Networked Robotic Systems

muscleblouseAI and Robotics

Oct 19, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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Networked Robotic Systems

An Overview

Dr. Thad Roppel

CRR Lab
-

A Brief History


Outgrowth of work started at Eglin AFB in
1992


Infrared / Millimeter
-
Wave Radar Sensor
Fusion


Follow
-
on funding


DARPA


e
-
NOSE


Best sensor platform?

Robots



Many robots are better than one robot..

SENSOR FUSION LABORATORY

Problem Complexity: Human vs. Machine

HUMAN

MACHINE

EASY

HARD

EASY

HARD

Maximum
Potential
Benefit


Object recognition


Linguistics


Extraction of Relevant Features
from Sensor Arrays


Arithmetic


Logic


Thresholding


Tallying


Judging

IR / MMW DATA FUSION

Support: AFOSR 1992
-
93

Project Goal: Improved identification of military vehicles from aerial
scenes.

LANCE Missile
Launcher

T
-
62 Tank

M
-
113 Armored
Personnel Carrier (APC)

IR / MMW Fusion, cont’d

APPROACH:

IR SCENE PIXELS

MMW RADAR
DATA

NEURAL
NETWORK

APC

TANK

LAUNCHER

PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT:

A

T

L

A

+

-

-

T

-

+

-

L

-

-

+


Multiple permutations


Confusion matrix


Average result

OVERALL RESULT: 14 % improvement
with sensor fusion

Chemical Sensor Arrays

Support: DARPA 1997
-
99

PROJECT GOAL: Improved identification and detection of chemical
plumes in non
-
laboratory conditions.

VEHICLE

SENSORS

PLUME

COMMAND

STATION

RF LINK

ROAD

WIND

Canine Training at IBDS

Auburn is world
-
renowned for training of detection dogs at the
Institute for Biological Detection Systems.

Chemical Sensor Arrays, cont’d

Odor Sensor Array

0

100

200

300

400

500

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

4.5

5

Timestep

Sensor Voltage

Sensor Outputs


Sensor Array Dynamic Response

Chemical Sensor Arrays, cont’d

0

100

200

300

400

500

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

4.5

5

Timestep

Sensor Voltage

10

20

30

40

50

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

Sensor Number

Timestep

Sensors 1
-
15

Raw Output

Thresholded Binary
Output

Above Threshold

Below Threshold

Preprocessing

Chemical Sensor Arrays, cont’d

ace

Sample 1

Sample 2


1

20

Sample 3


1

20

amm

dal

g87

g89

g93

oil

pth

Sensor #

xyl

5

10

15

Sensor #

5

10

15

Sensor #

5

10

15

Chemical Sensor Arrays, cont’d

input categories

network response

1 timestep

ace

amm

dal

g87

g89

g93

oil

pth

xyl

5 timesteps

10 timesteps

network response

20 timesteps

ace

amm

dal

g87

g89

g93

oil

pth

xyl

50 timesteps

Ideal Response

Time Evolution of Confusion Matrix: Forward Sequence

Trained for 20 timesteps

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

Chemical Sensor Arrays, cont’d

0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1

Time Evolution of Confusion Matrix: Random Sequence

Trained for 20 timesteps

1 timestep

5 timesteps

10 timesteps

20 timesteps

50 timesteps

Ideal Response

network response

ace

amm

dal

g87

g89

g93

oil

pth

xyl

network response

ace

amm

dal

g87

g89

g93

oil

pth

xyl

input categories

BIOMIMETICS

Support: Under discussion with AF Advanced Guidance Division, Munitions
Directorate at Eglin AFB

PROJECT GOAL: Learn sensor fusion from animals. Apply this to flying a drone
to target using onboard video.

Flies land accurately

Bees find flowers

Bats catch evading insects
in flight

CRR Lab


History, Cont’d


Feb. 2006: Invited Joe
Albree



Math Prof. at AUM
-

to
speak to HKN about history of the engineering
profession in USA.


I didn’t know he co
-
authored a book about the history
of West Point with…


Gen. Chris
Arney
, ARO program in Multi
-
Agent Systems,
who was organizing…


LIMES 2006 at West Point. Language for Intelligent
Machines.




Cooperative Autonomous Robots for Reconnaissance

White Paper for Chris
Arney
, ARO

Prepared 8/29/2005 by Thad Roppel, ECE Dept., Auburn University

Contact: roppeth@auburn.edu, (334) 844
-
1814

Hardware
Testbed

for Collaborative Robotics
using

Wireless

Communication


Chris Wilson


MS Dec 2009

Mounted
optical
mice and
batteries

Wifistix

(top card) and
Gumstix

(bottom card).

Eric
Hildebrand


ELEC 5530 HW 4 November
10, 2010



Dominion



The year was 2143, and humanity was at the will of a
single man. Known only as “
Roppeth
”, an evil mastermind had
created an army that defeated everything humanity threw at it.
No one knew where this army came from, but it could only be
assumed that
Roppeth

created the first generation, and each
new generation was spawned by the previous. What made the
army so overpowering was the fact that they were autonomous
robots controlled by the will of their leader but could act and
behave independently from his control. These robots were
bipeds, slightly larger than an average human, but completely
overpowering to any human counterpart.



Good News…


How to Survive a Robot Uprising



ASIMO


Highly functional biped


The future…?



Video



But for now, cooperation is more like
this
….

Oct. 2008


Robotics and Autonomous
Systems
-

Special Issue on Network Robot Systems


A probabilistic framework for entire WSN localization using a mobile robot


Action evaluation for mobile robot global localization in cooperative
environments


Autonomous functional configuration of a network robot system


Framework and service allocation for network robot platform and
execution of interdependent services


Robots in the kitchen: Exploiting ubiquitous sensing and actuation


Human behavior recognition using unconscious cameras and a visible
robot in a network robot system


End
-
to
-
end congestion control protocols for remote programming of
robots, using heterogeneous networks: A comparative analysis


NRS Definition


The IEEE Society of Robotics and
Automation Technical
Committee on Networked
Robots
provides the following definition
of Networked
Robots


Physical embodiment: Any NRS has to have at least a
physical robot
which
incorporates hardware and software
capabilities


Autonomous capabilities: A physical robot must have
autonomous capabilities
to
be considered as a basic element of
a NRS
.


Network
-
based
cooperation: The robots, environment
sensors and
humans must
communicate and cooperate through
a network
.


Environment
sensors and actuators: Besides the sensors of
the robots
, the
environment must include other sensors, such
as vision
cameras and laser range
finders, and other
actuators, such
as speakers and
switches


Human
-
robot
interaction: In order to consider a system as
NRS, the
system must
have a human
-
robot related activity.

NRS Definition Expanded

Two subclasses
of Networked Robots
:



(1)
Tele
-
operated


*human
supervisors send commands and receive
feedback via
the network.


-
Medicine, education, search & rescue,…


(
2) Autonomous,


*robots
and sensors
exchange data
via the network.


*sensor
network
extends the
effective sensing range of the
robots


*allows
them
to communicate
with each other over long distances to
coordinate their
activity.


*The
robots in turn can deploy, repair, and
maintain the
sensor network to increase its longevity, and utility.


*Broad challenge: develop
a science base that couples
communication to
control to enable such new
capabilities

Network Robot Types


Three
types of
network robots
:


Visible

-

can be
seen


humanoid
, pet, stuffed
animal, etc.


Virtual

-

acts in a cyber space
and makes
use of
information available on Internet.


avatar agent on
a mobile phone
or info kiosk


Unconscious

-

users are not aware of the
presence of the
robot


camera or a sensor embedded in



infrastructure

Ubiquitous robotics network system
for urban settings (URUS)

Physically Embedded Intelligent

Systems (PEIS)

Japan NRS

Japan NRS
consists
of four major
Japanese companies:



NTT
-

telecommunications;


Toshiba
-

home appliances;


Mitsubishi
Heavy
Industries
-

industrial robots


ATR
-

telecommunication
and
social robotics R&D

NRS in USA


NetBot

Lab
at TAMU (Prof.
Dezhen

Song)


Ghostrider

video clip



DARPA, JPL



Georgia Tech

WSN Localization

WSN Localization, cont’d

(a)
Scheme of the approach. The signal strength is used to estimate the position of
the nodes of the network. The mobile robot computes centrally an initial
estimation employing a separate Particle Filter for each node. In the second step,
a decentralized Information Filter integrates information received from neighbor
nodes and the robot, at each node.


(b): An example, a ground robot (Romeo) driving through the network.

WSN Localization, cont’d

Robots in the Kitchen

ROS (Willow Garage)


Willow Garage



Conclusion








Robots everywhere!!