B.Sc. - Microbiology - Alagappa University

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Feb 12, 2013 (4 years and 6 months ago)

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B.Sc
. Microbiology

244

ALAGAPPA UNIVERSITY, KARAIKUDI

SYLLABU
S UNDER CBCS PATTERN (w.e.f.2011
-
12
)

B.Sc., MICROBIOLOGY


PROGRAMME

STRUCTURE



Sem

Course

Cr.

Hrs./

Week

Marks

Total

Part

Subject


C
ode

Name

Int.

Ext.

I

I

111T

Tamil / Other Languages


I

3

6

25

75

100

II

112
E

English


I

3

6

25

75

100

III

1BMI1C1

Core


I



de湥ra氠
䵩捲潢楯o潧y

4

S





㄰N

ㅂMfㅐN

Core


II



䝥nera氠
䵩捲潢楯o潧y


m牡c瑩cal




4

S





㄰N


Allied


I

3

3

15

60

75


Allied Practical


I

-

2

--

--

---

IV

1
NME1A

/

1
NME1B

/

1
N
ME1C

(1) Non
-
Major Elective


I


⡡F
jkpo; nkhopapd; mbg;gilfs;
/
(b)
,f;fhy ,yf;fpak;
/

(c) Communicative English

2

1

40

60

100




Total

19

30

-


-


575

II

I

121T

Tamil / Other Languages


II

3

6

25

75

100

II

122E

English


II

3

6

25

75

100

III

1BMI
2C1

Core


III



䵩捲潢楡氠
mhy獩潬潧y

a湤⁍nc牯扩r氠
䝥湥瑩cs

4

S





㄰N

ㅂMf㉐N

Core


IV



䵩M牯扩r氠
mhy獩潬潧y
a湤⁍nc牯扩r氠
䝥湥瑩c猠


m牡c瑩ca氠




4

R





㄰N


Allied


II

3

3

15

60

75


Allied Practical


I

4

2

20

30

50

IV

1
BES2

(3) E
nvironmental Studies

2

2

25

75

100





Total

23

30

-
-

-
-

625

III

I

1
31T

Tami
l /O
ther language
s


III

3

6

25

75

100

II

1
32E

English



III

3

6

25

75

100

III

1BMI3C1

Core


V



f浭畮潬ugy

4

R





㄰N

ㅂMf㍐N

Core


VI



f浭畮潬u杹


m牡c瑩ca氠


䥉f

4


5

40

60

100


Allied


III

3

3

15

60

75


Allied Practical


II

-

2

--

--

---

IV

1NME3A/
1NME3B/
1NME3C

(1) Non
-
major Elective


II



⡡F
,yf;fpaKk; nkhopg;
gad;ghLk;
/ (b)
goe;jkpo;
,yf;fpaq;fSk; ,yf;fpatuyhWk;
/
(c)Employability Skills


2

1

40

60

100

1SBS3A1/
1SBS3A2

(2) Skill Based Subjects


I

2

2

40

60

100

V

1
BEA3

Extension activities

1

-
-

100

-
-

100




Total

22

30

-

-

775

B.Sc
. Microbiology

245

IV

I

1
41T

Tamil /other language



IV

3

6

25

75

100

II

1
42E

English



IV

3

6

25

75

100

III

1BMI4C1

Core


VII



Medical
Microbiology

4

5

25

75

100

1BMI4P1

Core


VIII



Medical
Microbiology


Practical


IV

4

4

40

60

100


Allied


IV

3

3

15

60

75


Allied Practical


II

4

2

20

30

50

IV

1SBS4B1/
1SBS4B2

(2) Skill Based Subjects


II

2

2

40

60

100

1BVE4
/

1BMY4/
1BWS4

(4)
Value Education

/

Manavalakalai Yoga

/

Women’s Studies

2

2

40

60

100




Total

25

30

-
-

-
-

725

V

III

1
BMI5C1

Core


IX



Environmental and
Agricultural Microbiology

5

6

25

75

100

1
BMI5C2

Core


X



Food and Dairy
Microbiology

4

5

25

7
5

100

1
BMI5P1

Core


XI



Environmental,
Agricultural, Food and Dairy
Microbiology


Practical



V

5

5

40

60

100

1
BMIE1A /

1
BMIE1B

Elective


I



(Biochemistry or
Bioethics)

5

5

25

75

100

1
BMIE2A /

1
BMIE2B

Elective


II



(
Bioinformatics
or Mus
hroom Cultivation)

5

5

25

75

100

IV

1SBS5A3/
1SBS5A4/
1SBS5A5

(2) Skill Based Subjects


I

2

2

40

6
0

100

(2) Skill Based Subjects


I

2

2

40

60

100




Total

2
8

30

-
-

-
-

700

VI

III

1
BMI6C1

Core


XII



Industrial
Microbiology

5

6

25

75

100

1
BMI6C
2

Core



XIII



Microbial
Biotechnology

4

6

25

75

100

1
BMI6P1


Core


X
I
V



Industrial
Microbiology and
Microbial
Biotechnology Practical



VI

5

8

40

60

100

1
BMIE3A /

1
BMIE3B

Elective


III



(Marine
Biology and Oceanography
or
No
n convention
al energy
resources
)

5

6

25

75

100

IV

1SBS6B3/
1SBS6B4/
1SBS6B5

(2) Skill B
ased
S
ubjects



II

2

2

40

60

100

(2) Skill B
ased
S
ubjects



II

2

2

40

60

100

Total

23

30

-
-

-
-

6
00

Grand Total

140

180

-
-

-
-

40
00


B.Sc
. Microbiology

246

I YEAR


I
SEMESTER

COURSE CODE:

1
BMI1
C
1


CORE
COURSE I



G
ENERAL MICROBIOLOGY


Unit I



Definition and scope of Microbiology
,

History and recent development


spontaneous
generation


Biogenesis



Contribution of Loui
s Pasteur
, Leewen Hoek, Lazaro S
pallan
zani,
John Tyndall, Joseph

L
ister, Rob
ert Koch, Edward Jenner & Alexander
Fleming
, Microcopy


simple


compound
,

light & dark
microscopy



phase co
ntrast


fluorescence and Electron

Microscopy


Unit
II


Characteristic features
of

P
rokaryotes and

Eukaryotes
:

Prokaryotes


structure and functi
on
of cell wall
, plasma

membrane
,

flage
lla, slime,
S
layer, capsule, pili,

Cytoplasmic

inclusion

bodies


sp
or
ulation.

Eukaryotes


structu
re & function of cell wall. Ci
lia, nucleus,

mitochondria
chloroplast, lys
osome Endoplasmic reticulum
G
o
lgi complex

a
nd plasma

membrane



Fluid mosaic model.


Unit
III


Sterilization


Principle


dry heat
,

moist heat
, filtration,
radiation
,

disinfection techniques
,
antimicrobial agents.

Types of m
ed
ia
, Micro and macro nutrients



preservation of culture
aero
bic

and

anae
ro
bic culture technique


Growth curve


Factors affecting Growth curve
.


Unit
IV


Microbial
taxonomy
,

Bi
nomical nomenclature


speci
es concept Hackel’s

&

Whittaker

kingdom
s



P
rinciples

of Clas
sification


Morphological


Physiol
ogi
c
al
,

biochem
i
cal
,

nume
rical
,

and
molecular
taxonomy
.

Classification of
bacteria
according

to
Bergey’s manual
.


Unit
V


Modern development in microbiology: principles of bacterial communication systems



quorum

sensing
and its importance in bacterial virulence, Probiotics, Mic
robial fuel cells,
Single cell protein.


Reference
s


1.

Tortora, Funke, Case. 2004,

Microbiology


An Introduction, Eighth Edition,

Published by Pearson Education. Inc. 2004.

2.

John L. Ingraham, Catherine A. Ingraham, 2000,

Introduction To Microbiology


Secon
d Edition.

Published by Brooks/Cole.

3.

Prescott, Harley, Klein, 2003,

Microbiology



International Edition, fifth Edition,

Published by McGraw
-
Hill Education.

B.Sc
. Microbiology

247

4.

Nester EW Roberts CV and Nester N4T 1995


Micr
obiology A Human
Perspectives
Iowa USA.

5.

Stainer R
Y. Ingraham JL Wheels ML. Painter PR 1999


General Microbiology
MacMillan Educational Ltd, London.

6.

Pelczer J. Chen ECS., Krieg NR 1986


Microbiology, MC Grow Hill Company.

7.

Prescott L.M Harley JP., Klein DA 2000


Microbiology Wm C publishers Iowa USA

8.

She
ath, PHA,
Mair NS & EJizabath M.Bergey's Manual of Systematic
Bacteriology, 1995 (IX Edition)
.

9.

Microbiology Laboratory Manual by T. Sundararaj Published by A. Sundararj No.5,

I
cross street, ThirumaJai Nagar, Pcrungudi, Chcnnai 600 096 2
nd

Edition 20
03
.

10.

Davis, SD.DuIbccco R. Eisen HN and Ginsberg HS Microbiology 1980,

edn.

Row
New York Harpcrand
.

11.

Brock TD
, Smith DW and Madigan NT 1984 Biology of Microorganisms edn,
Eniglc
wood Cliffs, NJ Prentice Hall K
.

12.

Boyd.R.F General Microbiology,
2
nd

edn Times
mir
ror / Mosby College Publishing St.
Louis 1988.

13.

Microbiology (2005), Sixth edition by L.M. Prescott, J.P. Harley and D.A. Klein,
McGraw Hill, Boston
.





♣♣♣♣♣
♣♣♣♣♣




B.Sc
. Microbiology

248

I YEAR


I
SEMESTER

COURSE CODE
:

1
BMI1P1


CORE COURSE II


GENERAL MICROBIOLOGY


PRACTIC
AL


I


a)

Laboratory safety measures

b)

Principles and applications of microbiology laboratory instruments

c)

Preparation of media and sterilization technique
s

d)

Preparation of slant, stabs & plating techniques

e)

Pure culture techniques


streak
,

spread & pour plate
techniques.

f)

Motility of bacteria


hanging drop

soft agar methods

g)

Enumeration of bacteria and fungi from environmental samples

h)

Staining techniques


S
imple
, Gram, Negative capsule &
S
pore staining.

i)

Observation of permanent slides to study the structural ca
tatonics of Bacteria algae,
fungi & protozoan.


References


1.

Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual (2002) by J.G. Cappuccino and N. Sherman,

Addison
-
Wesley.

2.

Laboratory Manual of Experimental Microbiology

(1995) by R.M. Atlas, A.E.
Brown
and L.C. Parks, Mosby,
St. Louis.

3.

Laboratory Manual in General Microbiology (2002) by N. Kannan
. Panima
Publishers.

4.

Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Ninth edition (2000) by J.G.Holt,

N.R.Krieg, Lippincott Williams & Wilkin Publishers.

5.

Microbiology Laboratory Manual

(
2003
)
by T. Sundararaj Published by A. Sundar
arj
No.5,

I cross street, Thirumalai Nagar, Perungudi, Che
nnai 600 096 2
nd

Edition
.




♣♣♣♣♣
♣♣♣♣♣







B.Sc
. Microbiology

249

I YEAR


II
SEMESTER

COURSE CODE
:

1
BMI2C1


CORE COURSE
III



MICROBIAL
PHYSIOLOGY

AND MICROBIAL
GENETICS


Unit I

Pathways of Carbohydrate
utilization Glycolysis
, EMP & ED

and HMP pathway
s


Krebs

cycle.
Oxidative and substrate level phosporylation


ATP generation & utilizati
on
Fermentation pathway from pyru
vate.


Unit
II

Bacterial respiration


Anaerobic

and ae
robic

respiration


respiratory pathway in nit
ro

group
& metha
gonens



bac
terial photosynthesis


CO
2

fixation
.



Unit
III

Nitrate reduction


assimilatory & disassimilatory

metabolism



N
2

fixat
ion



Degradation of
amino acid and
fat
ty acid


Biosyn
thesis of protein
and
Nucleic acid
.


Unit
IV

Microbial Genetics
, Composition of nucleic acids,
Concept

of gene & mutation



DNA
replication


Fluctuation test and significance


Chemical mutagen, physical mutagen


Biological

mutagen


Auxotroph and drug
resistance mutants


DNA damage and repair


Genetic exchange in
bacteria

(
Transformation
, transduction

& conjugati
on) competence DNA
uptake chromo
some mobilization


F, P’ HFR
strain
.




Unit
V

Genetic code

W
obble hypothesis


Gene expression steps in tra
nscription organization
operon
positive



negative


Lac operon


types of bacterial transposition


Molecular mechanisms
for transposition of drug
-
resistance genes and other movable genetic elements
.

References


1.

Stainer R.Y. Ingrajam, JL whells ML Painter

PR 1986 The Microbial World Eastern
Economy Edition

2.

Doelle HW 1975 Bacterial Metapolism 2
nd

edn Academic Press New York

3.

Most AG and Forster JW 1979 Microbial physiology 2
nd

edn wiley Eastern publication
Zinsser Microbiology 1992 20
th

edn (Appleton & Lange
) Joklik willett, Amous, Wifert.

4.

Boys R.F. General Microbiology 2
nd

etn. Time mirror / Mosby college publishing ST.
Louis 1988.

5.

Zinsser


1992 Microbiology 20
th

edition (Applecton & lange) Jokliek Willet Amons
Willet
-
Maloy Cranan Frefielder 1994. Microbia
l genetics 2nd editions Jones Barlett
publishers, Boston.

6.

Synder & Champness 1997 Molecular genetics ASM Press, New York, Essential of
Molecular Biology, 1998, Malacinski and Frefieider Jones and Ballet publishers.




♣♣♣♣♣
♣♣♣♣♣



B.Sc
. Microbiology

250

I YEAR


II
SEMESTER

COUR
SE
CODE:

1
BMI2P1


CORE COURSE
IV



MICROBIAL
PHYSIOLOGY
AND

MICROBIAL
GENETICS



PRACTICAL


II



1.

Bio Chemical test



a.

Acid
and
gas
production

b.

S
tarch
hydrolysis

c.

L
ipid hydrolysis

d.

MR
-
VP

e.

IMViC
test

f.

Catalase test

g.

H
2
S

pro
duction

h.

Oxidase test

i.

Urease test


2.

Growth curve and determination of generation time in
E. coli

and ye
a
st.


3.

Determination of antibiot
ic resistance of a given bacterial culture by replica
plating

4.

Lactose utilization in bacteria

lac
+

and

Lac
-

5.

Isolation of a
ut
otrophic

mutant



Reference
s


1)

Microbiology: A Laboratory Manual (2002) by J.G. Cappuccino and N. Sherman,

Addison
-
Wesley.

2)

L
aboratory Manual of Experimental Microbiology

(1995) by R.M. Atlas,
A.E.
Brown and L.C. Parks, Mosby, St. Louis.

3)

Laboratory Manual i
n General Microbiology (2002) by N. Kannan
. Panima
Publishers.

4)

Bergey’s Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. Ninth edition (2000) by J.G.Holt,

N.R.Krieg, Lippincott Williams & Wilkin Publishers.

5)

Microbiology Laboratory Manual
(
2003
)
by T. Sundararaj Publi
shed by A.
Sundarar
a
j

No.5,

I cross street, Thirumalai Nagar, Perungudi, Che
nnai 600 096 2
nd

Edition
.



♣♣♣♣♣
♣♣♣♣♣








B.Sc
. Microbiology

251


II YEAR


III
SEMESTER

COURSE
CODE
:

1
BMI3C1


CORE COURSE
V



IMMUNOLOGY


Unit I


History of immunology


organs and cells of immune system



ABO and Rh system



Blood
transfusion



Innate immunity



acquired immunity
. Host parasite rela
tionship.




Unit II


Antigen



properties



Hapten, Adjuvant



Immunoglobulin



Structure



types and properties



monoclonal antibodies p
roduction and properties


antigen receptor



MHC



class I and II.





Unit

III



Antigen



Antibody reaction



host

response



agglutination, precipitation, Complement
fixation



pathway of complement activation



humoral and cell mediated immunity.


Unit IV


Hypersensitivity reaction



antibody mediated type I anaphylaxis



type II antibody
dependent cell cytotoxicity



cell mediated immunoresponse



lymphokines, cytokines.


Unit
V


Immunotolerance


transplantation of immunity



autoimmune disease


immune deficiency



AIDS



immun
ology of infectious disease.


References


1)

Roitt
,

IM 1998 Essential of Immunology ELBS Bl
ackwell Scientific Publication.

2)

Kuby, J, 1994 Immunology, II Edition WH, IVeeman and Company, New York.

3)

Klaus D. Elgent, 1996 Immunology understanding of immune system, Wiley Liss

NY.

4)

Stitcs D.P.Terr, A.I., Parslow, T.G. Medical Immunology 9
th

Edition, App
leton

and
larnge, Stamford, 1993.



♣♣♣♣♣
♣♣♣♣♣







B.Sc
. Microbiology

252


II YEAR


III
SEMESTER

COURSE CODE
:

1
BMI3P1


CORE COURSE
VI



I
M
MUNOLOGY


PRACTICAL


III



1.

Blood collection techniques and separation of plasma and serum

ABO
Blood grouping
and Rh typing

2.

Widal and VD
RL

3.

Precipitation reaction in gel: O
DD,

single

and
radial Immuno

diffusion
.

4.

Separation of serum protein by Electrophoresis
.

5.

Separation and characterization of lymphocytes from blood



References


1)

Abbas Abul K. Lightman Andrew K. and Pober Jordan S. Cellular

and Molecular

immunology W.B Saunders Company, Philadelphia.

2)

Anathanarayana and Paniker, Text Book of Microbiology Orient and Longman, New

Delhi.

3)

Gold by Richard A. KindtThomas J and Osborne Barbara A. Kuby Immunology,
W.H.Freeman and Company, New York.

4)

J
awetz Me hick, Adel berg Brooks, Butel and Orston, Medical Microbiology, Prentice

Hail Incorporated London.

5)

Pelczar M.J. Chan E.C.S and Krieg N.R. Microbiology McGraw Hill Book Company,

New York.

6)

Roitt I.M. Essentials of Immunology, ELBS Blackwell scientif
ic Publishers, London.





♣♣♣♣♣
♣♣♣♣♣














B.Sc
. Microbiology

253

II YEAR


IV
SEMESTER


COURSE CODE
:

1
BMI4
C1


CORE COURSE
VII



MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY


Unit
I

General
approach to
clinical

specimen collection and transport, m
icrobiological examination
,

pri
mary media for isolation
.

General principle


isolation technique in
volved for
anaerobic
bacteria



normal microbial flora of
the human

body.


Unit

II

Bacteriology


mo
rphology
, Biochemical
&

Antigenic character
istics



pathogenecity



Lab
diagnosis a
nd

prevention
of
Staphylococci, Streptococci, Bacillus, Cornybacterium,
Mycobacterium , E.

coli, Salmonella, Shigella , V
ibrios,
P
seudomonas

&
Act
inomycetes
.


Unit
III

Mycology & parasitology: Morphology



Biochemical character
istics



pathogenesis


Lab
diagnosis



preventio
n of Amoebiasis, Leishmaniais, M
alaria, A
scaris, Filariasis, Taenia &
Try
ponosomiasis. Lab diagnosis mycology


m
orphology,
Classification of fungi detection
and recovery


Candida


yeast



Aspergillus



Penicillium, F
usarium an
d

N
eurospora.


Unit

IV

Virology: History of virology



Ge
neral
properties of viruses


Classification of viruses


Reprod
uction of bacterial phages


T4, M13 and
la
mbda phages



one step growth


synthesis
and assembly
,

release

of phages



Pox


influenza



Herp
e
s


Adenovirus

and Retrovirus.


Unit
V

Antimicrobial
chemotherapy


General Character


mechanism of action of drug


influencing the effective of drugs



Antimicrobial susceptibility test


Anti bacterial drug


Anti viral drug


Antifungal drug



Drug resistance



mech
anism &
origin & transmission of
drug resistance.


References

1)

Chatterjee KD 1980, parasitology


Protoz
oology and Helmmthology



l2
nd

Edn

Chatterjee Medical Publisher

2)

Cruickshnak R. 197
5, Medical Microbiology. VoL I
& II ELBS, C
hurchill
Livingston

3)

Jewetz
a
nd Melnich, 1986, Review of Medical Microbiology, Lenge Medical
Pub
lications, Maurzon Go. Ltd.

4)

Mackie & Mcpart
ney, 1994, Medical Microbiology


Vol.


I, Microbial


infection,
4
th

Edn. Ed,



J
g. Collee A.G. Fraser
B.P. Marimi
on, A.

Simmons Churchill
-
Livingston

5)

Bailey & Scotts, Diagnostic Microbiology Elen JO
Baron Lance R. Peterson,
Sydney
M.Fine Gold 9
th

Edn., Pub Mosby.

6)

Micro
biology Laboratory Manual by T.
Sundararaj, Pu
blished by A. Suhdararaj,
No.5.
1
st

Cross Street, Thirum
alai Nagar, Perungudi, Chennai


600 096,
2
nd

Edition,
2003.


B.Sc
. Microbiology

254

II YEAR


IV
SEMESTER


COURSE CODE
:

1
BMI4P1


CORE COURSE
VIII



MEDICAL MICROBIOLOGY




PRACTICAL


IV


1.

Biosafety guidelines for clinical laboratories.

2.

Col
lection, transport and processing of clinical samples
.

3.

Simple
,

different
ial

and special staining of Clinical material

a)

T
hroat swab

b)

P
us

c)

Urine

d)

S
putum

e)

S
tool

4.

Enumeration of bacteria in Urine, quantitative Urine culture
.

5.

Morphological observation of clinically
important bacterial and fungal pathogens.


6.

Antimicrobial sensitive

testing and determination of MIC & quality control.

7.

Stool examination of amoebic cyst

& ova
.

8.

KOH Lacto phenol preparation for skin scrapping for fungi.



References


1)

Anathanarayana and Pani
ker, Text Book of Microbiology Orient and Longman,
New

Delhi.

2)

Gold by Richard A.
Kindt
Thomas J and Osborne Barbara A.
Kuby Immunology,
W.H.Freeman and Company, New York.

3)

Jawetz Me hick, Adel berg Brooks, Butel and Orston, Medical Microbiology,
Prentice

Hail
Incorporated London.

4)

Pelczar M.J. Chan E.C.S and Krieg N.R. Microbiology McGraw Hill Book
Company,

New York.

5)

Medical Microbiology by Macie and Mc Cartney.

6)

Bailey and Scott’s Diagnostic Microbiology by Baron et al
.





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♣♣♣♣♣



B.Sc
. Microbiology

255

I
I
I YEAR


V
SEMESTER



COURSE CODE
:

1
BMI5C1


CORE COU
RSE
IX



E
NVIRONMENTAL & AGRICULTURAL
MICROBIOLOGY


Unit
I


Soil Microbiology Physical and chemical
characteristics

and mircoflora of various
soil types
Rhizosphere


Phyllos
phere


Microb
ial
interaction
s


symbiosis
,

neutralism,
mutu
alism
commensalisms
, competition
, Amensalis
m
,

synergisms
, parasitism

and predation.

Bio
-
f
ertilizer



Biological

N
2

fixation


Diazotrophs,

Associative symbios
is


Azospirillum,

Azoto
bacter
, P
hospho bacteria
,
my
corhizae
,

VAM and Ect
o
& E
ndo


mycorhizae


Unit II


Microbe
s in bio
-
chemical cycle


C,

N,

P

&

S Bio
-
degradation



Xenobiotics, bio
accumulation
,

bio
magnitification & Bioleaching
.

Air microbiology, atmospheric layers and
microbes


microbes in aerosol



assessment of quality of air



Air borne disease caused by
bacteria, fungi and viruses



symptoms and preventive
measure
s
.


Unit III


Aquatic Microbiology


Eco System


Microbes in
fresh and Marine

environment



Eutrophication



water zonation



potablit
y of water



microbial quality testing of
water



water purification



water born disease

and

preventive measures.

Water
treatment


characteristic of solid and liquid w
aste


BOD
&

COD

gasification
compos
t
ing


aerobic & anaerobic

treatment
method.


Unit

IV


Plant disease caused by bacteria: Xanthomonas, mycoplasma, spiroplasma. Fungi: Pyricularia,
Phytophtora, Fusarium. Virus: TMV,

CMV, Viroids



mechanism of pathogen, establishment
and symptoms.


Unit
V


Disease control



fungicide



bacterial disease co
ntrol



insecticide


bio
pesticide
s



nematicide and weedicide,
control

&

viral disease
.


References


1)

Alexander,

M. 1971, Microbial Ecology John
-
Wiley & Sons, inc. New

York.

2)

Alexander, M.1977, Introduction to Soil Mi
crobiology, John Wiley & Sons
New

york.

3)

Baker, K.
H and

Herson D.
S. 1994, Bioremcdialion, McGraw Hill, inc. New York.

4)

Mar
shell K.C 1985
, Advances in Microbiology Ecology Vol.8, Phenum Press

B.Sc
. Microbiology

256

5)

Bums, RG/&Slater JH; 1982, Experimental Microbia
l Ecology


Blackwell
scientific Publications


Oxford

Lo
ndon.

6)

Vanghan, D and Malcolm RE, 1985, Soil Organic Matter and B
iological Activity.
Martinus Nighoff W.Junk Publishers.

7)

Michel R 1999, Introduction to Environmental Microbiology.

8)

Boyd R.F., General Microbiology, 2
nd

Edit
ion, Times Mirrof/Mosby College
Publ
ishing St. Louis.1988.

9)

Alexander, M 1977, Introduction to Soil Microbiology, John Wiley & Sons,

inc.
York.

10)

Norris

JR. and Pettipher, GL. 1987,
Essays in Agricultural and Food
Microbiology,

John Wiley and Sons, Singapore.

11)

Burges, A and Raw, F. 1967, Soil Bi
ology, Academic Press, London.

12)

Martin
-
Alexander Wiley, 1961, Introduction to Soil Microbiology

International Ed
New York.

13)

Vanghan, D. and Maleolm,

R.F: 1985
; Organic Matter and biological
activity,

Martinus Nighoff,
W. junk Publishers.

14)

Harry

Bukman and Nyl
e C. Brady, 1960: Th
e Nature and Properties of soil
Eurasis
Pub House (Pvt) Ltd, New Delhi.





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B.Sc
. Microbiology

257

I
I
I YEAR


V
SEMESTER


COURSE CODE
:

1
BMI5C
2


CORE COURSE
X



FOOD
&

DAIRY

MICROBIOLOGY


Unit I


Food as a
substrate

for growth
o
f microbes
.

Role of microbes (mold yeast, bacteria)
in

food

General characteristic & importance
. P
rinciples of food preservation


Asep
sis


Removal of
microorganism, aerobic condition
,

High

temperature


Low temperature


D
r
ying


Food
additives
.


Unit II



Contamination and spoilage


cereal, Vegetables
,
sugar product, fruits, meat and meat,

fish &
their product


poultry, spoilage
of canned foods.



Unit III



Milk &
milk product


role of microbes in milk and milk product
s



quality testing



MBRT,

SPC



spoilage of organism


preservation method


pas
teurization.


Unit

IV



Food borne infection
and intoxification



bacterial, non


bacterial


Food borne disease



outbreaks


Laboratory testing


preventive

measures
.

Food sanitation


plant sanitation


quality control
.


Unit V


Food fermentation


yog
hurt, cheese, pickle, bread, vinegar, fruit juice, jam


spoilage &
general prevention method.


References


1.

Adams
MR & Moss MO;, 1
995,'Food Microbiology, New Age

Inte
rnational P. Ltd.
Publicatio
ns.

2.

Frazier WC and Westhoff DC, 1988,
Food Microbiology, 4th E
dition,

McGraw
Hill



New York.

3.

Hobbs B.C. and Roberts D, 1993, F
ood poisoning and Food hygiene,

Edwards
Arnold,
London
.

4.

Stanbury, PF., Whitaker," A and

Hall, SJ, 1995, Principles of
Fermentation Ecology,
2
nd

Edition, Pergamon Press.

5.

Boyd,
R.F., General Mi
crobiology,
2nd Edition, Times Mirror Mosby college
Publishing, St.
Louis,

1988.



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B.Sc
. Microbiology

258

I
I
I YEAR


V

SEMESTER


COURSE CODE
:

1
BMI5P1


CORE COURSE
XI



ENVIRONMENTAL, AGRICULTURAL, FOOD
&
DAIRY

MICROBIOLOGY

PRACTICAL


V



1.

W
ater
quality
analysis by MPN
method

2.

Isolation of microbes from air sampl
e technique
-

settle plate method

3.

I
isolation and counting of faecal bacteria from sewage water

4.

Azolla
-

morphological study seed inoculation with Rhizobia

5.

Isolation of fungi from molting leaves

6.

Isolation of
Xanthomonas malvacerum

from infected cotton plants

7.

Demonstration of mycorhiza in infected plant root

8.

Isolat
ion and enumeration of soil microorganism


9.

Microbial Population in food samples


a)

Fruit juices

b)

Ice cream

c)

Pickles

d)

Meat


10.

Milk quality

test


a.

Dye reduction test

b.

Litmus Milk reaction


11.

Isolation

of
L
ac
tobacill
i and
Staphylococcus

from Curd.

12.

Enumeration of
bacteria & fungi from spoiled food
s
.


References


1.

Casida L.E. Industrial Microbiology, Wiley Eastern Limited, New Delhi.

2.

Prescott S.C. and Dunn C.C. Industrial Microbiology, Tata McGraw
-
Hill Publishing

Company limited, New Delhi.

3.

Stanbury, P.F. Whitaker A and Hall S.J. Principles of Fermentation Technology,

Elsevier Science limited Aditya Books Private Limited, New Delhi.

4.

Waites Michael J. Morgan Neil L. R
ockey John S. And Gray
Higton, Industrial

Microb
iology


An Introduction, Blackwell | Science. Delhi.

5.

McNell B and Harve/ L.M. Fermentation



A

Pricatical Approach, IRL Press,

New

York.




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♣♣♣♣♣

B.Sc
. Microbiology

259

III YEAR


V
SEMESTER

COURSE CODE:

1BMIE1A


ELECTIVE COURSE I (A)


BIO
CHEMISTRY


Unit
I


Definition and

scope, Basic concepts of atoms, molecules and types of bonding in
biomolecules, Isomerism



types, structural



sterio and optical. Basic principle and
application of Colorimetric, Centrifugation, Chromatography and pH.


Unit
II


Nomenclature



definition

and classification of carbohydrates



st
ructural
character:
Monosaccharide



Polysaccharides and Amino acids.


Unit
III


Nomenclature



definition



Classification based on composition, solubility, shape and
function



structure



primary



secondary



te
rtiary; Physical and chemical properties of
protein.


Unit
IV


Nomenclature



Classification



Properties and mechanism of enzyme action



Vitamins



structure



Source



types



Water soluble and fat soluble vitamins; Riboflavin



Niacin,
Vitamin



A and
D.


Unit
V


Classification of lipids



Saturated and unsaturated fatty acid, Cholesterol, Porphyrins



properties of lipids; Types of lipids



Simple



Fat, Oil. Compound lipids: Phospholipids,
Glycolipids. Derivative lipids: steroids, Terpens and Caroteno
ids.


References


1.

Practical Biochemistry by Keith Wilson and Jon Walker, Cambridge

University Press.

2.

Murray RK, DK Granner, PA Mayes and

VW Rodwell (1999). Harper’s
Biochemistry.
24th Edition, Large Medical Publication.

3.

Jain JL (2003). Fundamentals of Bi
ochemistry
. S. Chand and Company Ltd.,
New
Delhi.

4.

Deb AC (2004) Concepts of Biochemistry, (The
ory and Practical) Books and Allied
(P) Ltd., Kolkata.

5.

Satyanarayana U (2005). Essentials of Bioc
hemistry, Books and Allied (P) Ltd.,
Kolkata.

6.

Veerakumari L (200
4). Biochemistry. MJP Pubi
lshers, A Unit of Tamil Nadu
Book
House, Chennai


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B.Sc
. Microbiology

260

III YEAR


V
SEMESTER

COURSE CODE
: 1BMIE1B


ELECTIVE COURSE I (B)


BIOETHICS


U
nit
I



Definitions & Concepts: Values of life


Biotechnology


Bioethics


Bioethics

& Nature


Medical ethics. Bio ethicist


Significance of Bioethics


Evolution of Bioethics in history


Bioethics & Gender bias


Bioethics & Religions


Bioethics & National and International
legislations / Law


Bioethics education.


U
nit

II


Our
Biosphere


Biodiversity & Conservation of Natural Resources


Crisis in world order


Technology & Sustainable living


Religions, science & Sustainable Development


Asian
tradition of Environmental Conservation


Ethical reasoning on Science in India.



U
nit

III


Chronology of Biotechnological studies on animals


Law & legislation on animal
experimentation in India and world


Moral status of animals as objects of experiments


Contemporary view on animal experiments


Moral responsibility of scientist
s over animal
experiments.


U
nit
IV


Personhood


Abortion


Bioethical issues in reproduction, p
opulation explosion and control


Assisted reproduction


AIDS


Egg donation


Prenatal scre
ening & sex selection


Cloning


Ethical issues on life & death


Brain Vs Cortical deat
h


Persistent vegetative
state


Voluntary euthanasia & physician assisted suicide


Organ donation & Transplantation.


U
nit
V


Ethical issues on New Genetics


Human Genome Project


Gene therapy


Genetic
screening


Experimentat
ion with human subjects


National Practice of health care


Public
& Private medical practice


National resource allocations.


References


1.

Howell, H. Joseph and William F. Sale (ed.). (19
95) Life Choices: A Hastings
Center
Introduction to Bioethics. Geor
getown University Press, Washington, D.C.

2.

Shantharam, Sivaramiah and Jane F. Montgome
ry (ed.). (1999) Biotechnology,
Biosafety, and Biodiversity: Scientific and
Ethical Issues for Sustainable Development.
Science Publishers, Inc. USA.

3.

Veatch, Robert M. (20
00) The Basics of Bioethi
cs. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle
River,
New Jersey.


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B.Sc
. Microbiology

261

III YEAR


V
SEMESTER

COURSE CODE
: 1BMIE2A


ELECTIVE COURSE II (A)


BIOINFORMATICS



U
nit
I



Definition, aims, tasks and applications of

Bioinformatics.
Database, tools and their uses,
Types and

classification of databases


Nucleic acid seq
uence databases, Protein sequence
databases.


U
nit
II


Sequence alignment


gl
obal v/s local alignment, FASTA, BLAST. Parwise
alignment,

Multiple Sequence alignment. Phylogenetic analysis.


U
nit

III


Genomics



structural, functional and comparative genom
ics


U
nit
IV


Proteomics



structural and functional proteomics.


U
nit

V


Brief introduction to Transcriptome, Metabolomics, Pharmacogenomics and Drug discovery


References


1.

Baxavanis (198) Bioinformatics.

2.

Higgins & Taylor (2000). Bioinformatics, OUP.

3.

Jan
(2001) Nucleic acid research, Genome Database issue.

4.

Bioinformatics: Sequences, structure and databanks by Des Higgins and Will
ie Taylor,
Oxford University Press, (2000).

5.

Bioinformatics: A practical guide to the analysis of genes and proteins. Ed. By

Baxev
anis,

1998.

6.

Introduction to Bioinformatics by V. Kothekar, 1st Edition, (2006), Dhruv
Publications,

Delhi.

7.

Bioinformatics: A modern approach by Vittal R. Sriniv
as, Prentice/ Hall of India Pvt.
Ltd. New Delhi, 2005



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B.Sc
. Microbiology

262

III YEAR


V
SEMESTER

COURSE CODE
:
1
BMIE2B


ELECTIVE COURSE II

(B)


MUSHROOM CULTIVATION



Unit

I


I
ntroduction to mushroom



classification up to class level in Alexophollus



Ainswarth,
Classification: Kinds of mushroom grow on
in

vitro

an
d natural condition.


Unit

II


Cultivation of paddy straw mushroom



Cultivation methods



use of organic waste;
Preparation and Nutrional and climatic factors



as mushroom cultivation; Types of
mushroom



harmful



useful.


Unit

III


Requirements on grow
th of mushroom



Physical and chemical method; watering method;
Harvesting Techniques and Nutriential analysis of mushroom: identification methods of
edible mushroom.


Unit

IV


Cultivation of European mushroom



preparation of organic manures using mushroo
m



pleurotus



Agaricus



method in cultivation of mushroom.


Unit
V


Mushroom



Toxin



illness



Economic importance of edible mushroom; western countries
and India; Mushroom recipes.


References


1.

Kaul, T.N. (1997). I
ntroduction to Mushroom Science
(Sys
tematics). Oxford &

IBH
Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi & Calcutta, India.

2.

Vijaya Khader (1998). Mushrooms for Livelihood. Kalyani Publishers, Ludhiana,

India.

3.

Singh, Reeti and Singh, V.C. (2005). Modern Mushroom Cultivation. Agrobios,

India.

4.

Suman, B.C
. and Sharma, V.P. (2005). Mushroom Cultivation and Uses.

Agrobios,
India.




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♣♣♣♣♣


B.Sc
. Microbiology

263

III YEAR


VI
SEMESTER

COURSE
CODE
:

1
BMI6C1


CORE COURSE
XII



INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY


Unit

I



History and development of industria
l microbiology


Preservation of

Industrially important
microorganism, strain development



sur
face,
Submerged, solid, semisolid fermentation.


Unit
II


Fermentation



General account



types of fermentation process


media for

Industrially
fermentation process



screening industrially i
mportant microbes.


Unit
III


Fermentation design



types of fermentors



Ethanol fermentation



Fermentation by Yeast



fermentation by zymomonas.


Unit
IV


Aerobic fermentation



production of antibiotic



penicillin, streptomycin



Amino acid



ly
sine,

Gulutamic acid



Enzyme


Pectinases, P
roteolytic



Vitamins


B
12
and B
2.


U
nit
V


Anaerobic fermentation



Wine, Beer, Industrial alcohol, lactic acid



citri
c acid
and
amylases.


References


1.

Stansbury,
P.R. and
Whittaker A, 1984 Principle
s of ferm
entation
technology,

Pergamon Press, Oxford.

2.

Old R.M. and Primrose, S.B.,
1985, Principles of

gene manipulations,
Blackwell

Scientific Publications, London.

3.

Reviere, J, 1996, Industrial application of Microbiology, Surey University Press.

4.

Demain AL., AL an
d Solman, NA, 1996, Manual of In
dustrial Microb
iology,
American

Society of Microbiology, Washington DC.




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B.Sc
. Microbiology

264

III YEAR


VI
SEMESTER

COURSE
CODE
:

1
BMI6C2


CORE COURSE
XIII



MICROBIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY


Unit I



Induction to gene manipulation, Res
triction enzyme



Nomenclature, Properties, Application


Techniques



DNA amplification



PCR,

Electrophoresis



Agarose



SDS



PAGE and
Pulsed filled Electrophoresis

.

Unit
II


Cl
oning vectors



Plasmid



Types



pBR322, p
UC vector, Cosmid



Bacteri
ophag
e



λ
Phage, M13, Expression vecto
r: Shuttle vector, Broad host
range vector



Yeast artificial
Chromosome vector.


Unit
III


Cloning strategies, cloning and selection of i
ndividual gene, Gene Libraries:
Genomic
libraries



c DNA libraries


Short gun method
s
, Genetic analysis of
Microbes



E.Coli

and
Bacillus.


Unit IV


DNA sequencing methods: dideox
y and chemical method, sequence
analysis



Automate
sequencing, Gene expression pat
hway: Post transcriptional (RNA
splicing) and Post
translational (Protein Fo
ldi
ng)
Processes.


Unit
V


Recombinant
DNA technology



Agriculture



Role of
Ti plasmid

in Plant
biotechnology
,
Medical: Insulin



Vaccine.

Industrial:
Amino acid, Protein,
Vitamin.

Development and uses
of
transgenic

animals



D
isease

resistant,

meat
and m
ilk Production, Transgenic Plants



Herbicide and Disease resistant developed plant
.



References


1.

Old R.M., and Primrose S.B., 1985,
Principles of gene manipulations, Blackwell

Scientific Publications, London.

2.

Plant biotechnology


Murray Moo


Young Pcrg
amon Press, 1992.

3.

Industrial Microorganism
s


Basic and Applied Molccul?


G
eorge D.liegeman and
Paul L. Skalrud, A


Washington, 1993
.

4.

Plant
Biotcchnology


J, Hammond P.Mc.Garvey and V.Yuisbov, Springer, 2000
.

5.

Text book of Biotechnology; R.C,DUBY:2007



♣♣♣♣♣
♣♣♣♣♣

B.Sc
. Microbiology

265

III YEAR


VI
SEMESTER

COURSE CODE
: 1BMI6P1


CORE COURSE XIV



INDUSTRIAL MICROBIOLOGY

AND
MICROBIAL BIOTECHNOLOGY


PRACTICAL


VI




1.

Yeast fermentation of Sugar

2.

Immobilization of yeast by sodium alginate

3.

Wine production

4.

Microbial productio
n of antibiotics

5.

Isolation of genomic DNA from bacteria and plant

6.

Estimation of DNA in spectrophotometer analysis

7.

Estimation of DNA in G
-
C Content and calculation of bacterial cell

8.

Isolation of plasmids from bacteria


9.

Electrophoresis:


a.

Agarose



DNA and R
NA

b.

SDS



PAGE



Protein


10.

Transformation of bacteria (Demo)



References


1.

Industrial Microbiology by Prescott and Dunns.

2.

Principles of Fermentation Technology. Mannual of Industrial Microbiology and

Biotechnology by Demain and Devis.

3.

S.S. Purohit (2005) Bio
technology. Fundamental and appl
ications 3rd Edition,
Published
by student edition. Behind Nasrani Cinema, Chopasani Road, Jodhpur.

4.

Sambrook. J. and Pussel(2001). Molecular cloning A Laboratory manual. Cold Spring,
Harbor Laboratory, New York, U.S.A. 3
rd
edition.

5.

Singh BD (2005). Biotechnology. 2nd revised and enlarged Edition, Kalyani

Publisher
s,
Chennai.

6.

Bernad R Glick and Jack J Pasternak (1998). Molecular Biotechnology.

Principles and
Applications of Recombinant DNA. 2nd Edition. ASM Press,

Washington,

D.C






♣♣♣♣♣
♣♣♣♣♣

B.Sc
. Microbiology

266

III YEAR


VI
SEMESTER

COURSE
CODE
:

1
BMIE3
A


ELECTIVE COURSE III

(A)



MARINE
BIOLOGY AND
OCEANOGRAPHY


U
nit I


Introduction to Oceanography, History of marine biology


expeditions, Origin of Oceans.
World O
ceans and their dimensions
. Se
a as a biological environment.
Divisions of marine
environment.


U
nit II

Marine ecosystems: Intertidal ecosystems


Rocky, Sandy and Muddy shores, Estuaries, Salt
marshes, Mangroves, Coral reefs, Coral bleaching & its diseases. Deep sea, Plankton, Nekt
on
and Benthos.


Unit III

Introduction to Waves, Tides &
Currents.
Theories of waves


tidal waves



formation of
storm surges and tsunami


tide generating forces


spring and neap tides. Factors influencing
surface and under water currents. Southern Osci
llation.


Unit IV


Composition of seawater. origin of sea salts, Major and minor elements in the seawater.
Nutrients



Inorganic, origin, distribution and important role in the fertility of the
sea.
Dissolved

gases in the seawater: their source and sinks.



Unit V


Marine food web dynamics, Primary and Secondary productions and factors in
fluencing
primary production.
Methods of estimation of primary pr
oduction. Marine biodiversity,
Maintenance and conservation of endangered species


captive breeding, habi
tat
fragmentation, ecosystem restoration and rehabilitation. Threats to marine biodiversity



References


1.

Marine Biology, (2005), First Edition, SK. D
ubey, Dominant Publishers, New D
elhi.

2.

Marine Biology


an ecological approach (fifth edi
tion) (2001) by J
.W. Nybakken.
Addison Wesley Longman Inc.

3.

An Introduction to World Oceans (sixth edition) (200
0), A.C. Duxbury, A.B. Duxbury,
K.A.
Sverdrup, Mc Graw Hill Publishers.

4.

Fundamentals of Ecology (1996) by Eugene P Odum. Nataraj Publishers.

5.

Textbook of Marine Eco
logy (1989) by Nair, N.B. & Thampy, D.M
.
Macmillan
Company of India (Wasani)

6.

Oceanography (second edition), (1995) by T. Garrison. Wadsworth

Publishing
Company

7.

An Introduction to Marine Ecology, Barnes, R.S.K.

and R.N. Hughes, (1999), Third
edition, Blackw
ell Science.



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♣♣♣♣♣

B.Sc
. Microbiology

267

III YEAR


VI

SEMESTER

COURSE CODE:

1
BMIE3B


ELECTIVE COURSE III

(B)



NON CONVENTIONAL ENERGY
RESOURCES


U
nit

I


Fundamentals of energy


laws of energy


sources of energy


conventional


hydrocarbons
or fossil fuels


nuclear energy


hydro
electric power.

Non
-
conventional


solar


wind energy


tidal wave
energy


bi
ofuels


micro

and macro


geothermal and ocean thermal energy.


U
nit

II


Solar energy


solar water heater


solar still


solar drier, solar cookers, solar refrigerators


so
l
ar
power generation


solar photovoltaic cells


solar chimney


solar pond types


convecting and nonconvecting.


U
nit

III


Windmills


types


vertical axis wind turbine and horizontal axis wind turbine


biomass
thermo chemical conversion


direct combu
stion


pyrolysis


gasification


liquefaction


biochemical fermentation.


U
nit

IV


Energy from tides


energy from waves


ocean thermal energy


briquettes from agro waste
methods


nuclear energy


fission
n


fusion


different types of reactors.


U
ni
t

V


Biogas


methods of composting


biogas slurry


use of compost in organic farming


types
of biogas slurry


construction of biogas plant


methods


significance of biogas plants.


References


1.

H.C. Jain


Non
-
conventional sources of energy.

2.

Biogas s
lurry and far
m yard management


CAPART


New Delhi.

3.

Energy for the future


NARDEP


Kanyakumari.

4.

Biogas


A manual on r
epair and maintenance


MNES, New Delhi
.

5.

Solar energy utilization


G.D.

Rai



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