Technology in Action

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Nov 17, 2013 (3 years and 10 months ago)

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Technology

in Action

Alan Evans



Kendall Martin

Mary Anne Poatsy

Tenth
Edition

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Technology in Action

Chapter 2

Looking at
Computers
Understanding the Parts


Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Chapter Topics


Understanding Your Computer


Input Devices and Output Devices


Processing, Memory, and Storage


Ports and Power Controls


Setting It All Up

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

2

Understanding Your Computer

Computers are Data Processing Devices


Performs
four major
functions


Input
: Gathers data, allows users to
enter
data


Process
: Manipulates, calculates, or
organizes data into information


Output
: Displays data and information for user


Storage
: Saves data and information for later
use

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

3

Understanding Your
Computer

Computers are Data Processing Devices (cont.)


Data
: Representation of a fact, figure, or
idea


Information
: Data
that has been o
rganized
or presented in a meaningful fashion

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4

Understanding Your
Computer

Bits and Bytes: The Language of Computers


The language
of
computers


Bit


Binary digit


0 or 1


Byte


8 bits


Each letter, number, or character is a
unique combination of 8 bits of 0s and 1s

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5

Understanding Your
Computer

Bits and Bytes: The Language of Computers (cont.)

Name

Abbreviation

Number of Bytes

Byte

B

1 byte

Kilobyte

KB

1,024 bytes (2
10
)

Megabyte

MB

1,048,576 bytes (2
20

bytes)

Gigabyte

GB

1,073,741,824 bytes (2
30

bytes)

Terabyte

TB

1,099,511,627,776 bytes (2
40

bytes)

Petabyte

PB

1,125,899,906,842,62 bytes (2
50

bytes)

Exabyte

EB

1,152,921,504,606,846,976 bytes (2
60

bytes)

Zettabyte

ZB

1,180,591,620,717,411,303,424 bytes (2
70

bytes)

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6

Understanding Your
Computer

Bits and Bytes: The Language of Computers (cont.)


Computer uses combination of hardware
and software to process data into
information


Hardware

is any part of the computer you can
physically touch


Software

is set of computer programs


Application softwar
e


System software


Operating system (OS)

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7

Understanding Your
Computer

Types of Computers


Two basic designs of computers


Portable


Laptop computers


Netbooks


Tablet PCs


Tablet computer


Ultrabooks


Stationary


D
esktop computers


Separate case plus peripheral devices


All
-
in
-
one computers

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8

Understanding Your
Computer

Types of Computers (cont.)


Mainframe


Supports many users simultaneously


Supercomputer


Performs complex calculations extremely
rapidly


Embedded


Self
-
contained computer devices performing
dedicated functions


Smartphone

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9

Input Devices


Devices
used to enter
data and
instructions
into the
computer


Most common input devices:


Keyboards to enter typed data and commands


Mouse to enter responses and commands


Other input devices:


Microphone to input sounds


Scanner to input
nondigital

text


Digital camera to input digital images


Stylus to tap commands or draw on screen

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

10

Input Devices

Keyboards


QWERTY layout is standard on most PCs


Netbook and laptop
keys
are more
compact and have fewer keys


Wireless keyboards work via radio
frequencies


Alternative keyboards


Flexible keyboards


Virtual laser keyboard

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11

Input Devices

Mice and Other Pointing Devices


Optical mouse


Internal sensor or laser detects movement


Moves pointer on the screen


Wireless mouse


Optical and trackball


Data sent by radio frequency (RF) or
Bluetooth technology

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12

Input Devices

Mice and Other Pointing Devices (cont.)


Touch
pads and
trackpoint

devices


Take place of mouse on laptops

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13

Input Devices

Mice and Other Pointing Devices (cont.)


Game controllers send data to computer


Joysticks


Game pads


Steering wheels


Most game controllers are wireless to
provide extra mobility

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14

Input Devices

Touch Screens


Display screen that responds to
commands by touch with finger or stylus


Becoming popular on many computing
devices


Smartphones


Tablet PCs

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15

Input Devices

Image Input


Digital
cameras, camcorders,
cell
phones


Capture pictures and video


Scanners


Create digital image


Webcams


Capture and transmit

live
video


Used for videoconferences

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16

Input Devices

Sound Input


A microphone (
mic
) captures sound waves
and transfer them to digital format


Sound input allows


Video conferencing


Audio conferencing


Chatting with friends or family over the
Internet instead of using a phone


Recording podcasts

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17

Input Devices

Sound Input (cont.)


Close talk microphones


Omnidirectional


Unidirectional


Clip
-
on microphones

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18

Output Devices


Enable you to send processed data out of
the computer in the form of text, pictures,
sounds, or video


Monitors


Printers


Speakers and earphones

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19

Output Devices

Monitors


Liquid crystal
display (LCD)


Flat panel


Light and energy efficient


Light
-
emitting
diode (LED)


More energy efficient than LCD monitors


Better color accuracy and thinner panels


Organic light
-
emitting diode (OLED)


Use organic compounds that produce light

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20

Output Devices

Monitors (cont.)


How
LCD Monitors work


Screens are grids made up of millions of tiny
dots called pixels


Each pixel is composed of red, blue, and
green
subpixels

(and sometimes yellow)


Two or more sheets of material are filled with
liquid crystal solution


Crystals block or let light shine through to
cause images to form on the screen

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

21

Output Devices

Monitors (cont.)


Choosing
an LCD Monitor


Aspect ratio


width to height proportion


Resolution


number of pixels displayed on
screen


Contrast ratio


difference in light intensity
between brightest white and darkest black


Viewing angle


distance in degrees from
which you can move to the side of (or above
or below) a monitor

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

22

Output Devices

Monitors (cont.)


Choosing
an LCD
Monitor (cont.)


Brightness


greatest amount of light showing
when the monitor is displaying pur
e white


Response
time


time it takes for a pixel to
change color

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23

Output Devices

Monitors (cont.)


The bigger the monitor, the more you can
display


27
-
inch monitor


2560
×

1440 pixels


21.5
-
inch monitor


1680
×

1050 pixels


Blu
-
ray movies


Require at least 1920
×

1080 pixels

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24

Output Devices

Printers


Inkjet printers


Spray tiny drops of ink onto page


Laser printers


Use laser beams and static electricity to
deliver toner to page


Nonimpact
printers have replaced impact
printers almost entirely


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25

Output Devices

Printers (cont.)


Inkjet


Affordable


High
-
quality color
printouts


Quick and quiet


Laser


Faster printing
speed


Higher quality
printouts


More expensive

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26

Output Devices

Printers (cont.)

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27


Wireless printer


No wires


Several people can print to same printer from
different places


Two types


WiFi

and Bluetooth


Range of up to approx. 300 feet


WiFi

sends data more quickly


Allows you to print from portable devices

Output Devices

Printers (cont.)

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28


All
-
in
-
one printer


Functions as printer, scanner, copier, and fax


Plotter


Used to print oversize images


Thermal printer


Emerging as popular

technology for mobile

and portable printing

Output Devices

Printers (cont.)


Selecting
a Printer


Decide your primary printing need first


Speed
(
pages per minute)


Resolution (
dots per inch)


Color output


Cost
of consumables

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29

Sound Output


Speaker is output device for sound


Inexpensive speakers come with computers


Surround
-
sound speakers


Wireless speaker systems



Headphones or
earbuds

avoid distracting
others

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30


CPU


ROM, RAM, and cache


Slots for expansion
cards


Network interface card
(NIC)

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31

Processing and Memory on the Motherboard


Motherboard: Main circuit board containing
central electronic components of the
computer

Processing and Memory on
the Motherboard

Memory

RAM

Random
access
memory


Stores
instructions
and data


Series of several
memory cards or
modules


Temporary
(volatile)
storage

ROM

Read
-
only memory


Stores
startup
instructions


Permanent
(nonvolatile) storage


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32

Processing and Memory on
the Motherboard

Processing


Central
Processing Unit


Also called CPU or processor


Referred
to as the “brains” of the computer


Controls all functions
performed by the
computer’s other components


Processes all commands and instructions


Can perform billions of tasks per second

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33

Processing and Memory on
the Motherboard

Processing (cont.)


CPU
Performance Measures


Processor speed measured in hertz (Hz)


Megahertz (MHz) or gigahertz (GHz)


Number of cores


Single


Dual


Quad


Eight

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34

Storing Data and
Information

Hard Drives


Primary device for permanent storage


Holds stored programs and data


Internal hard drive


Inside the system


Holds all permanently stored programs and data

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35

Storing Data and
Information

Hard Drives (cont.)


External hard drive


Resides outside the system


Connects via USB or FireWire port


Solid
-
State Drive (SSD)


No moving parts


Runs with no noise


Emits little heat


Requires little power


Less likely to fail


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36

Storing Data and
Information

Hard Drives (cont.)


Internal drive bays


Reserved for internal hard drives


External drive bays


House CD or DVD drives


Notebook expansion attaches external drive
via USB port

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37

Storing Data and
Information

Flash Storage


External hard drives


Large portable
storage needs


Small and lightweight


Attach to computer
via USB port


Care must be taken
when transporting

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38

Storing Data and
Information

Flash Storage (cont.)


Use solid
-
state flash
memory


No moving parts


Significant storage
capacity


Plug into USB ports


Appears as another disk
drive

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39


Flash drive (jump drive, USB drive, thumb
drive)

Storing Data and
Information

Flash Memory (cont.)

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40


Flash memory card


Convenience means of portable storage


Uses solid
-
state flash memory


Allows you to transfer digital data between
computer and devices

Storing Data and
Information

Optical Storage


Compact discs (CDs)


Initially used to store audio files


Digital video discs (DVDs)


Store more data than CDs


Blu
-
ray discs (BDs)

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41

Connecting Peripherals to the Computer


A port is a place through which a
peripheral device attaches to computer


Many ports are located on the back of the
computer


Some commonly used ports are placed on
the front and sides for easier access

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42

Connecting Peripherals to the
Computer

High
-
Speed and Data Transfer Ports


Universal serial bus (USB) is the most
common port type used to connect input
and output devices to a computer


USB 2.0 port is current standard


Transfer data at 480 megabits per second


New USB 3.0 standard provides transfer
speeds that are 10 times faster


Should quickly become the port of choice

Copyright © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

43

Connecting Peripherals to the
Computer

High
-
Speed and Data Transfer Ports (cont.)


FireWire 400


Moves data at 400 Mbps


FireWire 800


Doubles rate to 800 Mbps


FireWire 3200


Has been ratified


Yet to reach market

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44

Connecting Peripherals to the
Computer

Connectivity and Multimedia Ports


Connectivity port can give access to
networks and the Internet


Ethernet port


Modem port


Audio ports


Connect headphones, microphones,
speakers

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45

Connecting Peripherals to the
Computer

Connectivity and Multimedia Ports


Video ports


Connect monitors and multimedia devices


Video graphics array (VGA)
-

port to connect
older LCD monitors

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46

Connecting Peripherals to the
Computer

Connectivity and Multimedia Ports (cont.)


Digital video interface (DVI): Ports used to
connect newer LCD monitors and other
multimedia devices


High
-
definition multimedia interface
(HDMI)


Digital connector for use in HD home theater
environments

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47

Connecting Peripherals to the
Computer

Adding Ports: Expansion Cards and Hubs

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48


Expansion cards


New port standards


Expansion
hubs


Enable several devices
to be connected to a port

Power Controls


Powe
r supply transforms wall voltage to
voltages required by computer chips


Cold boot: Powering on your computer
from a completely turned
-
off state

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49

Power Controls (cont.)

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50


Sleep Mode


Main method of power management in
Windows 8


D
ocuments, applications, data remain in RAM


Hibernate


Similar to Sleep


All data is stored on hard drive


Computer is powered off


Warm boot


Restarting the system while it’s powered on

Setting It All
Up


Ergonomics refers to how you set up your
computer to minimize risk of injury,
discomfort, or eyestrain


Guidelines to follow


Position monitor correctly


Use adjustable chair


Assume proper position while typing


Take breaks from computer


Ensure
that
lighting is
adequate

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51

Setting It All Up (cont.)


Mobile computing devices present
challenges to injury prevention

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52

Setting It All Up (cont.)


Devices for People with Disabilities


Voice recognition


Keyboards with larger keys


Keyboards that display on touch screens


Specialized input consoles


Keyboards designed for one hand


Special trackballs


Head
-
mounted pointing devices

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53

Chapter 2 Summary Questions

1.
What exactly is a computer, and what are
its four main functions?

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54

Chapter 2 Summary Questions

2.
What is the difference between data and
information?

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55

Chapter 2 Summary Questions

3.
What are bits and bytes, and how are
they measured?

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56

Chapter 2 Summary Questions

4.
What devices
can I
use to get data into
the computer?

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57

Chapter 2 Summary Questions

5.
What devices
can I
use to get information
out of the computer?

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58

Chapter 2 Summary Questions

6.
What’s on the
motherboard?

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59

Chapter 2 Summary Questions

7.
Where are information and programs
stored?

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60

Chapter 2 Summary Questions

8.
How are devices connected to the
computer?

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61

Chapter 2 Summary Questions

9.
What’s th
e best way to turn my computer
on and off and when should it be done?

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62

Chapter 2 Summary Questions

10.

How
do
I
set up
my
computer to avoid
strain and injury?

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63

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retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written
permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.

Copyright ©
2014
Pearson Education, Inc.


Publishing as Prentice Hall