


1991
-
sheep created that makes
drug in milk to treat cystic fibrosis


1994
-
first transgenic food
approved (Flvr Savr) tomato


1996
-
goat injected with a human
gene produces an anticancer drug


1997
-
Adult sheep cloned (“Dolly”)

Industry


In 1998 there were 1,300
biotechnology companies in the
Unites States


small start up companies


one product or service


large multinational corporations


combine research and production

Industry


In 1997 the overall
biotechnology sales
increases 20%


13 billion dollar
industry


Over 93 billion
dollars invested


Careers


In 1998 biotechnology included
about 140,000 jobs


Jobs for high school graduates to
PhD’s


Provides over 17,000 jobs in North
Carolina


$850 million dollar payroll

Career Examples


Laboratory work


working on gene maps


growing plants from cells


working with animal embryos


Experimental Farms


Field jobs


Industry jobs


manufacturing


regulatory affairs (FDA, USDA)


sales

Education


High School Courses


Basic Biology


Agriculture


Biotechnology


Post
-
secondary


Biology


Microbiology


Genetics


Biochemistry

Education


North Carolina has an online
biotechnology center


Information on NC Biotechnology


Educational Opportunities


News


Hot Topics

www.ncbiotech.org/

Assignment


Research two different careers related
to biotechnology


Find information regarding:


Salary


Education


Job Description


Job Demand


Write a one paragraph summary for
each career


Keep the summaries in your notes