Marine Microbiology and Biotechnology: An Overview

mumpsimuskneesBiotechnology

Feb 12, 2013 (4 years and 8 months ago)

324 views

Marine Microbiology
and Biotechnology:
An Overview
N. Ramaiah
National Institute of Oceanography,
Dona Paula,Goa
The Vast Ocean
The Vast Ocean
365 million Sq Km
Up to 11 Km Deep
Earth’s Largest Ecosystem
Home for Simple to Unique creatures
Offers Many Benefits to Mankind
Our Heritage for now and FOREVER
Life at Sea
Abundant
Ubiquitous
Highly Diverse
Self - Sustaining
Climate Controller
Auto to Heterotrophic
Micro to Megaloscopic
New-Age Biotech Spinner
What else??
Major Groups of Organisms in Marine Realm
Viruses Yet to know of’em
Bacteria (0.1 to 4 m):
Highly Diverse
Fungi
very valuable
Phytoplankton (microscopic autotrophic):
>3000 spp
Microzooplankton (20 <200 m)
???
Mesozooplankton (200 m to 2 cm):
>30000 species
Megaloplankton (Jelly fishes) Can Trap fish!!
Benthos (bottom dwelling):Demersal Fishery
Nekton (Fishes to Whales):Major Sea Harvest
Seaweeds (Submerged, floating macrophytes):Foods, Cosmetics
Mangroves (Marine-edge vegetation):Coast protectors
Marine Birds (Petrels to Albatrosses, penguins):Top order predators
Marine Food Chain
Nutrients(NO
3
)
Mesozooplankton
Phytoplankton
Planktivores
Piscivores
More
nutrients
More
nutrients
High
Phytoplankton
High
Phytoplankton
High
Zooplankton
High
Zooplankton
PHYSICS > CHEMISTRY > BIOLOGY
Southwest Monsoon Northeast Mons
NO
3
NO
3
Sunlight is a MUST for Ocean Productivity
“Biological Pump” and C flow through marine food web
Bacterial respiration & DOC uptake lead to ‘non-sinking’ C pool
Photosynthesis: CO
2
+H
2
O light (CH2O)
n
+O
2
Respiration:(CH
2
O)
n
+O
2
Metabolism CO
2
+H
2
O
Bio-essential Elements
Major-- C, H, N, S, P, O, Ca
Minor-- Fe, Si,Mn, Co, Cu, Na, K
Biodegradation
•Most Essential Ecological Function
•Mostly Hbac domain
•Often Hbac sole agents of element regeneration
Ubiquitous
Bags of enzymes
Nutritionally versatile
Patient but fast to respond
Assimilate D O M
Highly diverse
How & why are bacteria relevant in Ocean Biology?
HSV
Single Cell:
Senses
Avoids
Transports
Processes
Multiplies
Bacterium:Basic Biological
Functional Unit
DAPI stained; 1100X
Major Bio-Processes
Hbac Role
Photosynthesis Nutrient Regeneration
Secondary Production Consumers; Producers
Tertiary Production Probiotic; Pathogenic
Denitrification Alter water-column chemistry
Microbial Loop Alternate food chain
Material Fluxes Transforming, life-extending
Marine Pollution- “Bacterio-remediation”




Marine photosynthesis
Organic Biomass
Dead Organic Matter
DECAY BACTERIA
Inorganic Dissolved Nutrients
NO
3
; PO
4
; SiO
3
; CO
2
;H
2
S
Marine Chemosynthesis
Bacteria supply Nutrients to phytoplankton
Symbiosis in Marine Environment
42 families of fishes and 17 species of squids
benefit from Luminescent bacterial symbionts
Big Bugs Baffle Biologists!
Epulopiscium fishelsoni 600 m
Epulopiscium fishelsoni
Ebola 1

m
Thiomargarita namibiensis 750

m dia
sulfur pearl
of Namibia
Still larger Bacteria,Viruses?
Hemidiscus hardmanianus
Thalassiosira sp
Biddulphia
Fragilaria doliolus
Navicula septentronalis
Trichodesmium
Ditylumbrightwellii
Chaetoceros lorenzianus
Thalassiosira sp
Marine Phytoplankton: Diverse, Pivotal, Oxygenic
Helicostomella Rotifer
Leprotintinnus
Dinophysis caudata
Bacteria-eating micro-animals are food for bigger animals
Bacterivory common in most Microfauna
Mesozooplankton
Variety
Wide Distribution
Grazers on PP
Link PP to Fish
Vertical migration
Aid Organic Flux
Classical & Microbial Food-webs
CO2
Nutrients
CO
2
Nutrients
Phytoplankton
Herbivores
Piscivores
Planktivores
Bacteria
Protozoans
DOC
NEM
SWM
Microbial loop
with Bacteria at the base
operates during
SpIM Sustaining
Mesozooplankton
Madhupratap et al 1996
0
100
200
300
400
MZP
Microzooplankton
0
50
100
150
Chl a
Chlorophyll a
0
10
20
30
40
50
Mesozooplankton
Living Carbon
biomass
(M mol C m
-2
)
0
4
8
12
Bact
SPIM
NEM
SWM
Bacteria
120
80
40
Diurnal Migrations & POM Flux
Microheterotrophs in the deep benefit from gut-droppings!!
S. universus
Marine Fungi
Aid Nutrient cycling
Rich in novel enzymes
Many unknown yet
Pathogenic strains
Paleobiology tools???
Raghukumar et al 2004
Direct detection of fungi in the deep-sea sediments
Fungal spores deposited some 430000 years ago!!!
Marine Biology will continue to fascinate and yield
new results for more times to come
Biotechnology:
 High yielding produces from agriculture,
animal husbandry and aquaculture with
better returns per unit effort/cost
Application of technology to modify organisms
in whole or in part to produce desired results
ranging from agriculture to medicine
Modern-day Definition: Scientific manipulation of living
organisms, especially at the molecular genetic level, to
produce useful products
Gene splicing and use of recombinant DNA are major techniques
now in use
Map the Genome, Hack the Genome
Marine Bacterial Usefulness
Environmental quality indicators
Food for reared microplankton
Pollution clean-up
Probiotics
Enzymes
Dunaliella salina
Microscopic
A green alga
Rich in Carotenoids
Glycerol up to half its weight
I
I
I
I
I
NIO Dona Paula, Goa.
Artemia salina:
Baby-fish food
Rich in 3 Fatty acids
Can be hatched from cysts
Cysts storable for long periods
Aquaculture in India has brought two crucial changes to
the seafood industry:
Consistency in fish-supply and lower prices
Has seen companies breeding fish to improve
growth rate and fertility,feed conversion,
resistance to disease,tolerance to cold and poor
quality water
Aquaculture: a catalyst for Blue Revolution in India
Newspaper De-inking Through Microbial Means
Pulping used newsprints
Microbial treatment
No added chemicals
Pollution free
Economical
Human health concerns
Environmental releases
Slow, time-taking
Not yet popular
Scope for improvement
NIO Invention
Fungal Enzymes for
Waste Bioremediation
Environment-
Friendly
Technologies
Reduce
Chemicals
Usage
Save
Energy
Money
0
10
20
30
40
2 4 6 8
2 4 6 8

Vibrio harveyi
(DP1)
Pseudomonas
sp (CH07)


Time (days)

Tributyrin hydrolysis (%)
Hydrocarbon degradation by Marine Bacteria
Opportunities in Biotechnology are infinite
Low Volume High Value Products
>50% processed food sold in US biotech altered!
Research turn-over Rapid(>25 papers daily
21
st
Century: Biotech Century
Fungus to Kill Malarial Host
New Marine Candidates for Aquaculture Blue Revolution
Need of the Hour: Understand their microbiology better
M
M
M
M
M
M
M
N I O GAO
Combining Traditional Practices and Modern Technology:
Bring many Benefits from Marine Biota