19% of total crop GE Papaya - tccbiotech.org

mutebabiesBiotechnology

Dec 6, 2012 (4 years and 11 months ago)

205 views

Developed by Mary Gutiérrez Phillips

Tulsa Community College

NSF/ATE Award #0602744


FREQUENTLY ASKED
QUESTIONS

1.
What is biotechnology?


Bio = life

techno = tools

ology = the study of


Definition:


Biotechnology

is the use of living
organisms, their products or parts
(such as protein, DNA or RNA) to
make useful products.





Examples: vaccines, genetically modified
foods and animals, pharmaceuticals
(drugs) such as insulin and growth
hormone.



































































































































2.
Is Biotechnology a new science?


Yes and No…

NO
.
Humans have been
breeding crops and domesticating
animals for thousands of years!
(
10
,
000
C.E.


4
,
000
C.E.)

People have been baking bread,
making cheese, yogurt and
brewing alcoholic beverages.




(2000 C.E.)

Yes
.

Since the discovery of DNA,
biotechnology has involved the use
and manipulation of DNA, RNA and
proteins for the development of
genetically modified foods, animals,
vaccines and other drugs.

The microscope is
discovered.
Leeuwenhoek
describes protozoa and
bacteria.

1797
Edward Jenner inoculates
child with smallpox vaccine.

Cell Theory


1838
-
1839 Matthias Schleiden
and Theodor Schawnn
state: Plants and animals
are made up of cells.

1855 Rudolph Virchow states:
cells come from cells.


1863 Gregor Mendel
discovers principles
of how traits are
passed from parents
to offspring.

1859
Charles Darwin
writes “The Origin
of Species” and
proposes the
Theory of
Evolution.

1861
Louis Pasteur
proposes the “Germ
Theory,”
pasteurization and
discovers the rabies
vaccine (
1885
).

1917


the first time the word
“biotechnology” is used.

1928
-

Alexander Fleming
discovers the antibiotic
penicillin


a mold.

1944
-

Avery, MacLeod and
McCarty discover DNA is the
genetic material.

1915

Thomas Hunt Morgan studied fruit
flies and proposed that
chromosomes carry genes.


James Watson and Francis
Crick describe the
structure of DNA. In
1962
,
they win the Nobel Prize.

Adult Stem Cell Research

April 19, 1971





Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer



Cut and paste bacteria and human genes
DNA
-

Recombinant DNA Science

http://inventors.about.com/gi/dynamic/offsite.htm?site=http://web.mit.edu/invent/iow/boyercohen.html

U.S. Department of Energy Human Genome Program, http://www.ornl.gov/hgmis.

Word “nanotechnology” is coined by
Norio Tanihuchi of Japan

Nano
-

means
“dwarf”


the prefix
nano

means a
billionth or
10
-
9

Tech
-

tools

ology
-

study of


Viruses are biological
“nanobots.” They range in
size between
20


200
nanometers.

http://www.swbic.org/

Definition:

Nanotechology

manipulates atoms
and molecules whose size range
from
1
-
100
nanometers.

Special microscopes can see very
small objects, molecules and
atoms.


http://www.time.com/time/covers/
0
,
16641
,
19770418
,
00
.html

http://www.allrefer.com/pictures/s4/p0013051
-
genetic
-
engineering

1981
Transgenic
mice. Mice
carry human
genes that
help scientists
test how
genes work.

Genentech launches
commercialization of
genetically engineered
products.








FDA patent approved to
use genetically
engineered insulin.

http://www.fotosearch.com/IMG
015
/
42
-
16341203
/

FDA approves the first
genetically engineered
vaccine
-
hepatitis B

Project launched to map all of the
human chromosomes

Genetic Science Learning Center, University of Utah, permission for educational use
http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu
.

Bioinformatics
: The
use of computers,
mathematical
analysis and
technology to study
biological
information.

Proteomics:

The study of how proteins
function in the body.

New Fields of Study Emerge

FDA approves first genetically modified food
substance
-

a
recombinant

enzyme

called
chymosin

made from genetically
modified yeast. Chymosin is used for
making cheese.

Rennet (natural)
comes from
suckling calves
stomachs.

November 8, 1993

.



FDA approved first genetically
modified food. The tomato was
resistant to rotting and could ripen on
the vine longer.

SOURCES: NCFAP (www.ncfap.rg/whatwedo/pdf/
2004
finalreport.pdf) USDA NASS (www.nass.usda.gov)

GE Corn

Acreage
2005
USDA NASS

52
% of total crop

GE Soybean

Acreage
2005
USDA NASS

87% of total crop

GE Cotton

Acreage
2005
USDA NASS

76
% of total crop

GE Canola

Acreage
2002
USDA ERS

75
% of total crop

GE Squash

(yellow straight and crookneck;

zucchini)
2003
NCFAP

19% of total crop

GE Papaya

Acreage
2003
NCFAP

46
% of total crop

http://www.ers.usda.gov/AmberWaves/September
05
/Findings/GECropsRising.htm

Hello Dolly

The first animal cloned from an adult cell.

http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/1741559.stm

March 10, 1997

1998
-

James Thompson


Human Embryonic Stem Cells

http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/media

August
7
,
2006

August
20
,
2001

August 30, 2004

First cloned cat


CC
for “carbon copy”

Human Genome sequence completed.
All the human genes are mapped.

GloFish
-
first genetically modified
pet. Just for fun!

http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/
2003
/
12
/
03
/eveningnews/main
586693
.shtml

The zebra fish have
a gene from
jellyfish or coral
that make them
glow red, green
or yellow.


FDA approves first vaccine against cancer.


The vaccine blocks several types of the HPV
(human papillomavirus)



The virus causes genital warts

and causes over 70% of

cervical cancer.

Permission granted: http://rhino.bocklabs.wisc.edu/cgi
-
in/virusworld/virustable.pl?virusdata=hpv%
2
C+Human+papilloma+virus%
2
C+
1
L
0
T

3.
Why is Biotechnology important?

Biotech is important for many reasons:


U.S.
300
,
233
,
107


World
6
,
557
,
779
,
128

http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/world.html

1.
Health care


2.
Food and agricultural needs


3.
Clean and safe water resources


4.
Alternative fuels

Biotech is important for many reasons:


5. Forensics




6. Bioremediation (use of bacteria to
clean the environment)



Careers and Education in
Biotechnology


START EARLY

Education


sciences (biology,
chemistry, microbiology, genetics
biotechnology) , mathematics,
business, computers.


Talk to teachers, counselors, people in
the field, take special workshops,
find out about shadowing or
internships. Visit your community
college!

Genetic testing, diseases organ
transplants, vaccines, public health,
epidemiologist, pharmaceutical
development, fertility specialist,

Agriculture and wildlife
-

crop
development, pesticide reduction,
food safety, wildlife management,
species protection, environment
protection, clean water, waste
management

Forensics and law, research how DNA
and proteins function

Biotechnology and Fears

Improve Life or Destroy life?

November 13, 2006

October
25
,
2004

1.
Biotechnology Learning Center Interactive Biotechnology Timeline

http://www.childrensmuseum.org/biotech/timeline.htm


2
. Access Excellence
-
Biotechnology
1977
to present

http://www.accessexcellence.org/RC/AB/BC/
1977
-
Present.html

3
. Interactive and animated timeline
http://www.bio.org/speeches/pubs/er/timeline
2
.swf

4
. Biotechnology Industry Organization Timeline

http://www.bio.org/speeches/pubs/er/timeline.asp

5
. Biotechnology Timeline

http://www.abpischools.org.uk/resources/poster
-
series/biotech/timeline.asp

6
. Biotechnology Institute Timeline

http://www.biotechinstitute.org/what_is/timeline.html

7
. Biotechnology Australia Biotechnology Timeline

http://www.biotechnologyonline.gov.au/foodag/timeline.cfmFood

8
. Monsanto Company


A Brief Biotech Timeline

http://www.biotechknowledge.monsanto.com/biotech/bbasics.nsf/timeline.html?OpenPage

9
. North Carolina Biotechnology Center Timeline

http://www.ncbiotech.org/resource_center/timeline.html

10
. Time Magazine Covers


Free archive

http://www.time.com/time/coversearch/


References

11
. Permission to use images for educational purposes:


Virus image Cornelia Büchen
-
Osmond


ICTVdB Management, Columbia University


Email:
cb
2009
@columbia.edu

12
. All Refer.com Reference
-
Genetic engineering of insulin graphic permission for educational
purposes
http://www.allrefer.com/disclaimer.html#
1

13
. Genetic Science Learning Center, University of Utah, permission for educational use
http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu
. (colorful chromosomes)

14
. National Institute of Health


Stem Cell Information (Promise of Stem Cell diagram)
http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/defaultpage.asp

15
. US Bureau Census


World Population Information
-

graph


http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/world.html

16
. Geek Philosopher royalty free photos (sheep, potato)


http://geekphilosopher.com/MainPage/bkgVeg.htm

17
. U.S. Department of Energy Human Genome Program
http://www.ornl.gov/hgmis

18
. ArgenBio Spanish vocabulary and Timeline
http://www.argenbio.org/h/lineat/index.php

19
. Man Receiving Injection
42
-
16341203
image
100
Royalty Free Photograph
http://www.fotosearch.com/IMG
015
/
42
-
16341203

20
. NIH


stem cells Free image downlodas from NIH


stem cells
http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/media/defaultpage.asp

21
. Wikipedia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page