國立聯合大學電子工程學系蕭裕弘

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Jan 31, 2013 (4 years and 9 months ago)

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Chapter 8

Information Systems and

Database Management Systems

國立聯合大學

電子工程學系

蕭裕弘

國立聯合大學電子工程學系



計算機概論



蕭裕弘

Chapter 8: Page
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Chapter Goals


介紹一些企業常用的資訊系統


介紹資訊系統的的開發過程


介紹資料庫管理系統的內涵與
特性


介紹一些資料庫的應用


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1. Introduction


An
information system

is comprised of all the components that
collect, manipulate, and disseminate data or information.


It usually includes hardware,


software, people, communica
-


tion systems, and the data itself.


The activities involved include


inputting data, processing of


data into information, storage


of data and information, and the


production of outputs such as


management reports.

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Database Management Systems


A
database

is an information set with a regular structure.


Its front
-
end allows data access, searching and sorting routines.


Its back
-
end affords data inputting and updating.


A
database management system


(DBMS) is a computer program


designed to manage a


database and run


operations on the data


requested by numerous


users.

Users/Programmers

Application Programs/Queries

Software to process queries/programs

Software to access stored data

Stored database

Definition

(Meta
-
data)

Stored database

DBMS

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2. Types of Information Systems


Office automation systems


Transaction processing systems


Management information systems (MIS)


Decision support systems (DDS)


Enterprise resource planning systems


Design and manufacturing systems


Geographic information systems (GIS)


Artificial intelligence systems

國立聯合大學電子工程學系



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Office Automation Systems


These combinations of hardware, software, and other resources
used to facilitate communications and enhance productivity are
collectively referred to as office automatic systems.


Document
-
processing systems


Paperless office


Communication systems


Email


Faxing


Video conferencing


Workgroup computing


...

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Transaction Processing Systems


Transaction processing systems

are information system
applications that capture and process data about business
transactions.






Transaction processing

is the unambiguous and independent
execution of a set of operations on data in a relational database,
which treats that set of actions as a single event.


If any part of the transaction process fails, the entire transaction fails
and all participating resources are rolled back to their previous state.

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Management Information Systems


Management information systems, sometimes called
information reporting systems
, evolved from transaction
processing systems.


A MIS is a set of software tools


that enables manager to gather,


organize, and evaluate informa
-


tion about a workgroup, a depart
-


ment, or an entire organization.

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淨利
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Decision Support Systems


Decision support systems

are a class of computerized
information systems that support decision making activities.

Government

Customers

and suppliers

Competition and

global market

Decision support system


External data sources

Query, model, and

analysis results

Interaction

Manager or

staff specialist

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Enterprise Resource Planning Systems


Enterprise resource planning

systems (ERP) are management information
systems that integrate and automate many of the business practices
associated with the operations or production aspects of a company.


These typically include manufacturing, logistics, distribution, inventory,
shipping, invoicing, and accounting.


ERP software can aid in the control of


many business activities,


like sales, delivery, billing, production,


inventory management, and


human resource management systems.

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Design and Manufacturing Systems


Computers are widely used in organizational systems to improve
productivity at the design stage and at the manufacturing stage.


Computer
-
aided design (CAD)


Computer
-
aided manufacturing (CAM)

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Geographic Information Systems


A
g
eographic
i
nformation
s
ystem

(GIS) is a computer
system for capturing, storing, checking, integrating,
manipulating, analyzing and displaying data related to
positions on the Earth's surface.


Typically, a GIS is used for handling maps of one kind or
another. These might be represented as several different
layers where each layer holds data about a particular kind
of feature (e.g. roads). Each feature is linked to a position
on the graphical image of a map.


The
g
lobal
p
ositioning
s
ystem

(
GPS), is an intermediate
circular orbit satellite navigation system used for
determining one's precise location and providing a highly
accurate time reference almost anywhere on Earth.


國立聯合大學電子工程學系



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Artificial Intelligence Systems


A computer can perform work at extremely fast speeds. It can also be
programmed with a set of rules or guidelines, thereby enabling it to draw
certain types of conclusions based on the input it receives.


When computer systems combine these two abilities to perform in ways that
would be considered intelligent if observed in humans, it is commonly
referred to as
artificial intelligence

(AI).


Systems that use artificial intelligence are called
artificial intelligence
systems
.


Four main types of artificial intelligence systems:


Expert systems


Natural language systems


Neural network systems


Robotics

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3. System Development Life Cycle


System development life cycle
, or SDLC, is the process of developing
information systems through investigation, analysis, design, implementation
and maintenance.

Preliminary

investigation

System

analysis

System

design

System

acquisition

System

implementation

System

maintenance

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Issues to Cover during System Design Stage


Output considerations


Who are the system users and what types of information do they need?


How often is this information needed? Annually? Monthly? Daily? On demand?


What output devices and storage media are necessary to provide the required
information?


How should output be formatted or arranged so that it can easily be understood by
users?


Input considerations


What data need to be gathered and who will gather them?


How often do data need to be gathered?


What input devices and media are required for data collection and input?


Storage considerations


How will data be accessed and organized?


What storage capacity is required?


How fast must data be accessed?


What storage devices are appropriate?

國立聯合大學電子工程學系



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Issues to Cover during System Design Stage


Processing considerations


What type of functionality is required in the software?


What type of processing power is required? A mainframe? A minicomputer? A
microcomputer?


What special processing environments must be considered? A communication
network? A database processing environment?


System controls


What measures must be taken to ensure that data are secure from unauthorized use,
theft, and natural disasters?


What measures must be taken to ensure the accuracy and integrity of data going in
and information going out?


What measures must be taken to ensure the privacy of individuals represented by the
data?


Personnel and procedures


What personnel are needed to run the system?


What procedures should be followed on the job?

國立聯合大學電子工程學系



計算機概論



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Prototyping


To avoid the potential problem of a system being incompatible with the
system user, instead of developing the entire system before users ever lay
their hands on it, many system analysts have advocated
prototyping
.

Identify

user

requirement

Develop

initial

prototype

Implement

and use

prototype

Refine and

enhance

prototype

Requirements

Initial prototype

Feedback

Improved

prototype

國立聯合大學電子工程學系



計算機概論



蕭裕弘

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4. What is Database?


A
database

is a collection of related data that is stored and organized in a
manner enabling information to be retrieved from the database as needed.


A database management system (DBMS) can be an extremely complex set
of software programs that controls the organization, storage and retrieval of
data (fields, records and files) in a database.


The DBMS also controls the security and integrity of the database.


The DBMS accepts requests for


data from the application program


and instructs the operating system


to transfer the appropriate data.

Hardware

Operating system

DBMS

Applications or users

國立聯合大學電子工程學系



計算機概論



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Database Environment

Users

DBMS

Retrieval/

update

facility

Programming

language

facility

Application

programs

Database

Utility

programs

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Adv. and Disadv. of the Database Approach


Advantages


Better information.


Faster response time.


Lower operating cost.


Lower storage
requirements.


Improved data integrity.


Better data management.


Disadvantages


Higher cost of software.


New hardware.


Higher training costs.


Increased vulnerability.

國立聯合大學電子工程學系



計算機概論



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Relational DBMS


In a relational DBMS (RDBMS), the data items and the relationships among
them are organized into
tables
:


A table is a collection of
records
.


A record is a collection of related
fields
.


Each field of a database table contains a single data value.


Each record in a table contains the same fields.

座號

姓名

性別

1

王小美



2

柯南



3

葉大雄



座號

國文成績

1

85

2

90

3

60

























國立聯合大學電子工程學系



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Structured Query Language


Structured query language

(SQL) is the most popular computer
language used with relational databases. Technically, SQL is a
declarative programming language.


SELECT
姓名

FROM
學生資料表格

SELECT
姓名

FROM
學生資料表格

WHERE
座號

= 2

SELECT
姓名
,
國文成績


FROM
學生資料表格
,
國文成績表格


WHERE
座號

= 2 ORDER BY
國文成績

INSERT INTO
學生資料表格

VALUES (4, ‘
李大同’
, ‘
男’
)

INSERT INTO
國文成績表格

VALUES (4, 60)

國立聯合大學電子工程學系



計算機概論



蕭裕弘

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Databases and the Web


Databases are extremely common on the web.


Examples of web databases in use:


Information retrieval


E
-
commerce and e
-
business


Dynamic web pages


The most common applications involve
client
-
server database transactions
,
where the user’s browser is the client software.

User

Web server

Database

server

Web
資料庫應用

線上範例

國立聯合大學電子工程學系



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Chapter 8: Page
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Commonly Used DBMS


Proprietary software


Oracle
-

Oracle


Sybase
-

Sybase


DB2
-

IBM


Informix
-

IBM


Microsoft SQL Server


Microsoft Access


...


Freeware


MySQL


PostgreSQL


...