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Third Year B. Pharm ::.

Syllabus, Saurashtra University, Rajkot


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Sr.
No.

SUBJECT

MARKS*

Theory

Practical

1

Pharmaceutical Microbiology

100

100

2

Pharmaceutical Dispensing, Community & Hospital Pharmacy

100

100

3

Medicinal Che
mistry I

100

100

4

Pharmaceutical Biochemistry

100

100

5

Pharmacognosy

100

100

6

Pharmacology II

100

100

* Marks includes sessional marks, 20% in each theory and practical)




3.1

Pharmaceutical Microbiology

1.

Introduction to the science of micr
obiology Ancient theories concerning the origin of life


contribution of great scientists to this science.


2.

Study of
structure

of bacterial cells,

3.

Microscopy: Microscopes, their magnification, resolution, illumination and filters, working
of different type
s of microscopes, micrometry, Electron Microscopy.

4.

Identification of
microbes

stains and types of staining techniques.


Systematic studies of
few selected

organism.

5.

Classification of microbes and their
taxonomy:

actionomycetes , bacteri
al, protozoa,
fungi, ricketssia, spirochetes and viruses.

6.

Nutrition, cultivation isolation and identification of bacteria, acti
onomycetes, fungi ,
viruses,

etc.

7.

Microbial genetics and variation.






8.

Mole
cular Biology and
Biotechnology, Genetic

recombi
nation: Transformations,
Conjugation, Protoplast fusion and gene cloning and their applications. Development of
hybridoma for monoclonal antibodies.

9.

Bacterial enzymes.



10.

Control of microbes by physical and chemical methods of sterilization.


11.

Disinfections, factors influencing disinfections, dynamics of disinfections, disinfectants
and


antiseptics and their evaluation.






12.

Sterilization, different methods, validation of sterilization methods and equipments.


13.

Sterility testing of all Pharmaceu
tical Products.




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14.

Microorganisms in human diseases. Microbial attack and host defense: virulence and

Pathogen city, Primary and specific defensive mechanisms of body , infection and its
transmission, interferon's.

15.

Microbial standardization of antibioti
cs Vitamins, Amino acids etc.

16.

Environmental Microbiology

Aquatic Microbiology, Microbiology of domestic and waste
water, Microbiology of food.

3.1













Pharmaceutical Microbiology Practical




Experiments devised to prepare various types of culture

media



Sub culturing of common aerobic and anaerob
ic bacteria, fungus, and yeast.




Various staining methods, various methods of isolation and identification of microbes,



Sterilizing techniques and their validation,



Evaluation of antiseptics and disin
fectants,



Testing the sterility of pharmaceutical products as per IP requirements,



Microbial assay of antibiotics and Vitamins etc. and



Demonstration of laboratory fermentor and



Others to illustrate the topics included in theory.






List of books rec
ommended:




1.

Daan J. A. Crommedin Robert & Sindilar Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 2/e

2.

Russell
-
Principles and Practice of Disinfections, Preservation and Sterilization 3/e, 1999

3.

Brooks
-
Medical Microbiology 22e. 2001

4.

W. Thompson, Bioassay techniques for

Drug Developments

5.

Hughes and Anderson 's, Antibiotics Development and Resistance

6.

Stephen Denyer Rosemund Baird:

Guide to Microbiological Control In Pharmaceutical
and Medical Devices.

7.

Pharmaceutical Microbiology Sixth Edition

Edited by W. B. Hugo and A
. D. Rusell,
Backwell Science.

8.

Principles of Microbiology Ronald. M. Atlas, Second Edition. Wm. C. Brown Publishers

9.

Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology
,

Williams and Wilkins
-
A Waverly Company




3.2
DISPENSING, COMMUNITY PHARMACY AND HOSPITAL PH
ARMACY




1.

Definition and scope.











2.

The prescription :












Handling of prescription, source of errors in prescripti
on, care required in dispensing



procedures including labeling at dispensed products.







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3.

Dispensing techniques :









Compounding and dispensing procedures, packaging, storage

and stability of
medicines

,
labeling of dispensed product.







































4.

Pharmaceutical calculations : Posology :





Calculation of doses for infa
nts, adults and elderly patients, enlarging and reducing
recipes, percentage solutions, allegation, alcohol dilution, proof spirit, isotonic solutions,
displacement value etc.











5.

Principles involved and procedures adopted in dispension of Mixtures
, solutions,
emulsions, external preparations, suppositories & pessaries, powders and granules, oral
unit dosage forms, inhalations.










6.

Incompatibilities :










Physical, chemical and therapeutic incompatibilities observed in prescriptions of
above
products :

A.

Identification and correction of incompatibilities.






B.

Inorganic incompatibilities including incompatibility of metals and their salts,
non metals, acids, alkalis.









C.

Organic incompatibilities :







purine bases, alkalo
ids, ammonium compounds, carbohydrates, glycosides,
anesthetics
, surface active agents.








7.

Community Pharmacy :











A.

Organisation and structure of retail and wholesale drug
-
store, types of drug
store and design, legal requirements for establishm
ent, maintenance of drug
store, dispensing of proprietary products, maintanence of records of retail and
wholesale.











B.

Patient counselling.



C.

Role and contribution of pharmacist in community health care and education.

8.

Hospital Pharmacy :












(a)

Organization and structure
:







Organization

of hospital and hospital pharmacy, responsibility of hospital
pharmacist, pharmacy and therapeutic committee, budget preparations
and implementation.









(b)

Hospital formulary :









contents,

preparation and revision of hospital formulary.




(c)

Drug store management and inv
entory control:


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I.

Organistation of drug store, types of material stocked, storage
conditions.










II.

Purchase and inventory control


principles purchase procedures


purch
ase orders


procurement and stocking.














(d)

Drug distribution system in hospitals.

I.

Outpatient dispensing


methods adopted.





II.

Inpatient dispensing


methods adopted






III.

Ambulatory patient dispensing


methods adopted.




IV.

Dispensing of contr
olled drugs.







(e)

Central sterile supply unit and their management. Types of materials for
sterilization, packing of materials prefer to sterilization, sterilization
equipments, supply of sterile materials.







(f)

Manufacture of sterile and non sterile p
roducts. Policy making of
manufacturable items, demand and costing, personnel requirements,
manufacturing practice, master formula card, production control,
manufacturing records.











(g)

Drug information services :




















Sources of

information on drugs, disease treatment schedules, procurement
of information, computerized services, retrieval of information, medication
error.












(h)

Records and reports :



















Prescription filling, drug profile, patient medica
tion profile, cases on drug
interaction and adverse reactions, idiosyncratic cases etc.




PRACTICALS

1.

Dispensing of prescription falling under the categories : Mixtures, solutions, emulsions,
external preparations, powders, suppositories, oral unit dosage

forms, inhalations.



2.

Dispensing procedures involving pharmaceuticals calculations, pricing of prescriptions
and dosage calculations for
pediatric

and geriatric patients.






3.

Dispensing of prescriptions involving adjustment of tonicity.






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4.

Identific
ation of various types of incompatibilities in prescription, correction and
dispensing.













5.

Categorisation and storage of pharmaceutical products based on legal requirements of
labelling and storage.











6.

Experiments based on sterilization o
f various types of materials used in hospitals.




7.

Practicals designed on the use of computer ind rug information centre, prescription
filling, documentation of information on drug interaction.






8.

Project report on visit of the near by community for co
unseling on the rational use of
drugs and aspects of health care.














Books Recomanded:

1.

"Dispensing for Pharmaceutical students" by Cooper and Gunn By S.J. carter, 12Th Edn.
CBS Publishers.












2.


"Pharmceutical Dosage form and Drug delivery
system" by Howard C. Ansel By
Lippincot Williams & Wilkins.










3.

"Pharmaceutical Calculations " by Mitchell J. Stoklosa and Howard C. Ansel By B.I.
Waverly Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.










4.

"Pharmaceutical Practice' Edited by A.J. Winfield& R.M.E. Richa
rds.





5.

"Hospital Pharmacy" by William E Hassan, Henry Kimpton Publisher, London.




6.

"Hospital Organisation and Management by Kurt Dan 7 Jonathan S. Ratich, 4 th Edn.
CBS Publishers.












7.

"Remington: The science and Practice of Pharmacy" Latest E
dn., By Mack Publishing
companhy.














8.

" Drug and Cosmetic Act. And Ruless" by Vijay Malik.







9.

" Pharmaceutical Practice" By Diana M. Collett and Michale E. Aulton ELBS Publishers.


10.

"Dispensing Pharmacy(Pharmaceutics
-
II)" By Dr. G.K. Jani, B.
S. Shah Publication.



11.

“Hospital and Clinical Pharmacy” By Dr. R.K. Goyal and R.K. Pari, B.S. Shah Prakashan,
Ahmedabad

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3.3

MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY


I

[
4 LECTURES / WEEK
]

THEORY




1.

HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUND



















Ch
emistry , preparations and properties of some important heterocyclic containing Five
and six atoms with one or more hetero atoms like O , N , and S (Mono and bicyclic
compounds).













2.

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY


















Physic
o


chemical aspects of drug molecules in relation to biological
action.Drugreceptor interaction including transduction







3.

Synthetic procedure of selected drug, mode of action (mechanism of action), uses
structure activity relationship includi
ng physico chemical properties of following classes
of drug.













A.

Drugs acting on autonomic nervous system








(1)

Cholinergic and antycholinesterases Adrenergic drugs





(2)

Antispasmodic and antiulcer drugs








(3)

Neuromuscular blocking agents













B

Autocoids












(1)

Antihistaminics











(2)

Eicosanoids












(3)

Analgesic , antipyretics, anti inflammatory (non steroidal) agents





C

Drugs acting on central nervous system

(1)

General anaesthetics










(2)

Local anaesthetics










(3)

Hypnotics and sedatives

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(4)

Opioid analgesics










(5)

Anticonvulsants










(6)

Anti
-
tussive











(7)


Antipsychotics, anxiolytics, anti depressants






(8)

Anti parkinsonism drugs










(9)

CNS stimulants











D

Diagnostic agents











E

Pharmaceutic
al aids

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PRACTICAL


-

[
3HOURS / WEEK
]




1.

Synthesis of selected drug from the course content.







2.

spectral anlysis of the drug synthesized.









3.

Workshop on stereo model use of some selected drugs.







4.

Establishing the pharmacopoeial standards o
f the drugs synthesized





5.

Organic spotting of binary mixtures with derivative preparations and TLC






BOOKS RECOMMENDED :
-


1.

Wilson and Gisvold`s Text Book of Organic Medicina
l and Pharmaceutical Chemistry.

Edited by J.N. Delgado and William A. Remers
, J.B. Lippincott Company Philadelphia .



2.

Principles of Medicinal Chemistry by W.C. Foye, Lea and Febiger Philadelphia.




3.

Bergers Medicinal Chemistry


H.E. Wolf , Jhon Wiley and Sons New York


Oxford

Univwrsity Press, Oxford .











4.

The Organic
Chemistry of Drug Synthesis Volume 1
-
6 by Deniel Lednocer ,


John Wiley and sons, Inc. New York .









5.

Pharmaceutical Substances Synthesis (two parts) ,patents, applications by A.


Kleemann, J.Engel by Thieme Stuttgart New York .







6.

Organi
c Chemistry volume 1 & 2 by I.L. Finar publishers ELBS/Longman london .



7.

Principles of Medicinal Chemistry by Dr. S. S. Kadam, K.G. Bothara , Nirali


Prakashan Pune .












8.

Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Chemistry by Harkishan Singh, V.K.Kapoor by



Vallabh Prakashan New Delhi .










9.

Fundamentals of Drug Metabolism and Disposition by H.N. Ladu, H. G. Mandal and

E.L. Way Williams and Wi;kins Co. Baltimore.









10.

Vogale`s Text Book of Practical Organic Chemistry , ELBS / Longman , London.




11.

Practical Organic Chemistry BY Mann and Saunder. Orient Longman , UK .




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12.

The Systematic Identification of Organic Compounds byshriner, Hermann,Morrill,

Curtin & Fuson, John Wiley and sons , USA.









13.

An Introduction To The Chemistry Of heterocyc
lic Compounds by R.M. Acheson

Wiley Eastern Ltd. New Delhi .










14.

Spectrometric identification Of Organic Compounds by R. M. Silverstein, G.


Claytorn Bassel`s. T.C. Mivvill. John wiley & sons USA .







15.

Organic spectropscopy by William Kemp .
ELBS, London .


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3.4

PHARMACEUTICAL BIOCHEMISTRY




1.

Introduction:












History, Scope and biochemistry with reference

to general microbial and


human
metabolism.












2.

Biochemical morphology of cell













3.

Physicochemical phenomena and
transport through membrane.









4.

Carbohydrate constitutents of cell and carbohydrate metabolism









5.

Biological oxidation, energy production and utilisation








6.

Amino Acids, Peptides and proteins, metabolism, protein structure and


biological

functions.












7.

Enzymes












8.

Coenzymes and vitamines











9.

Purines and purine metabolism, genes and genetic control of protein synthesis,

gene mutations.












10.

Fats and
steroids

and their metabolism











11.

Hormones and metabo
lic con
trol










12.

Mineral metabolism

















13.

Nutrition, caloric value and
essential food components.









14.

Abnormal metabolism and genetic
defects










15.

Metabolism of foreign organic matter









16.

Biochemistry of specialized tissues bl
ood, urine and other body fluids.




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Pharmaceutical Biochemistry Practicals






Experiments devised for identifying and estimating components of different food
materials.















Experiments devised for identifying and estimating normal and abnormal

parameters in
serum and urine.














Estimation of glucose in serum and urine











Estimation of sucrose in serum



Estimation of free and titrable acidity in urine



Estimation of chloride in serum and urine



Estimation of magnesium in serum and

urine



Estimation of in serum and urine



Estimation of suproxide dismutase in serum



Estimation of catalase in serum



Estimation of glutathione in serum



Estimation of creatinine in serum and urine



Estimation of cholesterol in serum



Estimation of trigl
ycerides in serum



Estimation of urea in serum and urine



Analysis of bread



Analysis of milk



Analysis of egg



Analysis of normal urine



Analysis of abnormal urine











Books recommended









1.

Fundamentals of Biochemistry by A. C. Deb








2.

Text
Book of Biochemistry by A. V. S. S. Ramarao







3.

Principles of Biochemistry by A. L. Lehninger








4.

Molecular Biology of the Cell by Albert and Bray







5.

Biochemistry by Lubert Stryer










6.

Biochemistry of Functional Approach by McGilvery







7.

Instant Notes Biochemistry by B. D. Hames and N. M. Hooper




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3.5

PHARMACOGNOSY

Theory




1.

Systemic study of screening, source, cultivation, collection, processing, commercial verities,
chemical constituents, substitutes, adulterants, uses, diagnostic
, microscopic and
microscopic features and specific chemical tests of following alkaloids containing drugs:

o

Pyridine:












o

Piperidine:

Tobaco, Arcca and Lobelia









o

Tropane:

Belladonna
, Hyoscyamus, Datura, Duboisia, Cocca and Withania.




o

Q
uinoline and isoquinoline:

Cinchona, Ipecac, Opium, Campotheca.





o

Indole:

Ergot, Rauwolfia, Catharanthus, Nux Vomica and Physostigmine




o

Imidazole:

Pilocarpus











o

Steroidal:

Veratrum and Kurchi










o

Alkaloidal Amine:

Ephedra and Colchicum








o

Glycoalkaloid:

Solanum











o

Purenes
s
:

Cofee, Tea and Cola










o

Quinazoline:

Vasaka




2.

Role of medicinal and aromatic plants in national economy







3.

Biological sources, preparation, identification tests and uses of following enzymes:

Diastase, papain, pepsin trypsin, pancreatin









4.

General techniques of biosynthetic studies and basic metabolic pathways, brief introdu
-


-
ction to biogenesis of secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical importance.




5.

Plant bitters and sweeteners











6.

Chemical and spectral approaches to simple molecules of natural origins.






7.

Concept of stereoisomerisms taking examples of natural products.


























8.

Chemistry, Biogenesis and pharmacological activity of medicinally importance

M
onoterpenes
-
acyclic
-

geranial
, monocyclic
-
limonene, methone, carvone, biocyclipinene,
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sequiterpenes
-
B
-
caryophyllene, burneol: diterpenes
-
abiatic acid, gibberellic acid,

triterpenoids
-
sterol
-
lanosterol
-
sitosterol, B
-
amyrin, oleanolic acid, squalene, chole
sterol,

stigmasterol.













9.

Carotenoids:Beta carotenoids, alpha
-
carate
nes, vitamin
-
A, xanthophylls of


medicinal importance.












10.

Glycosides: Chemistry isolation, estimation and biosynthesis of digitoxin, digoxin,

heegenin, sennosides, di
ognesis and sarasapogenin.








11.

Alkaloids: Chemistry, isolation, estimation biogenesis and pharmacological activity


of atropine and related compounds: quinine, reserpine, morphine, papaverine,


ephedrine, ergot and vinca alkaloids.










12.

Chemistr
y, isolation, estimation and biogenesis of medicinally important



lignans
-
podophyllotoxin, quassinoids, flavonoids
-
queretin, rutin.






13.

Chemistry and therapeutic activity of penicillin, streptomycin and tetracycline







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Practical




1.

Identification
of crud drugs listed above









2.

Microscopic study of characters of 9 selected drugs given in the theory in entire

and powdered form.












3.

Chemical evaluation of powdered drugs and enzymes














4.

L
aboratory experiments on isolation, separ
ation, purification of various groups of

chemical constituents of pharmaceutical significance.



Books recommended











1.

Finar I. L. Organic Chemistry Volume
-
2, Stereochemistry and the Chemistry of


Natural Products, 5
th

Edition
-
1996 ELBS Publication
.







2.

Dani V. R. Organic Spectroscopy, 1
st

edition
-
1995. Tata Mcgraw Hill Publishing Company
,

New Delhi













3.

Morrison, R. T. and Boyd R. N. Organic Chemistry, 6
th

Edition
-
1996, Prentice Hall of

India Private Ltd. New Delhi












4.

Chatwal G
. Organic Chemistry ofNatural Products, Vol
-
I and II, 7
th

Reprint 1998,

Himalaya Publishing House, Mumbai










5.

Indian Herbal Pharmacopoia, Volume I and II
-
1999, a Joint publication of IDMA and

RRL Jannu Tawi.














6.

Trease and Evants
-
Pharmaco
gnosy, 14
th

Edition, 1997, W. B. Sounders Company
,

Singapore













7.

Wallis, T. E. Textbook of Pharmacognosy, 5
th

Edition
-
1997, CBS Publisher







8.

Tyler , Brady, Robberts
-
Pharmacognosy, 8
th

Edition
-
1981, K. M. Varghese Company
,

Mumbai

















9.

Sim. S. K. Medicinal Plant Alkaoids and Glycosides, 2
nd

Edition
-
1966 University of

Toronto Press, Toronto .











10.

Cultivation and Utilization of Medicinal Plants, Edited by Atal and Kapur, 1982,


RRL Jammu Tawi












11.

Cultivation and Utiliz
ation of Aromatic Plants, Edited by Atal and Kaur, 1982, RRL

Jammu Tawi.













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12.

Harbone J. B. Phytochemical Methods, 3
rd

Edition
-
1998 Champan and Hall London






























13.

The useful plants of India 3
rd

reprint 1994 CSIR New Delhi.




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3.6

PHARMACOLOGY


II



Theory

: 3 hrs/week







Bioassays

o

G
eneral principles of bioassays

and bio
-
standardization










Drugs acting on CNS
:

o

A
ntipsychotic drugs


o

A
ntianxiety agents

o

A
ntidepressants


o

H
ypnotics

o

S
edatives,
H
ypnotics, Anticonvulsant
s

o

G
eneral anaesthetic agents













Drugs acting on CVS :












o

C
ardiotonic drugs

o

A
ntianginal drugs

o

A
ntiarrhythmic drugs

o

A
ntihypertensive drugs













Autocoids :















o

H
istamine and antihistaminic drugs









o

H
yperacidity and

peptic ulcer disease

o

5
-
HT
, agonists, antagonists and Migraine

o

P
hysiological and pathophysiological role of
P
rostaglandins,
P
rostacyclines,
T
hromboxanes,
L
eukotrines,
PAF
,
B
radykinin and substance
P
.

o

A
nalgesics

o

A
ntipyretics

o

A
nti
-
inflammatory agents

o

A
ntiepileptic agents

o

A
ntiparkinsonism drugs

o

S
ignal transduction

o

Antidiabetic drugs

o

Anticancer drugs

o

Antiviral drugs


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PRACTICALS



Bioassays of acetylcholine on rectus abdominis muscle









Bioassays of acetylcholine on Rat ileum.











Bioassay of
adrenaline of Rabbit jejunum











Bioassay of histamine by matching method on guinea pig ileum







Bioassay of D
-
tubocurarine of Rectus abdominis muscle of frog








Bioassay of atropine on rat ileum












Bioassay of mepyramine on guinea pi
g ileum






DEMONSTRATION EXPERIMENTS











Study of local anaesthetics













Study of the action of strychnine on frog











Effect of hypnotics in mice













Rota
-
rod test in mice













Screening of antiepileptics













Screeni
ng of analgesics













Pyrogen testing














Study of analeptics and depressants













Study of antipsychotics













Screening of antihistaminics












Langendroff’s preparation










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LIST OF BOOKS



Goyal R.K.


Practicals in p
harmacology (1994
-
95) 1
st

Edn. M/s. B.S.Shah

Prakashan,
Ahmedabad.













Sheth U.K. etal


Selected topics in experimental pharmacology (1972) 1
st

Edn.


The Kothari Book Depot, Mumbai.















Kulkarni S.K.


Handbook of experimental pharmacolo
gy(1993) 2
nd

Edn.


Vallabh
Prakashan, New Delhi .















Ghoosh M.N.


Essentials of experimental pharmacology scientific book agency,

Culcutta,
1984.















Rang. H.P., Dale M.M., etal

Pharmacology(1995) 3
rd

Edn. Churchil livingstone, USA .
















Satoskar R.S. , etal


Pharmacology and pharmacotherapeutics (1999) 16
th

Edn.


Popular Prakashan, Mumbai.













Harvel, R.A., Champe P. C. etal, Pharmacology (1997) 2
nd

edition, Lippincott



-
Raven Company, Philadelphia , New Yor.













Craig C. R. Stitzel, R. E.
-
Modern Pharmacology (1994) 4
th

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