Intercontinental Transmission Highway

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Nov 21, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Intercontinental Transmission Highway

for Optimization of Global Energy Resources


Liu Zhenya

President,

State Grid Corporation of China

August 26,
2012


Dear Mr. President, ladies and gentlemen,

It

s my great pleasure to speak to you on this opening cere
mony.
For many years,
CIGRE
has become a very important platform

both for
international exchanges on power technologies, and also for
the
innovative development of power grids
, as well as

the sustain
able
future of power sector
and society at large.
T
oday,

I want to talk about
the
building of

intercontinental
transmission

highway
, which is a
powerful solution for optimiz
ation

of global
energy
resources
.

To
elaborate

on this,
I will touch

upon three aspects as follows:

1


First of all, new energy
trends
call

for
optimization

of global
energy
resources
.

As global issues like energy shortages, diminishing resources and
climate changes turn sharp, huge energy challenges, such as energy

2

security, efficiency and environment are confronting the world.
T
o cope
with
these challenges, each and
every nation is

taking proactive
measures to transform the energy development patterns. New energy
trends

hence
are taking shape.

The first
trend
is
the rapid
readjustment

of energy structure featuring
clean energy.
A
t present th
e world mainly depends on fossil energy, which
is both unsustainable
and subject to environment constraints.
T
o sustain
energy supply, on the one hand we need to expand the fossil energy
exploration and clean usage; but more importantly on the other hand,
we
should take advantage of technology innovations to
develop new energies
in scale to reduce over dependence on fossil energies.
I
n the past 10
years, the generation capacity of wind and solar power has grown 10
times and 20 times respectively.
M
ore and m
ore new energy has been
consumed by being converted to clean power. Electricity

s share in end
consumption mix has grown from 8.8% in 1971 to 17.5% in 2010.
Electricity

s replacement

of oil, coal and gas are becoming extensive. We
believe
that with more te
chnology breakthroughs, new energies will boom
and play a key role in energy guarantee system.


The second
trend
is the growing scale of energy allocation.
E
conomic and social development caused increased energy

3

consumption

in bigger geographical scale wit
h more diversified
delivery methods.
Thus p
ower grid and gas pipelines are becoming
ever
more important
.
I
n recent years, international energy trade is
taking increasing share of global consumption total, and within which,
the oil trade

s share

has increas
ed from
51% in 1980 to 61% in 2010.
Scale development and remote transmission of
conventional fossil
energy and non
-
fossil energies such as
wind
and
solar

hence become
a key
solution

for energy shortage.


The third
trend
is the critical role of technical i
nnovation in energy
transformation.
A
ll the energy solutions boil down to technical
innovation.
T
echnical advancement will enable leap forward of the
security, economics, environment
-
friendliness and efficiency of energy
supply
.
W
ith widespread application

of modern information,
internet
,
smart, and new material technologies, power industry has become a
modern industry integrating high
-
tech and information technologies.
Advanced transmission technologies like ultra high voltage
transmission has made bulk an
d remote power delivery a reality. New
energy generation, grid connection and storage technologies will
promote large scale and efficient development of wind and solar
energy.
B
esides, the clean coal, carbon capture and storage

4

technology
will deeply trans
form the pattern of utilizing
conventiona
l
fossil energy.

In a nutshell, a safe, efficient, and green energy supply system
based upon
conventional

energy, focusing on new energy, pioneered
by technical innovation, and oriented by global energy allocation
o
ptimization will become the
inevitable
trend of world energy
development


2
. Build an intercontinental transmission
highway

with UHV
technology


From a global perspective, energy resources in
the

world are
draining
,

leaving resource centers concentrating i
n just a few
region
s.
I
n some countries and
region
s, the energy resources and demands are
unevenly distributed and far away from each other, thus requiring
large
-
scale and remote transmission of electricity.
B
ased on the above
recognition and our own pract
ice in China, it is my belief that building
an intercontinental transmission
highway

and electricity trade market
with advanced UHV AC and DC transmission technology is a strategic
move to push forward the optimized allocation of global energy
resources an
d sustainable energy development

as well as energy
security
.


5

From
the

perspective
of
energy demand, Europe is among the
world

s largest energy consumers. Its energy consumption in 2011
takes up 23% of the world

s total, second only to Asia Pacific (39%).
I
n
recent years, Europe has been devoted to green and low
-
carbon
development.
Europe

is taking proactive measures to optimize energy
structure with a
bias

to new energies.
Its target is to bring renewable
resources in 2020 to 20% of total energy consumptio
n mix.

Meanwhile
,
under

the
impact
of Fukushima nuclear disaster, Germany,
Switzerland and Italy have renounced their own nuclear programs.
Germany even decided to close all nuclear reactors within 10 years.
G
iven these situations, Europe faces new challen
ges of energy supply.
T
here will be

huge energy shortages waiting for new energy
replacement. It is estimated that Europe

s dependency on imported
primary resources will reach 65% by 2020, and up to 70% by 2030.
UHV transmission, as a safe, economic, effic
ient and mature
transmission technology, will make optimization of global resources
possible. For
±800

kV DC projects, transmission power is 8000 MW,
and e
conomic transmission distance could reach

2
5
00 km. For
±1100

kV DC projects, transmission power is
11
,000 MW, and e
conomic
transmission distance could reach

50
00 km.

Looking around regions nearby Europe,

China

s Xinjiang

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autonomous region, Russia

s Siberia,
CIS countries

and Mongolia are
very rich in wind, solar and hydro power, with big potential for
dev
elopment, yet relatively low local demands and costs. These regions
are generally 4000~8000km away from European countries.
T
hey are
well suited to become the futur
e large power source bases, with clear
advantages in
applying
long
-
distance power delivery a
ll the way to the
load center in Europe

by UHV DC transmission technology
.
Given the
transmission distance and factors such as the transmission loss and
capacity
, we can consider direct transmission and relayed
transmission

as two possible transmission pat
terns,

and there
are three

options

of transmission plan when it comes to realizing
this intercontinental
highway
.


T
he first option

is to bundle

up
new energy
and
local
gas
power
in
Xinjiang of China.
T
hen
this

huge amount of electricity
will be

transmit
ted 56
00km to Germany by
±1100

kV UHV DC lines, wi
th a
transmission capacity of 11,000 MW (or even 22
,000MW with
double
-
circuits on the same tower).


Option two is
t
o bundle

up gas power in
Kazakhstan

with
new

energy
in Xinjiang,
and deliver this power

47
00km to Germany by
±1100

kV UHV DC lines, with a transmission capacity of 1
1
,000 MW
(or even 22
,000MW with double
-
circuits on the same tower).



7

The
third

option
is to bundle the
hydro, wind and
gas power in
Siberia, then deliver it

by

±
1100kV UHV DC trans
mission lines
to
west Russia
, and
from there
on, relay this power to
Germany by
±
800kV UHV DC lines. The transmission distance is about 6
400

km
,

and transmission capacity is 11
,000 MW
(or even 22
,000MW with
double
-
circuits on the same tower)
.


Compared wi
th the cost directly connecting offshore wind power
of
North Sea
to Germany,
all

the above mentioned
three

options have
competitive advantages.

In the future as the European super grid get more progress, we
can deliver power to this super grid through UHV

grid, and then though
this super grid to every nation in Europe. For this intercontinental
transmission line, the annual transm
itted power total could reach 66

TWh, a huge relief and compensation

for the electricity gap incurred

by
the denuclearization of

Europe, and a push for the European target of

low carbon development.
In the first phase, we can deliver renewable
power bundled up with conventional power. Then,
w
ith the
future
progress and breakthrough
s

in energy
efficiency, new materials, and
energy
s
torage technology,
we could

anticipate that r
enewable power

can be transmitted from central Asia, Middle East and North Africa to
Europe

in massive scale
.
Meanwhile, UHV technology can also be

8

applied in the America, Europe and Africa within the continent
s

or
between the continents for resource optimization.

Building intercontinental transmission
highway
s are feasible in
technology and
good in
safety

and efficiency
.
F
or recent years,
UHV
transmission

technologies have undergone rapid development and are
now

turning mature.
Our well
-
operated UHV AC and UHV DC projects
had withstood harsh tests of frost, lighting, rainstorm and high wind
since 2009 and 2010, which
is a strong proof for

the reliability and
safety of the UHV technology. W
e have built a world
-
cla
ss large power
grid simulation analysis system and launched simulation calculation
for
large hydro, thermal, wind, nuclear, and UHV transmission, including
115
00

nodal points, 22
60

generator
s

and 35
,
9
00

lines.
We have
mastered
advanced large power grid con
trol
and system protection
technology
. Along with the application of sm
art grid control technology
and

improvement of equipment reliability and management level in the
future, UHV large grid will be safer and more reliable.
The future
p
ower
grid upgrade an
d structure optimization
in Europe
will enhance the
accommodation capacity and security level of the grids so as to satisfy
the needs of multi
-
infeed DC system with large capacity.

Building intercontinental transmission
highway

has significant
economic, s
ocial and environmental advantages. First,
it can

9

effectively boost

economic growth. Nowadays,
the world economic

recovery is still weak. Building intercontinental UHV project will boost
investment, innovation and development in electrical equipment,
metal
lurgy, building materials, new energy and new material industries.

Secon
d
,
it can promote

energy saving and emission reduction. A
transmiss
ion line with transmission capacity

of 11
GW could provide
6
6
TWh clean energy to Europe each year. In another word, ev
ery year,
we could save 2
1

million tons of standard coals, reduce
60

million tons
of CO2 emission and
36
0
,000 tons of SO2 emission so as to change
the development mode to a low
-
carbon and greener way.

Third
,
it
helps realize

energy complementation. Due to
vast geographical size,
time difference and large diversity of load
centers

as well as power
resource structure, intercontinental transmission
highway

could realize
cross region capacity compensation, load shedding and mutual
back
-
up. Fourth,
it also works

for
promoting common development.
The intercontinental transmission
highway

will
leverage

resource
advantages in Asia and Africa

as well as the economic advantages in
Europe
, increas
e

employment opportunities, narr
ow North
-
South Gap
and promote

common dev
elopment of world economy.


3.
Construct
a platform for communication and cooperation, foster

10

innovative growth of global energy and power sector

Power grid combines the functions of electricity transmission,
trade, and optimized allocation all in itself,
therefore playing an
increasing role in energy safety, efficiency and energy conservation,
etc. In recent years, State Grid Corporation of China (SGCC) has
quickened its step in building an open, synergized, and highly efficient
technical innovation system
, and made overall breakthrough
s

in key
energy and electricity technologies with focus in UHV technology.

Briefly as follows:

The first

overall breakthrough is

in UHV R&D and application.
In
compliance
of

high standards, we have built four test bases (name
ly
UHV AC, DC, High Altitude, Engineering Mechanics) and two R&D
centers (namely Large Grid Simulation, DC System Design).
A
full
-
spectrum
UHV and large
-
grid test and research system has been
formulated.
We have mastered the core technologies of UHV AC and

DC transmission as well as whole set of equipment manufacturing,
with world
-
leading results achieved.
A
t present, three UHV DC projects,
including Sichuan
-
Jiangsu, Sichuan
-
Zhejiang and Xinjiang
-
Henan
lines, as well as Anhui
-
Shanghai UHV AC line
s

are under

rapid
construction. By 2015,
we will complete the UHV AC backbone
network that connects China

s large energy bases

and main load

11

centers. We will complete 15 trans
-
regional DC transmission projects
with 260 GW capacity per year.
W
ith these, we can transmi
t 1200 TWh
power per year and accommodate 145 GW more clean power into the
power grid.

The second breakthrough is in smart grid construction. We have
completed the wind/ solar/ power storage and transmission pilot
project complex in Hebei province; we have

advanced technology for
combined

control of new energy.
A
t present, the wind and solar
installed capacity
has exceeded 50,000 MW and 2,500 MW
respectively.
I
n Bohai Rim and Yangtze River Delta, we built an
intercity service network for charging and batter
y swap, including 243
stations, 13,000 charging poles, which can serve 80,000 cars
altogether. We have installed 92,650,000

smart meters, which can
collect data from 10 million customers, and we are expecting to install
20,000 ~ 30,000 more every year ahea
d. In cities lik
e Beijing, Tianjin
and Shanghai, many smart grid pilot projects complex

are built
,
including smart substations, storage systems, four network
convergence (grid, telecom, TV, and internet), smart distribution, smart
building, smart home appl
iance
s. We have also built a smart power
dispatch system with grid panoramic monitor
ing
, dynamic analysis,
and real time

pre
-
warning functions, which is applied to 220kV and

12

above grid
s

to realize
integrated

dispatch.

The third breakthrough is in technical

standards.
W
e have
formulated a systematic series of UHV and smart grid standards, and
put forward 267 corporate standards,
39 industrial standards, and 20
national standards.
B
ased on UHV AC/DC R&D and project
achievements, we hosted 2007 International U
HV Standards Workshop
and 2009 International Conference on UHV Transmission

with success
.
We are the member of IEC and CIGRE UHV Group, and we made lots
of efforts in improving and reviewing the international standards in UHV
fields, and promoting UHV appl
ication worldwide.
I
n 2011, we pushed
IEC to establish PC 118 smart grid customer interface
committee

and
the secretariat is set in SGCC.
I
n Sept 2011, we co
-
hosted
International

Forum on Smart Grid with IEEE. In Sept 2013, we will co
-
host another
Smart Gr
id Forum with IEC and VDE.


During the process of building intercontinental transmission
highway

and optimizing global energy allocation, we will face lots of
challenges in economic environment, energy policy, power grid
construction and techn
ical innovat
ion. In the past decades
, CIGRE has
contributed a lot in strengthening communication among all the
members in power technology, new technology and p
roject application.

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Furthermore
, it provided an important platform for all the international
peers to tackle

common challenges and promote
the global

power
industry as well as technology progress. This CIGRE session offers a
good opportunity for us to jointly conquer the difficulties in the world
energy
sector
. We are
ready

to

enhance
concrete
cooperation
,
that
is

open, innovative, and win
-

win
,

with all the members

here
.


Ladies and gentlemen, it is of great significance to build
intercontinental transmission
highway

for

optimize
d

global energ
y
allocation. I sincerely hope

that
,

through

today

s conference

as a

starting
point, we will join our hands and as a whole

push
forward
the
development and innovation of world energy and power industry
so as

to promote
the
sustainable development of economy, society and
environment

for all the mankind, and for the future
.

Thank you!