1 Intro to Biotech

mutebabiesBiotechnology

Dec 6, 2012 (4 years and 11 months ago)

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B
io
-
technology



Proving bread with leaven

prehistoric


Alcoholic drinks from fermented juices

prehistoric


Vinegar from fermented juices

prehistoric


Beer making in Egypt

3
rd

century BC


Vinegar manufacturing

14
th

century


Discovery of fermentation of yeast by Erxleben

1818


Lactic acid fermentation by Pasteur

1857


Detection of fermentation enzymes in yeast

1897


Discovery of penicillin by Fleming

1928


Discovery of many other antibiotics

from 1945


Funds for human Genome Project approved by US
Congress

1988


Dolly the sheep cloned by Scottish scientists

1997


Human genome sequence draft produced

2000

History of Biotechnology


Biotechnology is a new term used to define
old practices

Why Biotechnology Important?

a) Examples of biotechnology within
your surroundings? Any food
consumed based on biotechnology?

b) Can improvements be made?

c) How to do it?

d) Why do we need to do it?

Biotechnology: Definitions?



Integrated

use

of

microbiology,

biochemistry,


&

engineering

in

order

to

achieve

applications


of

microorganisms,

animal

or

plant

cells

in

industry,



agriculture,

health

care,

and

environmental

processes
.




Using living
organisms
, or the products of living


organisms for
human benefit
or to benefit human


surroundings.




manipulation of
biological processes
and / or
organisms for the
benefit of mankind


Biotechnology

Making Nature work for You

Organisms involved:





microorganisms





animal

or

plant

cells







Using living organisms, or the
products



of living organisms





biological
processes

and/or organisms

Goals of Biotechnology
:




to achieve applications in industry,


agriculture, health care, and


environmental processes.




for
human benefit





to benefit
human surroundings
.

Tools of Biotechnology
:




Integrated

use

of

microbiology,

biochemistry,


and

engineering

etc




Any

tools

can

be

used

as

long

as

it

can

upgrade

productions




The

need

to

use

technology

such

as

chemical

engineering

processes

etc
.

Traditional biotech
:

follows nature’s way and work on whole organism

New biotech
:

manipulate nature’s work

by the use of genetic
engineering and recombinant DNA to produce organisms
capable of making useful products
.

New biotechnology is expected to expand tremendously

in future. It improves:





quality



quantity



health

So what is the difference between old and new
biotechnology?


Techniques used then were
:



isolation of organism of interest


improvement of fermentation conditions


process usually requires lengthy time and using trial and
error process

The processes nowadays are
:



isolation of gene coding for a protein of interest


cloning of this gene into an appropriate production host,
known as recombinant DNA


Can be mass produced much faster than the classical
fermentation.

1)
Industrial Biotech
:


production of chemicals (solvents), enzymes,


food additives, pharmaceuticals, biopolymers


(Production of primary & secondary metabolites)

2)
Environmental Biotech
:


Sewage , industrial wastewater treatment,


metal recovery, bioremediation.

2) Animal Biotechnology:


Livestock with enhanced genetic attributes

3) Plant Biotech
-

Improve crop yield, disease

4) Medical Biotechnology


More accurate disease diagnosis and treatment

6) Forensic Biotechnology

7) Marine Biotechnology

Areas of Biotechnology

Biotechnology is multidisciplinary in nature.

Other applications of biotechnology



A. Cloning of whole organisms


1. Amphibians, mice, sheep,
cows, monkeys, humans(?)


Potential Social Concerns and
Consequences of Biotechnology


•Organisms harmful to other organisms or
environment

•Organisms reduce natural genetic diversity

•Genetic engineering of humans?

•Genetic privacy issues

•Limited availability to poorer nations

•Undermine traditional agricultural practices

•Quest for profit undermines free exchange of
knowledge


Summary: Goals of biotechnology



1. To understand more about the processes of
inheritance and gene expression



2. To provide better understanding and
treatment of various diseases, particularly
genetic disorders



3. To generate economic benefits, including
improved plants and animals for agriculture and
efficient production of valuable biological
molecules

Now you should be able to:


Define

biotechnology and understand the many scientific
disciplines that contribute to biotechnology. How can a
chemist contribute to biotechnology sector?



Provide examples of historic

and current applications
of biotechnology



Describe different types of biotechnology

and their
applications