Genetic Engineering.pdf

mustardnimbleBiotechnology

Dec 11, 2012 (4 years and 6 months ago)

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Genetic Engineering
Chapter 14
Restriction Enzymes


&
nzymes cut
fragments at
“restriction
sites”


Sticky Ends
:
ready to bind
with new
strand
Inserting Genes


Bacterial plasmids
are often used


Ring shaped


Replication of
desired gene
Engineering Resistance
Biotechnology


Transgenic
- containing genes from
another species


Target vs. Random


Biolistics


The Gene Gun


Used in plants


Gene Knock-In/Out
Genetic Markers


What do you get with
a firefly mates with a
plant??!


Bioluminescent
Tobacco


Inserting luciferase
gene


WHY?
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Everyday Transgenics


Genetically modified (GM) foods


4 major US crops are now modified to
contain natural insecticides or
immunity to herbicides or disease…


60+% of corn


89% of soy


75% of canola


83% of cotton
Case Study: Golden Rice


Engineered to treat
Vitamin A deficiency


Affects over 100
million


500,000 permanently
blind every year


The only completely
beneficial GM crop…?
Genetically Modified Food


CURRENT PROS:


Higher Yield (?) for Lower Cost


Herbicide resistance


Pesticide resistance


Improved Nutrition (Golden Rice)


POTENTIAL PROS:


Drought/Salt tolerance


Edible vaccines


Improved nutrition (i.e. potatoes engineered
to absorb less oil)
Genetically Modified Foods


CONS:


Precautionary Principle


Ethics of “patenting life”


No evidence for long-term improved yield


Reduces diversity of traditional crop cultivars


“Superweeds”


Increased resistance to Bt (
Bacillus
thuringensis
) and other chemicals


Supports corporate control of agriculture