Industrial Microbiology Course Book For 4 - University of Sulaimani

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Feb 12, 2013 (4 years and 5 months ago)

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University of Sulaimani

College of Science
Department of Biology



Industrial Microbiology Course Book
For 4
th
year B.Sc. students
Academic year 2010-2011





List of contents

- Course information
- Course lecturer
- Course overview
- Course objectives
- Course reading list and references
- Syllabus
- Subjects
- Study guide question


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Course information

Course title: Industrail Microbiology
Stage: 4
th
year B.Sc. students
College: Science
Department: Biology
Course meeting schedule: 2 hours per a week for 14 weeks (theory)
Location: Hall 1

Course lecturer

Dr. Huner Hiwa Arif Baban
Scientific degree: Instructor
Tel.: 0770 142 8820 (mobile)
E-mail:
huner.arif@univsul.net

(far and away the best way of contacting me)
Office hours: Anytime (but please call ahead to be sure I'm there)

Coordinators’s name:

Dr. Trifa Kamal Jalal
Tel.: 0770 503 8911 (mobile)
E-mail: trifakamal_57@yahoo.com

Course overview:

Industrial microbiology or microbial biotechnology encompasses the use of
microorganisms in the manufacture of food or industrial products. The use
of microorganisms for the production of food, either human or animal, is
often considered a branch of food microbiology. The microorganisms used
in industrial processes may be natural isolates, laboratory selected mutants

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or genetically engineered organisms. This course explores microbiological
industry development, scope of microbiological industries, microbes in
microbiological industries, biomass and metabolite production, microbes in
mine industries, microbes in waste treatment industries. Introduction to
industrial microbial covering suitability of microbes in industrial processes
and their source, types of fermentation’s and bioreactors, substrates for
industrial fermentations, growth kinetics in batch and continuous
fermentation processes, strain improvement, and recent developments in
industrial microbiology.
1. Design of a fermentor instrumentation and control.
2. Methods for the recovery and purification of fermentation products (down
stream processing).
3. Economic aspects of fermentation processes.
4. Production aspects (microbial strains, substrate, flow diagrams, product
optimization, and applications) of the following :
Industrial alcohol and alcoholic beverages; organic acids (citric, lactic,
acetic); enzymes (Extracellular), and immobilizedenzymes; Vitamins (Vit.
B12 and riboflavin); antibiotics-β-lactam (Penicillin), aminoacids, microbial
transformations to steriods and steriols, nonsteriod compounds and
antibiotics; single cell protein; polysaccharides; recombinant DNA products-
insulin, somatostatin, interferon; and microbial insecticides
.


Course and instructional objectives (Learning outcomes/student
objectives):

By taking this course and at the end of this course, students will be able to:
1. Students are provided with understanding and knowledge on the value of
microbes in life rather than as disease agents. It is expected that the students

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will be motivated to develop their innovation on exploiting microbes for
positive purposes in human living.
2. Appreciate the use of microorganisms for the production of value added
commodities.
3. Understand the working of a fermentation system.
4. Identify suitable downstream processing methods.
5. To describe key industrial bioprocesses, from the traditional to the
recently evolved.
6. Discuss/predict possible future developments in microbially based
industries in the context of developing technologies.

7. Integrate biological and engineering principles involved in the production
and recovery of commercial products.
8. Develop critical thinking skills and learn to employ a quantitative,
scientific approach towards conversion of biological materials to value
added products.
9. Work in small groups for certain assignments and thereby acquire
teamwork skills.
10. Develop a research mind-set to solve problems and explore new
opportunities as bioprocess engineers.
11. Create awareness among students about the various opportunities
available to them for conversion of biological material to add value.


Course reading list and references:

Text book (required):
1. Microbiology; a text book for university students (2
nd
Edn.; reprint, 1998);
P. D. Sharma.

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2. Microbiology (5
th
Edn., 2002); Lansing M. Prescott, John P. Harely &
Donald A. Klein.
3. Brock Biology Of Microorganisms (11
th
Edn., 2006); Michael T. Madigan
& John M. Martinko.

Text book (recommended):
1. Industrial Microbiology: An Introduction (2001); Michael J. Waites, Neil
L. Morgan, John S. Rockey & Gary Higton.
2. Biology of Industrial microorganisms (1981); Arnold L. Demain.
3. Prescott & Dunn’s Industrial microbiology (1987); G. Reed.
4. Modern Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology (2007); Nduka
Okafor.
5. Textbook of Industrial Microbiology (2000), A. H. Patel.
6. Industrial Microbiology (1991), L. E. Cassida.
7. Industrial Microbiology, fundamentals and applications (2008), A. K.
Agrawal and Pradeep Parihar.
8. Biotechnology: a text book of industrial microbiology (1990); Wulf
Crueger, Anneliese Crueger, Thomas D. Brock.

Journals:

1. Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology.
2. Applied Microbiology & Biotechnology.
3. Journal of Applied Microbiology.
4. Frontiers In Microbiotechnology & Industrial Microbiology.
5. Biotechnology Advances.
6. Journal of Bioscience & Bioengineering.
7. Journal of Biotechnology.

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Useful websites on food safety (electronic helping sites):

The internet include a huge and valuable resource with many sites of interest
to industrial microbiology. The following are a few list of many of which
will help you to other important related sites.
1. Society for Industrial Microbiology
http://www.simhq.org/

2. China National Information Center of Industrial Microbiology
http://www.clii.com.cn/


Syllabus:
Week
No.
Topic
1
Introduction, historical background, choosing microorganisms for
industrial microbiology & biotechnology
2
Factors affecting growth of industrial microbiology, primary &
secondary metabolites, preservation of strains
3
Improvement of strains for industrial purposes
4
Fermenters & fermentation processes, m.o growth in controlled
environments
5
Major products of industrial microbiology, antibiotics, enzymes, organic
acids, … etc.
6
Food and beverage biotechnology, fermented foods, alcoholic beverages
(beer, wine, …etc.)
7
Single cell protein (SCP), production of biomass
8
microbial recovery of petroleum, enhanced recovery of metals
(bioleaching), bioplastics.
9
Medical biotechnology, human proteins, vaccines, probiotics &
biosensors
10
Biological fuel generation (biogas), ethanol, CH
4
, …. etc.
11
Industrial biotechnology, enzyme immobilization & cells
12
Ricombinant DNA technology & industrial microbiology
13
Environmental biotechnology, biodegradation/bioremediation of toxic
chemicals and hazardous waste




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Subjects:

Subject 1:
Lecturer’s name: Dr. Huner Hiwa Arif
Subject objective: includes an introduction, history and development of
industrial microbiology. Introduction to industrial microbial covering
suitability of microbes in industrial processes and their source. Industrial
strains. Strategies for selection, improvement and maintenance.
Scientific content of the subject:
- General concepts of industrial microbiology.
- Historical backgrounds (history and development of industrial
microbiology).
- Definitions of fermentation, biotechnology.
- Microorganisms and industrial microbiology.
Subject references:
- Modern Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology (2007); Nduka Okafor.

Subject 2:
Subject objective: includes factors affecting growth of industrial
microbiology, primary & secondary metabolites, preservation of strains,
effect of environment (temperature, pH, high nutrient concentration), growth
stoichiometry, maintenance energy requirement and maximum biomass,
yield, P/O quotients, metabolite overproduction and growth efficiency.
Scientific content of the subject:
- Primary and secondary screening
- Strain development strategies.
- Preservation of microorganisms.


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Subject references:
- Modern Industrial Microbiology and Biotechnology (2007); Nduka Okafor.

Subject 3:
Subject objective: includes improvement of strains for industrial purposes,
genetic manipulation of microorganisms, transfer of genetic information
between different organisms.

Scientific content of the subject:

- Mutation.
- Recombinant DNA technology.
- Natural genetic engineering.
Subject references:
- Brock Biology Of Microorganisms (11
th
Edn., 2006); Michael T. Madigan
& John M. Martinko.

Subject 4:
Subject objective: includes types of fermentation’s and bioreactors,
substrates for industrial fermentations, growth kinetics in batch and
continuous fermentation processes, strain improvement, and recent
developments in industrial microbiology. Design of a fermentor
instrumentation and control. Methods for the recovery and purification of
fermentation products (down stream processing). Knetics of thermal death of
microorganisms, batch and continuous sterilization. Shake flask, stirred tank
airlift fermenter, fed batch continuous and immobilized cell reactor.
Scientific content of the subject:
-Media formulation and Types of fermentations processes.
-Design of typical batch fermentor.

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-Factors affecting fermentor design.
-Control of agitation, aeration, pH, temperature and dissolved oxygen.
-Types of fermentors.
- Inoculum development.
-Scale up of fermentation process.
-Raw material for media preparation.
-Harvesting and product recovery.
-Economic aspects of fermentation processes
.

Subject references:
- Microbiology; a text book for university students (2
nd
Edn.; reprint, 1998);
P. D. Sharma.

Subject 5:
Subject objective: Production aspects (microbial strains, substrate, flow
diagrams, product optimization, and applications) of antibiotics,

organic
acids (citric, lactic, acetic, propionic, gluconic, itaconic, gibberellic acids;
aminoacids (glutamic, lysine, tryptophan and asparatame); enzymes
(Extracellular amylases, proteases, pectinases, lipases, cellulases, xylanases,
and intracellular-glucose isomerase, invertase, asparaginase penicillin
acylase, lactase)

Scientific content of the subject:
- Industrial production of Penicillin and semi-synthetic penicillins.
- Industrial production of amino acids.
- Industrial production of organic acids.
- Industrial production of enzymes.



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Subject references:
- Microbiology (5
th
Edn., 2002); Lansing M. Prescott, John P. Harely &
Donald A. Klein.

Subject 6:
Subject objective: includes production of alcoholic beverages such as beers
and ales, alcohol-producing microorganisms.
Scientific content of the subject:
- Food and beverage biotechnology.
- Fermented foods.
- Alcoholic beverages (beer, wine, …etc.).
- Ethanol production.
Subject references:
- Microbiology (5
th
Edn., 2002); Lansing M. Prescott, John P. Harely &
Donald A. Klein.

Subject 7:
Subject objective: includes single cell protein (SCP) production, sources of
mixed protein extracted from pure or mixed cultures of algae, yeasts, fungi
or bacteria grown on agricultural wastes used as a substitute for protein-rich
foods in human and animal feeds, production process.
Scientific content of the subject:
- Indirect vs. direct production.
- Advantage of production.
- Food from oil.



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Subject references:
- Microbiology (5
th
Edn., 2002); Lansing M. Prescott, John P. Harely &
Donald A. Klein.

Subject 8:
Subject objective: includes microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR),
improved oil production, enhanced recovery of metals (bioleaching),
bioplastics, bio-fuels.
Scientific content of the subject:
- MEOR advantages and disadvantages.
- Hydrocarbon utilizes.
- Bioleaching.
- Bioplastics.
- Bio-fuels (ethanol and methane).
Subject references:
- Brock Biology Of Microorganisms (11
th
Edn., 2006); Michael T. Madigan
& John M. Martinko.

Subject 9:
Subject objective: includes production and diversification of antibodies,
vaccines, probiotics, biosensors.
Scientific content of the subject:
- Human proteins.
- Vaccines.
- Biosensors.

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Subject references:
- Brock Biology Of Microorganisms (11
th
Edn., 2006); Michael T. Madigan
& John M. Martinko.

Subject 10:
Subject objective: includes biological production of biogas (ethanol and
methane), methanogenic bacteria (human and animal wastes).
Scientific content of the subject:
- Renewable fuel (synthetic fuels).
- Anaerobic digestion.
Subject references:
- Microbiology; a text book for university students (2
nd
Edn.; reprint, 1998);
P. D. Sharma.

Subject 11:
Subject objective: Immobilization, development of immobilizaiton
techniques, specific examples of immobilized microbial enzymes useful in
food systems and biotechnology, immobilized enzymes and cell reactors.

Scientific content of the subject:
- Adsorption.
- Entrapment.
- Cross linkage.
Subject references:
- Industrial Microbiology: An Introduction (2001); Michael J. Waites, Neil
L. Morgan, John S. Rockey & Gary Higton.



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Subject 12:
Subject objective: includes recombinant DNA products-insulin,
somatostatin, interferon, recombinant protein drugs
Scientific content of the subject:
- Recombinant drugs.
- Humulin N (Insulin (Human Recombinant)) drug
Subject references:
- Industrial Microbiology: An Introduction (2001); Michael J. Waites, Neil
L. Morgan, John S. Rockey & Gary Higton.

Subject 13:
Subject objective: includes environmental biotechnology,
biodegradation/bioremediation of toxic chemicals and hazardous waste.

Scientific content of the subject:
- Industrial biotechnology.
- Microbial bioremediation.
Subject references:
- Microbiology; a text book for university students (2
nd
Edn.; reprint, 1998);
P. D. Sharma.









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- Study Guide Question (model questions)
A. Multiple choice questions (MCQ): e.g.
1.

Lyophilization is synonymous with:

Freeze-drying B.

Pasteurization C. Filtration D. Spoilage E. Fermentation
A

2. Continuous feed during fermentation is used to maintain
A. temperature. B. water level. C. product concentration. substrate concentration.
D
E. cell number.

3. Amino acids are used as food additives for which of the following reasons?
A. As natural antibiotics B. As natural growth inhibitors For nutritive purposes
C
D. As antioxidants E. As food preservatives

B. True and False questions: e.g
(F) 1. Protoplast fusion only works between closely related organisms as a method to
transfer genetic information.
(F) 2. Scaleup from a small culture to an extremely large one is a very straightforward
process.
(F) Rapid production of Penicillium cells, which can occur when high levels of glucose
are used as a carbon source, leads to maximum antibiotic yields.


C. Definitions: e.g
Define the following terms:

1. Secondary metabolites: are produced near the onset of stationary phase and synthesized
after the growth phase nears completion and not essential for growth. e.g. : antibiotics,
statins, citric acid.
2. Styrene: also known as vinyl benzene, is a solid plastic made by polymerization of
styrene gas and now a new method of producing PHA involves using styrene. Styrene, an
industrial waste byproduct of polystyrene and the microbe Pseudomonas putida converts
styrene to PHA.

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3. Biotechnology: Industrial microbiology and biotechnology both involve the use of m.o
s

to achieve specific goals. Biotechnology include various forms of technology that
exploits biological sources usually m.o
s
and/or their products and components

D. Mention the cause(s) questions: e.g
1. Using copper (Cu) to counteract the inhibition of citric acid production by Aspergillus
niger?
The essence of citric acid fermentation involves limiting the amounts of trace metals such
as manganese and iron to stop A. niger growth at a specific point in the fermentation
(production is very sensitive to iron and it has to be scavenged from the medium, so
copper has been found to counteract the inhibition of citric acid production by iron above
0.2 ppm.

2. Identifying suitable high-temperature enzymes which they would prove desirable in the
case of certain industrial processes as high temperature operation?
Such enzymes would prove desirable in the case of certain industrial processes as high
temperature operation would:
- reduce viscosity of processing fluid (e.g. in the case of starch hydrolysis);
- discourage microbial growth (important in food applications);
- render many reaction substrates more soluble/susceptible to hydrolysis.
Furthermore, thermostable enzymes are usually more resistant to inactivation by other
denaturing influences such as detergents, organic solvents and oxidizing agents.

3. Addition of various gums such as xanthan in liquid state fermentation (LSF)?
Most fungi are sensitive to shearing. Fungi which are characterized by having coenocytic
or aseptate hyphae are highly shear sensitive (forces that disrupt the cell due to mixing),
whereas fungi with septate hyphae are less sensitive. Several methods can be applied to
reduce the amount of shear stress applied to the cells. First a reduction in the speed of
mixing can be adopted or the addition of various gums such as xanthan gum can be used
to protect the cells.

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D. Compositional questions: e.g
1. An industrial microorganisms must be distinguished from others by a number of
characters. What are these characters?
- be genetically stable and amenable to genetic manipulation.
- be non-pathogenic.
- produce the product of interest in high yield.
- grow rapidly & easily on cheap culture media or waste material available in bulk
quantity such as corn steep liquor, whey, .. etc. .


2. How methane gas (CH
4
) as a biogas can be produced and which type of bacteria
responsible from the production?
Methane produced by methanogenic bacteria is also another potential energy source.
Methane is used for generation of mechanical, heat and electrical energy. Anaerobic
decomposition of waste materials produces large amounts of methane.
Many sewage treatment plants produce this fuel. Efficient generation of methane can be
achieved by using algal biomass grown in pond cultures, sewage sludge, municipal
refuse, plant residue and animal waste. Methanogens (archaebacteria) are obligate
anaerobes and produce CH
4
by reducing acetate and/or CO
2
.

Conversion of organic waste into methane
- Uncontrolled anaerobic digestion: e.g wetlands and ponds with landfills.
- Controlled anaerobic digestion: e.g sewage treatment plants with cattle manure
digesters.


3. Enumerate important properties of a fermentor design which include provision of many
feature?
- Adequate heat transfer.
- Efficient mixing of the culture.
- Adaptability to a range of operating conditions.
- Ease of scaleup from the laboratory or pilot stage to industrial use.
- Efficient oxygen-to-liquid transfer.



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