Chapter 13 - EMC Paradigm Internet Resource Center

muscleblouseAI and Robotics

Oct 19, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

105 views

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
1

Chapter 13 Multimedia and
Artificial Intelligence

Chapter 13

Multimedia and
Artificial Intelligence

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
2

Presentation Overview


The Use of Multimedia


Creating Digital Media


Creating Multimedia


Artificial Intelligence

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
3

The Use of Multimedia

Multimedia Web Pages

Flash and Shockwave are the leading sources of
Web movies and games.


Shockwave is a more intensive format.


Flash is faster and commonly used for more
cartoon
-
like imagery.


Both provide fast, easily created movies that
transmit over the Internet as part of a Web page.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
4

The Use of Multimedia

Educational Tools


Schools and colleges use online courses as a
valuable teaching medium.


Online courses incorporate sound, images, and
videos within a text framework.


Multimedia tutorials are helpful for special
education students because the materials are
presented in various forms.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
5

The Use of Multimedia

Computer Games


About 68 percent of Americans play some type
of computer game on a regular basis.


Game consoles rival personal computers for
power and are priced under $300.


Online games involve thousands of players and
enable them to chat, have adventures, and
interact in worlds that only exist inside a
computer.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
6

The Use of Multimedia

Computer Games


Multimedia PCs are the most costly and high
-
powered computers on the consumer market.


Running a game makes a computer work harder
than any other task because it requires fast 3D
video, sound, and networking

often all at
once.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
7

The Use of Multimedia

Online Gaming
Terminology

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
8

Creating Digital Media


The process of taking analog data, such as a
human voice, and turning it into a data file
on a disk is called
digitizing
.


Digital media

collectively refers to digital
copies of any form of media.

The main advantage of digital media versus
analog data is that it can be reproduced an
infinite number of times with no degradation of
quality.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
9

Creating Digital Media

Painting and Drawing Programs


A
bitmap
-
based graphics program

allows
users to create pictures by changing the pixels
on the screen from white to black.


A
vector
-
based graphics program

enables
users to construct pictures by creating, editing,
and combining mathematically defined
geometric shapes.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
10

Creating Digital Media

Commonly Used Standard Graphics File Formats

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
11

Creating Digital Media

Graphics File Formats


A
native format

is a format that is specific to
that application.


Saving a graphic in a standard file format is
called
exporting

the graphic.


Placing a graphic in standard file format into
another document or file is called
importing

the graphic.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
12

Creating Digital Media

Graphics File Formats


A
bitmap

is the simplest form of an image file.


It will draw a perfect image without any of the
guesswork of a compressed file.


However, it takes up a lot of space.


In
data compression
, a conversion program
can “compress” a bitmap image into another
file format that looks almost as good, and
requires less file space.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
13

Creating Digital Media

Data Compression

Shown here are a compressed bitmap file (left) and an
uncompressed bitmap file (right) of the same image.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
14

Creating Digital Media

Vector Graphics


A
vector graphic

stores an image as a series of
geometric shapes.


Vector graphics are useful for line drawings,
but cannot reproduce a detailed image such as a
human face.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
15

Creating Digital Media

Vector Graphics


A
wireframe diagram

can use three
-
dimensional techniques to show the underlying
structure of a three
-
dimensional object on a
two
-
dimensional surface.


Bitmaps called
textures

can then be drawn on
top of the many facets of this diagram to make
it look real.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
16

Creating Digital Media

Clip Art Images


Clip art images are sizable icon
-
like images that
can be inserted into the text of reports and Web
pages to liven them up.


Clip art tends to be somewhat generic.


The images are normally stored in GIF file
format, allowing for limited animation.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
17

Creating Digital Media

Raster Image Editing


Adobe Photoshop and Corel Paint Shop Pro can
edit digitized photographs.


Digitized photographs are stored as
raster
images

collections of black, white, or colored
pixels.


The most common raster image file format for
digitized photos is the Tag Image File Format
(TIF or TIFF).

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
18

Creating Digital Media

3D Modeling Programs


A
3D modeling program

can make a computer
screen appear to have depth.


Working with these programs requires the
combined talents of an artist and an advanced
computer user.


These programs require enormous computing
power.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
19

Creating Digital Media

Computer Animation


More and more movies are made with the aid of
computer graphic special effects (CG FX)
,
which allow user to draw computer
-
animated
graphics.


It is far cheaper to create computer
-
animated
graphics that to use traditional techniques.


Animated graphics are easily manipulated

any
image can be redrawn until it is just right.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
20

Creating Digital Media

Digitizing Sound

The sound of someone singing is captured by sampling
the sound and then storing the measurements in binary
form for use by the computer.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
21

Creating Digital Media

Digitizing Sound

Wave files

record any kind of sound by storing
masses of binary numbers and measuring exactly
how much voltage to send out to the speakers
each fraction of a second in order to reproduce
the sound.

Sound files can become quite large because 16 bits
are used for each measurement.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
22

Creating Digital Media

Digitizing Sound

The
Musical Instrument Digital Interface
(MIDI)

technique digitally simulates musical
instruments.


It only needs to know which notes to play on each
musical instrument.


MIDI files tend to reproduce poorly on PCs and are
used less frequently then they were a few years ago.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
23

Creating Digital Media

Digitizing Sound

The

MP3 file format

takes a wave file and
reduces it by 90 percent, leaving behind a high
-
quality reproduction.


It uses a data compression system that works in a
similar fashion to that used by the JPEG or GIF
formats.


There has been an explosion in the use of this file
format because of the dramatic reduction in size
with very little loss in quality.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
24

Creating Digital Media

Digitizing Video


Digital Movies


Digital video will eventually replace analog video.


Movie Compression Techniques


The
MPEG file format

is the movie equivalent of an
MP3.


Home DVD players use the
MPEG2 file format
.


The
MOV file format

is an Apple format.


The
AVI file format

is an older file format.


Flash

is the format of movies on the Internet.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
25

Creating Digital Media

Digitizing Video

Digital Cable


The move to digital television was completed in the
U.S. in June 2009, prompting many users to switch
to digital cable.


Digital cable offers a wide selection of stations, with
the ability to expand to 2,000.


It also provides easily accessible information
buttons and scheduling data.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
26

Creating Digital Media

Digitizing Video

Digital Video Recorder


A
digital video recorder (DVR)

operates as a digital
TV cable box and can also perform the job of HDTV
support.


The DVR records TV on a hard drive inside the box.


It provides the ability to pause and rewind live TV.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
27

Creating Digital Media

High
-
Definition Television


High
-
definition television (HDTV)

is
television with more lines and more pixels than
analog television

in other words, higher
resolution.


HDTVs are offered in a variety of models,
including 720i, 720p, 1080i, and 1080p.


The number stands for the resolution.


The
i

or p represents how the lines are drawn


interlaced or progressive.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
28

Creating Multimedia

What are the steps in creating a multimedia
work?


Planning the work


Creating the elements to be included in the
work


Combining the elements to create the work


Testing, evaluating, and refining the work


Writing the work to a portable storage medium
such as a CD
-
ROM, or posting it to the Web

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
29

Creating Multimedia

Planning a Multimedia Work


In
sequential, page
-
based multimedia
, the
work is a sequence of pages or slides appearing
one after the other.

This is appropriate for any application in which the
presentation order of the material is fixed.


In
hypertext, page
-
based multimedia
, the
work is a set of pages with links that can be
followed at will.

A
tree diagram

is usually used to plan hypertext.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
30

Creating Multimedia

Tree Diagram for Hypertext Page
-
Based Multimedia

This tree diagram shows the links between pages in a
simple multimedia presentation.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
31

Creating Multimedia

Planning a Multimedia Work


In
movie
-
based multimedia
, the work is a
movie, or series of movies, that stops from time
to time, enabling users to follow links.


A
storyboard
, consisting of sketches of the
pages or frames as they will appear in the work,
is usually created to plan movie
-
based
multimedia.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
32

Creating Multimedia

Creating the Content of the Work

Content for a multimedia work can come from
many different sources.


Text can be created in a word
-
processing program.


Graphics can be created in painting, drawing, 3D
modeling, or animation programs.


Images can be produced by traditional means and
scanned and edited in a graphics program.


Programs such as Adobe
Soundbooth

are available
for capturing and editing sounds.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
33

Creating Multimedia

Hardware/Software for Creating Multimedia


A
sound digitizing card

enables computers to
capture and process digitized sounds.


A
video digitizing card

allows users to capture
and digitize video images and sound.


Video editing software

allows users to edit
sounds and video and output in various digital
formats.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
34

Creating Multimedia

Combining the Elements


The simplest multimedia works are documents
produced using standard office software such as
word processors or presentation programs.


More complex works can be produced by using
Adobe Acrobat to incorporate pages created in
other applications into PDF files.


The most sophisticated works are created in
authoring programs such as Adobe Director.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
35

Artificial Intelligence


Artificial intelligence (AI)

is the computer
application that has fueled the continual
effort to create faster and more powerful
machines.


The goal of AI is to develop computers that
can perform functions normally reserved
for humans: thinking, talking, seeing,
feeling, walking, and learning from their
mistakes.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
36

Artificial Intelligence

AI Technology Trends


AI development is moving toward limited,
focused applications.


Modern AI systems focus on simulating
specialized human functions.


The goal of AI has shifted to augmenting
human capabilities rather than supplanting
them.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
37

Artificial Intelligence

Applications of Artificial
Intelligence

The three primary areas
of artificial intelligence
applications


Cognitive science


Natural interfaces


Robotics

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
38

Artificial Intelligence

Cognitive Science Applications


The study and simulation of the human mind is
known as
cognitive science
.


It is based on biology, neurology, psychology, and
other disciplines.


It focuses on researching how the human brain
thinks and learns.


Major applications in this area are intelligent
agents, expert systems, data mining, genetic
algorithms, fuzzy logic, and neural networks.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
39

Artificial Intelligence

Cognitive Science Applications

An
intelligent agent

is an intuitive assistant that
can utilize knowledge based on past experience
and predictions of future behavior to assist
computer users.


The agent’s goal is to reduce difficult tasks down to
a few mouse clicks.


The best
-
known agents are the wizards found in
Microsoft Office products.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
40

Artificial Intelligence

Cognitive Science Applications

An
expert system

attempts to embody human
expertise in a particular field.


Authorities in a field of study develop expert systems
with the help of a
knowledge engineer
, a special
type of programmer who specializes in building a
knowledge base consisting of a set of rules.


An
inference engine

enables the expert system to
draw deductions from the rules in the knowledge
base in response to user input.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
41

Artificial Intelligence

Cognitive Science Applications

Data mining

finds new ways to use masses of
data stored in the databases of large corporations.


It sorts existing data to provide more carefully
targeted marketing and pricing of products.


It is able to determine with good accuracy whether a
new offering will succeed or fail.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
42

Artificial Intelligence

Cognitive Science Applications

Genetic algorithms

apply a Darwinian (survival
of the fittest) method to problem solving.


A computer creates thousands of slightly varied
designs and then tests and selects the best of them.


The best programs evolve to another generation,
where more variations, or
mutations
, are made.


The most successful mutations undergo a
crossover
,
which produces a new generation of “offspring.”

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
43

Artificial Intelligence

Cognitive Science Applications

Instead of demanding yes/no or numerical
information, a
fuzzy logic system

allows users to
input “fuzzy” data.


This is an attempt to simulate real
-
world conditions.


These systems work more naturally with the user by
piecing together an answer similar to what a
traditional expert system uses.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
44

Artificial Intelligence

Comparison of Traditional SQL Query and the
Equivalent Fuzzy Logic Query

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
45

Artificial Intelligence

Cognitive Science Applications

A
neural network

simulates the physical
workings of the human mind and presents the
ultimate attempt to model human intelligence.


It generally starts off with only an input source,
some form of output, and a goal.


It learns by trial and error how a desired output
affects the input.


The “gain” controls how quickly the system will
learn or unlearn something.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
46

Artificial Intelligence

Natural Interface Applications


With
speech recognition
, users can direct a
computer with voice commands rather than
typing information into it.


A
natural
-
language interface

is broader in
scope than speech recognition

the goal is to
have the computer read a set of news articles
and
understand

what it has read.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
47

Artificial Intelligence

Natural Interface Applications


Virtual reality (VR)

describes the concept of
creating a realistic world within the computer.

The quality of a VR system is characterized in terms
of its
immersiveness

how real it feels.


A
mental interface

uses sensors mounted
around the skull to read the alpha waves our
brains give off.

The computer measures brain activity and interprets
it as a command.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
48

Artificial Intelligence

Robots as Androids


The science of
robotics

is creating machines
capable of independent movement and action.


An
android

is a simulated human.


To be more like humans, robots must undergo
technological advances in visual and audio
perception, touch, dexterity, locomotion, and
navigation.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
49

Artificial Intelligence

Robots as Androids


Visual perception

is processing data coming
from the eyes.

A single camera can’t simulate the eye

two
cameras are needed to give
stereoscopic vision
,
which allows depth and movement perception.


Audio perception

is processing data coming
from the ears.

The robot must be able to identify a single voice and
interpret what is being said amid background noise.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
50

Artificial Intelligence

Robots as Androids


Tactile perception

is the sense of touch.


The robot must not only be able to feel an object, but
sense how much pressure it is applying.


The robot also needs
dexterity
, or hand
-
eye
coordination.


Locomotion

includes broad movements such as
walking.

Robots need balance, as well as the ability to adapt
to a variety of situations.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
51

Artificial Intelligence

Robots as Androids

Navigation

deals with the science of moving a
mobile robot through an environment.

It must work closely with a visual system or some
other kind of perception system.

© Paradigm Publishing, Inc.

13
-
52

On the Horizon

Based on the information presented in this
chapter and your own experience, what do
you think is
on the horizon
?