Freedom Now! The

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Oct 28, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Freedom Now!

The
Contemporary
Civil Rights
Movement

Year

Region

Black
Population

Total Population

% Black

1930

Northeast

1,146,985

34,427,091

3.33

Midwest

1,262,234

38,594,100

3.27

Southeast

7,079,626

25,680,830

27.57

South Central

2,281,951

12,176,830

18.74

Mountain

30,225

3,701,789

0.82

Pacific

90,122

8,622,047

1.05

1950

Northeast

2,018,182

39,477,986

5.11

Midwest

2,227,876

44,460,762

5.01

Southeast

7,793,379

32,659,516

23.86

South Central

2,432,028

14,517,572

16.73

Mountain

66,429

5,074,998

1.31

Pacific

507,043

15,114,964

3.35

Second Great Migration, 1930
-
1950

Darlene Clark Hine, et. al. “Table 18
-
1: Demographic Shifts: The Second Great Migration,
1930
-
1950,”
The African
-
American
Odyssey
,
5
th

edition (New York: Prentice
Hall, 2010),
481.

“The
1916 lynching of seventeen year
-
old Jesse Washington in Waco, Texas, has
come to be known as the "Waco Horror. "
Washington was arrested for the
murder of Lucy Fryer, the white wife of a farmer in nearby Robinson, Texas.
Eventually confessing to charges of rape and murder while in custody, he
received a trial and was found guilty by an all
-
white jury after only four minutes of
deliberation. Before sentence could be passed, the audience seized Washington
and dragged him outside, where he was beaten, mutilated, and burnt alive in
front of the Waco city hall. No members of the mob were prosecuted. However,
the incident was widely condemned in the press and became a rallying cry for
the then
-
recently formed NAACP in its struggle to pass a federal
antilynching

bill
.”
[Library of Congress]

http://www.oxfordaasc.com/public/features/archive/0408/photo_essay.jsp?page=5

“Accusations
of sexual assault against white women were very often the
This
photograph shows the corpse of William Brown, who was accused of raping a
white woman named Agnes
Loebeck

in Omaha, Nebraska, in 1919.
Despite the
efforts of local police to protect Brown in his cell at the Douglas County Court
House, a mob of about 4,000 citizens besieged the building on 28 September,
eventually setting it on fire in a frenzied rush to capture Brown. Anarchy continued
to spread even after Brown was handed over and killed. In addition to Brown, two
white men died, Mayor Edward Smith was hanged from a telephone pole (which
he survived), the courthouse was destroyed, and numerous other buildings were
damaged before federal troops from Fort Omaha and Fort Crook arrived to
restore order on the morning of 29 September
.” [The Library of Congress]

http://www.oxfordaasc.com/public/features/archive/0408/photo_essay.jsp?page=2

Congress refuses to pass

an
A
nti
-
lynching
B
ill


“’Souvenir’
photographs
commemorating
the events were
common
. This
picture of an
unnamed victim
was taken around
1928
.”


[Library
of Congress]

http://www.oxfordaasc.com/public/features/archive/0408/photo_essay.jsp?page=1

“This
photograph by Lawrence
Bitler

shows the corpses of Thomas
Schipp

and
Abram Smith, two men who were lynched
in Marion, Indiana, on 7 August 1930. The
image inspired Abel
Meerpool
, a Jewish
schoolteacher from the Bronx, to publish a
poem titled
"Strange Fruit"
under the pen
name Lewis Allen.
Meerpool
/Allen later set
the song to music, and it was first
performed by the jazz singer Billie Holiday
at Cafe Society in New York's Greenwich
Village in 1939
.”
[Library of Congress]

http://www.oxfordaasc.com/public/features/archive/0408/photo_essay.jsp?page=8

“This
photograph, taken in Sikeston, Missouri,
in 1942, probably shows the body of Cleo
Wright.
A young drifter with a criminal
record, Wright was arrested by two white
police officers shortly after the sexual assault
and stabbing of Grace Sturgeon, a white
woman who lived nearby.
A
white mob of
around 700 people soon gathered,
determined there would be no trial, and
stormed the cell where Wright was being
held. They tied Wright's legs to the rear
bumper of a Ford automobile and drove to
a black Baptist church in Sikeston, where
they stopped, doused him in five gallons of
gasoline, and set their victim ablaze as the
astonished black parishioners looked on in
horror. Wright mercifully died within minutes
of being set on fire
.”

Library
of Congress

http://www.oxfordaasc.com/public/features/archive/0408/photo_essay.jsp?page=9

NAACP & NACW Protest Against Lynching

Library of Congress

Library of Congress, NAACP Collection;
photograph by M. Smith

http://www.oxfordaasc.com/public/features/archive/0408/photo_essay.jsp?page=6

http://www.oxfordaasc.com/public/features/archive/0408/photo_essay.jsp?page=4

Walter White (1883
-
1955)

NAACP
Executive
Director
(1931
-
1955)

Robert
W. Woodruff Library Archives
,
Atlanta University Center

Billy Holiday, “Strange Fruit”


“Southern
trees bear
strange fruit, blood on
the leaves and blood
at the root, black
bodies swinging in the
southern breeze,
strange fruit hanging
from the poplar
trees
"



Abel
Meeropol

Library of Congress

http://www.oxfordaasc.com/public/features/archive/0409/photo_essay.jsp?page=5

The National
Archives

http://www.oxfordaasc.com/public/features/archive/0608/photo_essay.jsp?page=6

World War II Global Shifts


US as a World
Power & leader of
the “free” world



Decolonization
movements in Asia
and Africa



African students attend
U.S. black colleges and
universities:


Nkrumah (Ghana)


Azikiwe

(Nigeria)


Mondlane

(Mozambique
)

March on Washington &
Executive Order 8802


There shall be no
discrimination in
the employment of
workers in the
defense industry or
government
because of race,
creed, color, or
national origin.”

Pres. Franklin Delano
Roosevelt, 1941

A. Philip Randolph


http://www.notablebiographies.com/Pu
-
Ro/Randolph
-
A
-
Philip.html

1930s



Segregation and discrimination by
New Deal agencies

Federal Council on Negro Affairs (Roosevelt’s
“Black Cabinet” of 27 prominent African
-
Americans, led by Mary McLeod Bethune)



Roosevelt Administration employs
black architects, lawyers, engineers,
economists, statisticians,

The Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the
Male Negro. US Public Health Service, 1932
-
1972

1940s

Executive Order 8802 the US Marine
Corps accepts black men for the
first time.

Commandant of the Corps, Maj. Gen. Thomas
Holcomb, “If it were a question of having a
Marine Corps of 5,000 whites or 250,000 Negroes,
I would rather have the whites” (Hine 545)



1941 War Department establishes
Tuskegee Army Airfield, Alabama for
black pilots

Mabel K.
Staupers

leads the struggle to end
quotas and discrimination against black women
nurses in the armed forces and the Red Cross
segregation of black and white blood



Black women working in factories
increases from 6.8% to 18% & black
workers join the CIO.

Under the Fair Employment Practices Committee
(FEPC) discrimination against black men and
women in war industries continues, especially in
the South.



With Executive Order 9346,
Roosevelt in 1943 establishes the
Committee on Fair Employment
Practice

Detroit Race Riot of 1943 where black and white
workers competed for jobs and housing.



Dorie

Miller,
Hero
of Pearl Harbor

Brigadier
General Benjamin O. Davis

Library of Congress

T
he
National Archives

http://www.oxfordaasc.com/public/features/archive/0608/photo_essay.jsp?page=1

http://www.oxfordaasc.com/public/features/archive/0608/photo_essay.jsp?page=8

Courtesy National Archives

“Easter Eggs for Hitler”

http://www.oxfordaasc.com/public/features/archive/0608/photo_essay.jsp?page=2

Tuskegee Airmen

M
embers
of the
332nd Fighter
Group, called the
Red Tails,
attending a
briefing in
Ramitelli
,
Italy, in March
1945.

T
he
National Archives

http://www.oxfordaasc.com/public/features/archive/0608/photo_essay.jsp?page=8

Courtesy of the National Archives

“Women's
Army Auxiliary Corps
(WAAC) in May 1942, later
incorporated into the regular U.S.
Army and renamed Women's
Army Corps (WAC) in 1943. The
WAC performed support roles
ranging from manufacturing
work to delivering supplies to the
front lines. Charity Adams, shown
here reviewing a contingent of
WACs in 1945, was the first black
women in U.S. history to be
commissioned as an officer.
Attaining the rank of major, she
was the highest
-
ranking black
woman in the military throughout
World War II.


http://www.oxfordaasc.com/public/features/archive/0608/photo_essay.jsp?page=10

National
Archives

Between 1940 and 1944, the
proportion of black women workers
employed in industrial work nearly
tripled, from 6.8 percent to 18.0
percent. For many African
American women, the move from
domestic to industrial labor and
from the rural South to the industrial
North would be a permanent one,
with dramatic social
consequences. This photograph
shows 21
-
year old Bertha
Stallworth

inspecting the end of a 40mm
artillery cartridge case at Frankford
Arsenal, near Philadelphia.

http://www.oxfordaasc.com/public/features/archive/0608/photo_essay.jsp?page=7

Congress of Racial Equality, 1941

James Farmer and Bayard Rustin


“There
are three ways in which one can deal with an
injustice. (a) One can accept it without protest. (b)
One can seek to avoid it. (c) One can resist the
injustice nonviolently. To accept it is to perpetuate it.
To avoid it is impossible. To resist by intelligent means,
and with an attitude of mutual responsibility and
respect, is much the better course
.”







Bayard Rustin

Darlene Clark Hine, et. al.
“Profile: Bayard Rustin,”
The African
-
American
Odyssey
, 5
th

edition (New York: Prentice Hall, 2010),
557.

NAACP Legal Defense Strategy

Howard University Law School

Charles Hamilton Houston

William H. Hastie

James
Nabrit
, Jr.

Thurgood Marshall

Constance Baker Motley



The Road to Brown

State
of Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada
, 1938


Sipuel

v. Oklahoma State Board of Regents
,
1948


McLaurin

v. Oklahoma,
1950


Sweatt

v. Painter,
1950


Brown
v. Topeka Board of Education,
1954

Sociologist

Dr. Kenneth Clark (1914
-
2005)

Library of Congress

http://www.oxfordaasc.com/public/features/archive/0507/photo_essay.jsp?page=2

.

http://www.oxfordaasc.com/public/features/archive/0507/photo_essayjsp?page=1

Chief Justice Earl Warren

http://www.oxfordaasc.com/public/features/archive/0507/photo_essay.jsp?page=3

NAACP attorneys (from left) George E. C. Hayes,
Thurgood Marshall, James
Nabrit

Jr.

School Desegregation in Washington, D.C.

Barnard School, 1955

Library of Congress

http://www.oxfordaasc.com/public/features/archive/0507/photo_essay.jsp?page=10

http://www.oxfordaasc.com/public/features/archive/0507/photo_essay.jsp?page=1

Library of Congress

Emmett Till, 1955

http://www.emmetttillmurder.com

http://www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/par0bio
-
1

JoAnne Robinson,
President

Montgomery
Women’s Political Council

Montgomery
County, Alabama Archives

http://www.blackpast.org/?g=ggh/robinson
-
jo
-
ann
-
1912
-
1992

E.D.
Nixon

Retired Pullman Porter

President, Montgomery
NAACP

Arrest mug from the Bus Boycott

http://www.montgomeryboycott.com/bio_ednixon.htm

Elizabeth
Eckford
, Little Rock,
1957

Photo by Ira Wilmer Counts for the Arkansas Democrat. Arkansas History Commission

http://www.oxfordaasc.com/public/features/archive/0506/photo_essay.jsp?page=2

Alabama
Department of Archives and
History, Montgomery, Alabama.

SCLC, Selma 1965

http://www.oxfordaasc.com/public/features/archive/0506/photo_essay.jsp?page=9

March on
Washington, August 28,1963

National Archives and Records Administration

http://www.oxfordaasc.com/public/features/archive/0506/photo_essay.jsp?page=6

“In
1964 the Mississippi Freedom
Democratic Party (MFDP) was organized
in order to create an alternative
delegation of black Mississippians to
attend the 1964 Democratic National
Convention in Atlantic City, New Jersey.
Blacks in Mississippi were disfranchised
and faced considerable violence if they
attempted to register to vote. In order to
protest these conditions the MFDP
attended the Democratic Convention
and demanded their place at the
political table. Pictured here is Fannie Lou
Hamer
, an MFDP delegate, at a 22 August
press conference. While the MFDP did not
win its battle, the embarrassment they
caused was instrumental in getting the
1965 Voting Rights Act passed
.”

Photo by Warren K.
Leffler
.

Library
of Congress.

http://www.oxfordaasc.com/public/features/archive/0506/photo_essay.jsp?page=8