ENUM Overview ENUM Forum Canada

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Oct 30, 2013 (3 years and 5 months ago)

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ENUM Overview

ENUM Forum Canada

Richard Shockey

IETF ENUM WG Co
-
Chair

Senior Manager


Strategic Technology Initiatives

NeuStar, Inc.

46000 Center Oak Plaza

Sterling VA 20166 USA

rich.shockey@neustar.com +1 571.434.5651

sip:rshockey@iptel.org

Agenda


How did we get here?


How does it work?


Where is it going …

What is the IETF ?


Internet Engineering Task Force


Oversees the standards process for Internet protocols and
technologies


Industry driven standards body


No membership whatsoever


Personal participation, anyone can participate


Work is done using mailing lists


Rough consensus and running code (no voting)


http://www.ietf.org/overview.html



What is the IETF ?


Work is done in Working Groups (i.e. ENUM WG)


WG has a charter, statement of activity, schedule and
milestones and a mailing list


WGs can be instantiated and closed (by IESG)


Working Groups exist within an Area (currently 8 areas,
i.e. ENUM WG is part of Transport Area)


An area is managed by an Area Director


Area Directors are members of the IESG (Internet
Engineering Steering Group)


The IESG and IAB (Internet Architecture Board) is
chartered by the Internet Society


ENUM in a nutshell RFC 2916



take phone number

+1 571 434 5651



turn it into a FQDN

1.5.6.5.4.3.4.7.5.1.e164.arpa.



return list of URI’s

sip:richard.shockey@neustar.biz



ask the DNS

Step 1 Explanation


Each digit in the FQDN can become a definable
and distributed “zone” in DNS terms


Delegation can (biut doesn’t have to) happen at
every digit, including at last digit


Zones such as country codes, area codes or
primary delegated blocks of numbers can be
delegated as well as individual numbers


DNS defines authoritative name servers (NS
records) for NAPTR/service resource records

The ENUM Delegation Tiers

The Response from the DNS


Input:


$ORIGIN.
1.5.6.5.4.3.4.1.7.5.1.e164.arpa


Output: All NAPTR RR will be returned to resolver

In this response the preferred contact method is SIP


ord pr fl service regexp replacement

IN NAPTR 100 10 "u" “E2U+sip" "!^.*$!sip:15714345651@carrier.net!" .

IN NAPTR 100 15 "u" “E2U+VPIM" "!^.*$!vpimserver1.carrier.net!" .

IN NAPTR 100 20 "u" “E2U+fax" "!^.*$!mailto:faxmachine4@neustar.biz!"
.



Based on service requirements defined by the enumservice
field, translate replacement field into URL and execute as
required



ENUM WG


RFC 2916 bis is the update of RFC 2916:

draft
-
ietf
-
enum
-
rfc2916bis
-
07.txt


RFC number due at any moment


Main differences are


ENUM is now a DDDS application


enumservice field has changed


enumservices have to be registered with IANA


DNS security mentioned


Clarifications on text



Addressing is the most important asset in ANY network service!


People know how to use Telephone Numbers


Telephone numbering system (E.164 is stable global and reliable


Billions of devices only use numeric key pads, especially wireless


In the case of Local Number Portability (FCC First Order and Report), MCI
has stated that, based on a nationwide Gallup survey, 83 percent of business
customers and 80 percent of residential customers would be unlikely to
change service providers if they had to change their telephone numbers.



ENUM is perhaps the ultimate in number portability


VoIP and new IP Services (Instant Messaging, Video) can use Real Telephone
Numbers!


URIs like sip:user@domain have advantages and disadvantages


Biggest problem they cannot be dialed on the PSTN


In fact they cannot be dialed at all …


URI’s and telephone numbers will co
-
exist for the indefinite future


Why E.164 Numbers for VoIP?


An URI (Address of Record) mapped to E.164 ENUM
FQDN number allows you:


Reach any destination IP C/UA directly from IP by dialing the
full E.164 number as default



support for multiple dialing plans possible including
corporate dial plans in a separate tree



see I
-
D: draft
-
stastny
-
enum
-
numbering
-
voip
-
00.txt



In the future, if ENUM and SS7 can be integrated you
can reach destinations on IP from the PSTN/ISDN as
well


When does a C5 do a ENUM dip?

ENUM as glue

ENUM is a DDDS Application


Dynamic Delegation Discovery System,

RFC 3401 through RFC 3405


RFC 3401 is the base document, but you have to
read at least RFC 3401 through RFC 3404 to
understand DDDS


RFC 3402 specifies the Algorithm of DDDS


RFC 3403 specifies the NAPTR Resource Record


Oh BTW ..Its about SIP


Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) protocol


It is the
Session
Initiation Protocol


Integration of Voice
-
Text
-
Video “sessions”


Inventors: M. Handley, H. Schulzrinne, E. Schooler, and J.
Rosenberg


Became “Proposed Standard” and RFC 2543 in March 1999
in MMUSIC WG.


Separate SIP WG established in September 1999.


Now new SIPPING (applications) and SIMPLE (presence
and instant messaging) WGs using SIP.


RFC2543bis
-
09 I
-
D became RFC 3261 in June 2002


Added four new authors: G. Camarillo, A. Johnston, J.
Peterson, and R. Sparks.


Entire spec rewritten for clarity, but some new features


Mostly backwards compatible with RFC 2543


Simple ENUM/SIP Call Flow SIP RFC 3261


ENUM Global Directory (DNS) Equates +1
-
202
-
555
-
1234 to sip:mark@carrier.net to
enable Voice over IP using SIP

1. The caller
simply dials the
person’s normal
telephone number

2. Calling party proxy UAC queries
DNS for location of end point

3. DNS returns NAPTR record
containing SIP URL to Calling Party
UA

4. Calling party UA connects the call


ENUM is tightly linked with
numbering administrations and
therefore within the national
regulatory framework


aka Country Code 1
-

NANP


Deployment of ENUM is also tightly
linked with the deployment of VoIP


Deployment of ENUM involves
NRA's and Registries (in Europe
primarily the ccTLD's)


Who those registries are a national
matter


Surprise Surprise there are lots of
Political questions to be answered

ENUM and VoIP as a Hot Potato

How do you use ENUM for?

1.
Business: with IP PBX or IP Centrex


core activity


using geographic and/or numbers for networks (opt
-
in)


linking IP islands together globally via the Internet

2.
Residential: with my geographic number or mobile (opt
-
in)


secondary line or as primary line (ported out)

3.
Network to Network ...the Private ENUM issue.

1.
Cable Operators

2.
Inter
-
Intra Enterprise Dial Plan Management

4.
Residential and Business: ENUM
-
only number ( European Focus )


IP device can be reached from PSTN and IP


calls may be dumped to IP in the originating network using IP specific
prefixes like 050 in Japan


Not possible in NANP due to NPA restrictions (non service specific)

Public ENUM Vs Operator ENUM



Public ENUM

is the administrative policies and procedures surrounding
the administration of e164.arpa as defined in RFC 2916


1 to 1 mapping of E.164 number to URI’s


Nation State Control




Generally speaking Consumer Opt In ( Consumer Control of the
NAPTR records)



Operator (Private) ENUM

is the use of DNS technology
described

in RFC
2916 in other domains.


A Managed Service


Service Provider or Enterprise Controlled


Non Visible to the the general Internet user


VPN’s


Access Control to the Data


Global Enterprise VoIP Dial Plan


IBM is deploying the biggest VoIP
network of any major Fortune 500
company


IBM can unite global VoIP dialing
plans across existing VPN and
Intranet Links on diverse vendor
Platforms


ENUM unites them through
common administration and access
plan


ENUM

Public or

Internal







MSO Market : Optimal Service Routing


MSO can now optimize VoIP
call termination strategies by
routing calls directly from
one operator to another

ENUM acts a element in a
overall Least Cost Routing
Strategy


Essentially “Friends and
Family” dialing plans among
MSO’s

ENUM

e164mso.net



1999
-

IETF ENUM WG formed


Sept. 2000


IETF ENUM WG


RFC2916


2001


Various Workshops (ITU
-
T, Europe, US, Asia, …)


2002


ITU
-
T Interim Procedures (IAB, RIPE
-
NCC)




ITU
-
T generic TLD Investigation




ETSI TS 102 051 "ENUM Administration in Europe"


2003


ETSI TS 102 172 "Minimum Requirements for


Interoperability of European ENUM Trials"




IETF various enumservices on standards track




IETF RFC2916bis WGLC


2004


Planned:




IETF new ENUM RFC, IANA registered enumservices




ITU
-
T final decision on ENUM domain




ETSI ENUM Workshop (Feb 2004) and Plugtest

(Very short) ENUM History


2002


US ENUM Forum




Trial Platforms in AT, UK, SE, DE, CN, N*…




Austrian ENUM Trial in operation (Sept. 2002)


2003


Various national and international ENUM Trials


using different scenarios and numbering resources


and using different ENUM
-
enabled products




National and international demos and presentations


(IETF, ITU
-
T, VON, ICANN, …)




SIP communities start using ENUM


(FWD, Sipphone, iptel, at43, …)




Pre
-
commercial deployment starts


2004


ENUM ready for production and deployment


(at least in some countries)

(Very short) ENUM Trial History

The IAB


ITU Agreements


Core Principal


Nation
-
State control of the national portions of the
e164.arpa tree.



[RFC3026] Blaine, R. "Liaison to IETF/ISOC on ENUM" RFC 3026,
January 2001


[RFC 3245] Klensin, J. Editor "The History and Context of Telephone

Number Mapping (ENUM) Operational Decisions:


Informational
Documents Contributed to ITU
-
T Study Group 2


(SG2)", RFC 3245,
March 2000



Interim Procedures for the delegation of E.164 Shared Country Codes


for Networks and Groups of Countries;




http://www.itu.int/ITU
-
T/inr/enum/procedures.html


http://www.itu.int/ITU
-
T/inr/enum/procedures
-
02.html


Large Scale Trial on IP Communications using ENUM


University of Vienna ~100.000 Students


re
-
use of existing student account credentials via RADIUS


iptel.org SIP Express Router as SIP proxy with call routing, ENUM processing,

PSTN interworking


some functions based on Asterisk open
-
source IP
-
PBX:


voice
-
mail, conference bridge, IVR,


PSTN Connection: CISCO 5300 PSTN/ISDN Gateway with PRA


Various Soft
-

and Hard
-
phones, WiFi
-
Phones,



IP Connection to other universities, communities and "IP
-
PBX"


Applications: Crash test for VoIP, Chat, IM, Presence,
SMS, use of SIM
-
Cards



IP calls free, PSTN
-
>IP calls by caller; IP
-
>PSTN with call
-
by
-
call accounting


Naming, Numbering and Addressing with ENUM


Base:




sip:<student
-
id>@sip.univie.ac.at


Austrian number for private networks:

+43 59966 nnnnnn


global UPT number:



+87810 2843 nnnnnn



ORIGIN 6.6.9.9.5.3.4.e164.arpa.


*

NAPTR 100 10 "u" "E2U+sip" "!^
\
\
+4359966(.*)$!sip:
\
\
1@sip.univie.ac.at!" .

Large Scale IPC Trial at43

DNS Technology as a replacement for SS7




ENUM/DNS and or SIP can provide a more sophisticated, less expensive and
easier to deploy Number Translation Services for service providers.



The natural evolution of NextGen telephony signaling systems



SCP costs 1 Million Dollars + PRI’s + per dip charges



DNS Box 25 K maximum BIND9



SS7 signaling

is complicated, expensive and disruptive in an all IP architecture


Number Portability
-

Geographic number to routing number mapping (NP dip)


http://search.ietf.org/internet
-
drafts/draft
-
yu
-
tel
-
url
-
02.txt



It’s there


It works… It’s global… It scales… It’s open…




Public ENUM Status
-

What about the US?

US DOMESTIC POLICY


August 13, 2003


United States Government reiterates its support for RFC
2916 and endorses moving forward with ENUM based
on the concept of a Industry Managed LLC


LLC is forming NOW !


Similar to Number Portability Structure


http://www.ntia.doc.gov/ntiahome/press/2003/enum
_08132003.htm


United States ENUM Forum
-

Created by industry to develop
policy and steps to Implement ENUM in the United States


http://www.enumf.org


Participants include WCOM, ATT, Sprint, SBC, Verizon,
NeuStar, Cox , C&W, Cisco, Telcordia








ENUM Global Status


23 Active National Trials

EUROPE


UK National Trials Well Underway 2003


http://www.ukenumgroup.org/


Austrian National ENUM trials have begun
with AT
-
NIC


http://www.enum.nic.at


Jointly working on 822
-
10 ITU
-
UPT code as
well


http://www.visionng.org


Sweden running since Dec 2002..


http://enum.autonomica.se/


ITU ENUM web pages


http://www.itu.int/osg/spu/enum/index.html





ENUM Global Status


National Forums


JAPAN



http://etjp.jp/english/


Poland


http://www.dns.pl/ENUM/


Korea


http://www.enum.or.kr/


The Netherlands, Germany, Brazil, China


Approved ENUM Delegation list


http://www.ripe.net/enum/request
-
archives/


ETSI Plugfest


http://www.etsi.org/plugtests/calendar.htm








ENUM technology works,


Most problems solved, but shift in focus for the business
models.


The original business model of ENUM for residential subscribers
with
opt
-
in for existing numbers

has problems:


Potentially it's only a second line service


911 issues


privacy problems with multiple services (e
-
mail spam)


Validation and re
-
validation of the number holder problem


How to enable Metcalfe's Law?


The usefulness, or utility, of a network equals the square of the
number of users



Lessons learnt in the ENUM Trials

IETF Work Today


Privacy Security


Operational Experience


servicefield IANA registration


SIP


H.323


Presence


FAX


T.30 and Internet Fax


VPIM


web
-

msg

Privacy and Security issue


http://www.shockey.us/enum/draft
-
ietf
-
enum
-
privacy
-
security
-
01.txt



What is ENUM


Calling party control




Global Directory Service


List all available URI for all possible services ?


Called Party control
-

IMHO the answer


Minimal Routing Data Base


SIP AOR only


Let SIP do the dirty work

Security / Authentication issues


What about DNSSEC


Its not ready yet. Period.



Who can register the TN and why?


Punt


It’s a national issue


How do you determine if the ENUM
registrant has valid rights to the number?


Punt


It’s a national issue

IETF ENUM WG TBD


Provisioning protocols the ENUM system


Tier 1 Tier 2 interactions (SOAP ?)


XML object based on PROVREG work ?


WHOIS ?


Strong technical reasons for wanting a WHOIS
like service here


CRISP (aka not port 43)?


The IRIS protocol ?

IRIS


Developed in IETF to provide capability sets existing in
telecom Intelligent Network environment


Text based protocol designed to allow registries of Internet
resources


to express query and result types specific to their needs


while providing a framework for authentication, structured data, entity
references and search continuations


Encompasses the following


a decentralized system using DNS hierarchies where
possible for location


built upon standard Internet building blocks


does not impose any informational trees or matrices


may be used with multiple application transports, including
BEEP


IRIS Features


XML based


Internationalization


Localization of data tags and content


Identifying contact equivalences


Support of Internationalized Domain Names


Unified Service


Structured queries and results


Distinction


Authentication


the process used to verify the identity of a user


Authorization


the access policies applied to a user based on
authentication



Questions

Contact, not
Content, is King


Douglas Rushkoff