Surface water - WordPress – www.wordpress.com

muscleblouseAI and Robotics

Oct 19, 2013 (3 years and 1 month ago)

52 views

Page

1

Content

I.
Introduction

II.
Source of Enteric Organisms in Surface Waters

III.
Pathogenic and Indicator Organisms in Surface Water

IV.
Surface Water Quality and Disease: The Case of Cholera

V.
Protection of Surface Water From
Faecal

Pollution

VI.
Identification of
Faecal

Pollution Source in Surface Waters

VII.
Discussion


Page

2

Objective

Define source of pollution to surface water and
cause of diseases from waste water

The ways to protect the surface water



Page

3

Key Terms

F
aecal

:
the solid waste passed out of the body of a human or
animal through the
bowels.


Waste water
: water
that has been adversely affected in
quality by anthropogenic influence.


Pathogen
: infectious agent ,
microbe(virus
, bacterium, prion,
or
fungus)
that causes
disease.


Enteric
: something related to or associated with the
intestines.

Aquatic
: means relating to water; living in or near water or
taking place in
water.


Catchment
: get
an illness, especially one caused by bacteria or
virus.

Page

4

Surface water
is a general term describing any
water body that is found flowing or standing on the
earth’s surface, such as streams, rivers, ponds, lakes
and reservoirs
.


Surface water quality
is often unreliable
and

to be
heavily contaminated by
faceal

microorganisms
than
groundwater.

I. Introduction

Page

5

I. Introduction
(
con’t
)


Surface
water quality may be divided into three
categories, or trophic levels, according to nutrient
levels and microbial populations
:

Oligotrophic

Mesotrophic


Eutrophic

Page

6

I. Introduction (
con’t
)


Water
-
borne pathogenic organisms of enteric origin
include:

Viruses


bacteria


protozoan

helminthic parasites.

Page

7

II.
SOURCES OF ENTERIC
ORGANISMS IN SURFACE
WATERS


1. Human
wastes and municipal
wastewaters


The factors of
total load of pathogenic
microorganisms
of
human origin that enter a surface water
catchment :

Human population

Proportion
of the population using sewerage systems
that eventually discharge into the
river

T
he
level of wastewater treatment and the operating
efficacy of these systems
.

Page

9

2.
Other wastewater discharges


I
ndustrial
wastewaters enter a municipal sewerage
system and many such
wastewaters:


F
ood
, beverage, meat packing,


W
ood pulp


P
aper
wastes,


Abattoir waste

Page

10


3. Agricultural
effluents and
run
-
off


In late 20 century, animal
husbandry

increasingly
concentrated loads of animal
faeces

which effect to
river water
.


S
ome
pathogens
of animal
origin may infect
humans
such as Cryptosporidium spp
. and various toxigenic
strains of
Escherichia coli
.

Page

11

Table 36.1 shows the E. coli concentrations found in the
faeces

of various animals.

Page

12

4.
Stormwater

and urban surface
run
-
off

Where urban run
-
off is not directed to combined
sewerage systems, separate systems may deliver this
water directly to surface
waters without
prior
treatment.

Discharges
from such systems may contain high levels
of
faecal

indicator
bacteria.

Ex:In

South
Africa
(
Jagals
, 1997
)

Page

13


5. Avian sources

The
faeces

of birds often contain higher concentrations
of the
faecal
:

I
ndicator
bacteria E.
coli

Intestinal
enterococci

S
pecific
pathogens such as Salmonella spp. and
Campylobacter
spp.

Page

14


6. Feral mammals


The
faecal

of feral
mammals

is the source of pollution
of surface
waters but
low significance compared with
the
faecal

contribution from agriculture and municipal
wastewaters.


Page

15

7. Recreational
use of surface
waters


In crowded bathing waters this source may pose a
significant risk to human health. Although boating
and other recreational use of
reservoirs,
bathing is
generally discouraged in order to protect source
waters.


Page

16

8. Recirculation
of
sediments


Surface water sediments may act as a reservoir of
enteric microorganisms deriving from
faecal

pollution
.




R
egrowth
of some species may be possible in these
relatively protected and nutrient rich environments.


Page

17

Subsurface sources


Poorly
designed and managed landfill of municipal
and industrial solid waste poses a risk of pollution to
surface and
groundwaters

because it contains high
levels
of toxic substances and enteric organisms.

Page

18

III. PATHOGENIC
AND
INDICATOR ORGANISMS IN
SURFACE WATERS

Factors
influence
cell death


Factors
that may directly or indirectly influence cell death or
sublethal

damage
include :

S
olar radiation


pH


Water temperature

C
oncentration of
humic

substances

P
redation

A
dsorption/sedimentation


Salinity

Time of exposure


higher residence

Page

20

1. Bacteria



The study of Coliform bacteria in the River Seine in
France,
(George et al
., 2001
)
shown that
grazing by
protozoa was
responsible for
47

99% of the mortality
of
coliforms in
the river
.


The observation that river waters generally contain
higher levels of enteric bacteria than lakes and
reservoirs



Two classic bacterial indicators of
faecal

pollution, the
faecal

coliforms
and the
faecal

streptococci
.

Page

21

2. Viruses

Viruses are a leading cause of waterborne gastroenteritis
and five major groups of human gastroenteritis virus have
been
dentified
:

Rotavirus

E
nteric
denovirus

Norwalk virus

calicivirus


Astrovirus

Page

22

3.
Parasitology


Parasites in freshwaters include protozoan

microorganisms
such as species
of:


Cyclospora


Entamoeba



Toxoplasma


All these Parasites lead to animals and human inflection

Page

23


G
enera Cryptosporidium


Giardia


Multicellular
helminths
.


4. Cyanobacteria

The
cyanobacteria

are prokaryotic organisms that, like the
eukaryotic green algae, are able to carry out photosynthesis
with the production of oxygen.

Over
20 species
of cyanobacteria have been associated with
adverse health effects. Acute health effects relate to the
ability of several species to produce toxins that may cause
liver damage, neural damage, and gastrointestinal (GI)
disturbances
.

Cyanobacterial

toxins are of 3 main types:
lipopolysaccharide
endotoxins,
hepatotoxins

and
neurotoxins
.

Page

24

IV. Surface
water quality
and disease

25

Case
of cholera


Cholera

is caused by the ingestion of the bacterium
Vibrio
cholerae

and the infectious dose of cholera is
normally High(10
6
-
10
8

organisms) but may be as low as
organisms
where gastric acidity is neutralized
.


Source of disease:


Bacterium Vibrio
cholerae
.


Material
from a leaking cesspool
.


Ground water.


Source raw water.


Page

26


V. Protection
of surface water from
faecal

pollution


The protection of surface water :


Multiple
barrier


Treatment of drinking
water


Safe disposal of waste
water


Carry out of pollution
source

Page

27

V.
Protection of surface water from
faecal

pollution

HACCP

Important steps in every HACCP procedure are:


Setting
up and verification of the process flow.


Executing
the hazard analysis identification
and
Control
measures.


Identification
of the critical control points.


Establishing
corrective actions
.

Page

28


T
he
multiple
antibiotic resistance
(MAR)
methodology


G
enotyping
methodologies
(DNA
Methode
)


A
pplication
of an artificial
neural network (
ANN)


Page

29

VI. IDENTIFICATION
OF
FAECAL POLLUTION
SOURCES IN SURFACE
WATERS

VII.
DISCUSSION


R
iver
water is the
most logical
source of a community’s
drinking water but hygienic
quality of
river water
may
be
poor.


D
rinking
water treatment
plant is
followed by a period
of storage
and sedimentation
prior to further treatment
.


Catchment protection plays an
important role
in the
multiple barrier approach to
breaking the
faeco
-
oral
route.

Page

30

References


Surface
waters,
byHuw

Taylor EPHRLL
, School of the
Environment, University of Brighton, BN2 4GJ, UK


Wikipidia.com


Cambridge Advanced Learner’s Dictionary 3
rd

Edition


Page

31

Page

32

Thank you very much

For your attention