011 Chapter 11 Genomics

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Oct 1, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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011 Chapter 11 Genomics

Student: _________________________________________________________

1.


All of the genes and other DNA of an organism constitute its:


A.


genome

B.


introns

C.


multigene family

D.


polygenic makeup


2.


Comparing the

entire DNA content of different organisms is called:


A.


genomics

B.


genetics

C.


proteomics

D.


bioinformatics


3.


In the procedure known as gel electrophoresis, DNA fragments are separated by their:


A.


secondary structure

B.


el
ectrical charge

C.


size

D.


pH tolerance


4.


Groups of related but distinctly different genes that occur together in clusters are called:


A.


tandem clusters

B.


segmental duplications

C.


single
-
copy genes

D.


multigene families


5
.


Whole blocks of genes that have been copied from one chromosome to another are referred to
as:


A.


multigene families

B.


segmental duplications

C.


tandem clusters

D.


codons


6.


The new area of science that seeks to catalog and analyz
e every protein in the human body to
help understand the human genome is called:


A.


bioinformatics

B.


proteomics

C.


genomics

D.


molecular genetics


7.


The fastest growing area of research in genomics is:


A.


functional genomics

B.



bioinformatics

C.


advanced gel electrophoresis

D.


new PCR techniques


8.


Humans have 46 chromosomes. Gorillas, chimpanzees, and orangutans have 48. The explanation
is:


A.


that humans lost two chromosomes

B.


that gorillas, chimpanzees
, and orangutans gained two chromosomes

C.


that there was a splitting of two humans chromosomes in the gorillas, chimpanzees, and orangutans

D.


that there was fusion of two chromosomes in humans




9.


Protein
-
specifying fragments are known as:


A.


transposable elements

B.


tandem clusters

C.


introns

D.


exons


10.


The most effective way to analyze variation at the whole genome level is to use:


A.


structural DNA

B.


segmental duplications

C.


single nucleotide polymorph
isms

D.


a number of transposons


11.


Which of the following is NOT a transposable element?


A.


long interspersed elements (LINEs)

B.


single copy genes

C.


long terminal repeats (LTRs)

D.


ALUs


12.


The type of transposons that have
lost their signals for replication are called:


A.


LINES

B.


parasitic elements

C.


dead transposons

D.


ALU


13.


Of the following organisms, which has the largest genome size?


A.


the fruit fly
Drosophila

B.


Baker's yeast

C.


co
mmercial rice

D.


water cress


14.


Select an example of a palindrome from the choices below.


A.


G T C A T T

C A G T A A


B.


G G C A C C

C C G T G G


C.


G T G T A A

C A C A T T


D.


T T C A C C

A A G T G G


15.


How many genes consti
tute the human genome?


A.


more than 1 million

B.


500,000

C.


about 25,000

D.


46


16.


All of the proteins that an organism produces are referred to as its:


A.


proteome

B.


protein profile

C.


protein array

D.


proteomics out
line


17.


Tandem clusters allow:


A.


production of a huge amount of product in a very short time period

B.


production of several transposable elements necessary for rRNA acquisition

C.


production of multigene families in a small time frame,
especially during early development

D.


production of segmental duplications that are impossible with single
-
copy genes


18.


When comparing the genomes of a variety of organisms, what is most surprising?


A.


the number of differences between spec
ies

B.


the number of similarities between species

C.


how unrelated most genera are

D.


the number of base pairs used


19.


Bits of DNA that literally jump from one chromosome to another are:


A.


pseudogenes

B.


introns

C.


transposab
le elements

D.


tandem clusters


20.


Which of these is NOT a type of noncoding human DNA?


A.


structural DNA

B.


repeated sequences

C.


constitutive heterochromatin

D.


multigene families


21.


In 1977, _____________ was the first rese
archer to sequence a genome.


________________________________________

22.


Heat is used in DNA sequencing to _________ the double stands of the molecule.


________________________________________

23.


A discrete collection of gene fragments on a stamp
-
s
ized chip is called a ____________.


________________________________________

24.


SNP is an abbreviation for _________________________.


________________________________________

25.


The type of transposon jump most likely to cause a harmful mutation is

a(n)
___________________.


________________________________________

26.


The genes encoding rRNA are examples of __________________ of genes.


________________________________________

27.


The percentage of the human genome made up of structural DNA is
_________.


________________________________________

28.


Transposable elements make up ________ of the human genome.


________________________________________

29.


The field of study involved in sequencing the genomes of organisms is _____________.


___
_____________________________________

30.


The _________ is the closest relative to humans.


________________________________________

31.


What is the correct order of events for sequencing DNA?








32.


How is it possible that there are four times a
s many kinds of mRNA as there are genes in the
human genome?








33.


Genome duplication has led to polyploidy in plants. What event(s) led to the genome of rice?








34.


What is true about variation between individuals within the human genome?








35.


Explain bioinformatics?












011 Chapter 11 Genomics

KEY


1.


All of the genes and other DNA of an organism constitute its:


A


genome

b.


introns

c.


multigene family

d.


polygenic makeup


2.


Comparing the entire DNA conte
nt of different organisms is called:


A


genomics

b.


genetics

c.


proteomics

d.


bioinformatics


3.


In the procedure known as gel electrophoresis, DNA fragments are separated by their:


a.


secondary structure

b.


electrical charge

C


size

d.


pH tolerance


4.


Groups of related but distinctly different genes that occur together in clusters are called:


a.


tandem clusters

b.


segmental duplications

c.


single
-
copy genes

D


multigene families


5.


Whole blocks of
genes that have been copied from one chromosome to another are referred to
as:


a.


multigene families

B


segmental duplications

c.


tandem clusters

d.


codons


6.


The new area of science that seeks to catalog and analyze every protein in th
e human body to
help understand the human genome is called:


a.


bioinformatics

B


proteomics

c.


genomics

d.


molecular genetics


7.


The fastest growing area of research in genomics is:


a.


functional genomics

B


bioinformatics

c.


advanced gel electrophoresis

d.


new PCR techniques


8.


Humans have 46 chromosomes. Gorillas, chimpanzees, and orangutans have 48. The explanation
is:


a.


that humans lost two chromosomes

b.


that gorillas, chimpanzees, and orangutans gained

two chromosomes

c.


that there was a splitting of two humans chromosomes in the gorillas, chimpanzees, and orangutans

D


that there was fusion of two chromosomes in humans


9.


Protein
-
specifying fragments are known as:


a.


transposable elemen
ts

b.


tandem clusters

c.


introns

D


exons


10.


The most effective way to analyze variation at the whole genome level is to use:


a.


structural DNA

b.


segmental duplications

C


single nucleotide polymorphisms

d.


a number of tran
sposons


11.


Which of the following is NOT a transposable element?


a.


long interspersed elements (LINEs)

B


single copy genes

c.


long terminal repeats (LTRs)

d.


ALUs


12.


The type of transposons that have lost their signals for replic
ation are called:


a.


LINES

b.


parasitic elements

C


dead transposons

d.


ALU


13.


Of the following organisms, which has the largest genome size?


a.


the fruit fly
Drosophila

b.


Baker's yeast

C


commercial rice

d.


water cres
s


14.


Select an example of a palindrome from the choices below.


a.


G T C A T T

C A G T A A


B


G G C A C C

C C G T G G


c.


G T G T A A

C A C A T T


d.


T T C A C C

A A G T G G


15.


How many genes constitute the human genome?


a.


m
ore than 1 million

b.


500,000

C


about 25,000

d.


46


16.


All of the proteins that an organism produces are referred to as its:


A


proteome

b.


protein profile

c.


protein array

d.


proteomics outline


17.


Tandem clusters allow
:


A


production of a huge amount of product in a very short time period

b.


production of several transposable elements necessary for rRNA acquisition

c.


production of multigene families in a small time frame, especially during early development

d.


production of segmental duplications that are impossible with single
-
copy genes


18.


When comparing the genomes of a variety of organisms, what is most surprising?


a.


the number of differences between species

B


the number of similaritie
s between species

c.


how unrelated most genera are

d.


the number of base pairs used


19.


Bits of DNA that literally jump from one chromosome to another are:


a.


pseudogenes

b.


introns

C


transposable elements

d.


tandem clusters


20.


Which of these is NOT a type of noncoding human DNA?


a.


structural DNA

b.


repeated sequences

c.


constitutive heterochromatin

D


multigene families


21.


In 1977, _____________ was the first researcher to sequence a genome.


Frederic
k Sanger

22.


Heat is used in DNA sequencing to _________ the double stands of the molecule.


denature

23.


A discrete collection of gene fragments on a stamp
-
sized chip is called a ____________.


gene microarray

24.


SNP is an abbreviation for ________
_________________.


single nucleotide polymorphism

25.


The type of transposon jump most likely to cause a harmful mutation is a(n)
___________________.


ALU transposition

26.


The genes encoding rRNA are examples of __________________ of genes.


tandem
clusters

27.


The percentage of the human genome made up of structural DNA is _________.


20%

28.


Transposable elements make up ________ of the human genome.


45%

29.


The field of study involved in sequencing the genomes of organisms is _____________.


genomics

30.


The _________ is the closest relative to humans.


chimpanzee

31.


What is the correct order of events for sequencing DNA?


First, a DNA fragment of unknown sequence must be amplified then mixed with primer. Four different chain
-
terminatin
g chemical stages are added and heat is applied. Gel electrophoresis and computer analysis follow.

32.


How is it possible that there are four times as many kinds of mRNA as there are genes in the
human genome?


This is possible because human genes are fr
agmented and use alternative splicing.

33.


Genome duplication has led to polyploidy in plants. What event(s) led to the genome of rice?


The genome of rice was caused by numerous episodes in which the entire number of chromosomes have been
copied and rem
ained within the nucleus as well as segmental duplication of chromosomes.

34.


What is true about variation between individuals within the human genome?


There is tremendous variation among individual human genomes.

35.


Explain bioinformatics?


Bioinfor
matics combines molecular genetics and computational analysis in an attempt to predict what sort of
protein a particular sequence encodes.