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Nov 17, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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ICTD 111

Introduction to ICT Systems


Appiah
Kubi Halifax

Department of Mathematics Education

University of Education, Winneba

Winneba

System


A
system is set
of
independent parts
that
together accomplish
specific
objective.


computing system


A
computing system is the
combination of hardware,
software, data, procedures and
you


all working together to
get the most of using the
computer
.


computing system
Con’t


The computer accepts data
:
Accepting data, here, means that
anything that you send into the
computer be it characters or
symbols on which operations are
performed.


computing system
Con’t


The computer processes
data means changing the
data into meaningful
information based on the
instructions given.



computing system
Con’t


Procedures:
Without proper procedures,
you will be at loss about how to use the
computer correctly. Processing data into
information requires careful planning and
appropriate instructions. If accurate data
is not input, the information delivered as
output is useless. This phenomenon is
called:


Garbage


in, Garbage


out (GIGO).


computing system
Con’t


You are the controlling force behind
the computing system. By knowing
the power and limitations of the
computing, you are able to select the
proper application to solve problems,
produce information and become more
efficient.


computing system
Con’t



NB:
By far the most important
component of the computing
system is you using the
computer
.


computer system


A collection of machines
and programmes for
providing computing
services is known as a
computer system.


computer system
Con’t


The computer system can be
divided into 2 main categories
namely:

(i)
Hardware.

(ii)
Software.

*

However, there is the 3
rd

one
known as the user.


The hardware


It is the electronic and
mechanical parts that you can
see physically and touch.



The hardware
Con’t


In general, computer hardware falls into
four categories:


Input unit/Input Hardware/Input Device


Output unit/Output Hardware/Output
Device


Storage Unit/Storage Hardware/Storage
Device


Processing
Unit/Processing Hardware
/Processing
Device



Input Device


Input devices are the devices that enable
people to put or enter data into the
computer for processing.


The most common input device with
microcomputers is:



the keyboard.


Others are mouse, voice recognition, light
pen, scanner, floppy diskette, touch screen,
digital camera, joystick, track ball, flash
disk (aka pen drive).


Input Device
Con’t

NB: The
Standard input
devices

are:

the Keyboard and the Mouse.

Output Device


Any device that can help us to produce output
from the computer is an output device. Thus
devices that translate information processed by
the computer into a form that humans can
understand are output devices.


Examples include:



(
i
)the monitor which is also known as the screen
or visual display unit (VDU), (ii) Printers, (iii)
Plotters, (iv) Voice output devices like speaker
etc.


Output Device
Con’t


The output devices can also be divided
into two namely:


the soft copy device and the hard copy
device. The soft copy output devices
produce output that cannot be touched.
The hard copy output devices produce
output that can be touched like paper.


Output Device
Con’t

Output Device

Soft Copy Device

Hard Copy Device

VDU

Voice Output Devices

Printers

Plotters

Printer


A printer is an output unit that
converts computer data into printed
characters or graphics on paper.
Printers can be categorized under 2
main headings:

(
i
) Impact Printers and (ii) Non
-
Impact Printers.



Impact Printers


They are printers that
make physical contact
with the material on which
they produce the output.



Non
-
Impact Printers



They are printers that do
not make physical contact
with the material on which
they produce the output.




Types of Printers



Dot
-
Matrix Printers:
Dot
matrix is an inexpensive impact
printer, which has lines of pins
programmed to strike an inked
ribbon against paper. It allows
you to produce carbon copies.
This process is noisy and slow.





Types of Printers
Con’t



Laser Printers:
They are non
-
impact printers. Laser printers
use toner to produce print outs.
They produce much better image
quality than dot
-
matrix printers.






Types of Printers
Con’t



Ink
-
Jet or Desk
-
Jet Printers:
Ink
-
Jet
printers are non
-
impact printers that
spray one or more colors of small
droplets of ink from an ink cartridge
at high speed onto paper. The image
is of high quality, like that of laser
printers; however, ink
-
jet printers
are slower than laser printers.







Note



A hardware that is used for both
providing information to the
computer and receiving information
from it is an input and output device.
A floppy
-
disk drive is an example of
input and output devices.








Storage Devices



They are devices for recording computer
data in temporary or permanent form. A
computer have primary (or main memory)
and secondary (or auxiliary) storage
devices. The primary storage devices are
the:



Random Access Memory (RAM)


Impermanent and the Read Only Memory
(ROM)


Permanent
.









RAM



Is the actual place where
data and instructions are
held temporary while the
computer is working (i.e.
computer’s work space).









RAM
Con’t



RAM is like a blackboard that can be
erased and reuse again and again. The
main drawback of RAM is that it is
volatile (unstable). If once the power is
turned off, all the contents (i.e. the data
and programs) of RAM are lost unless
battery power known as
Uninterrupted/Uninterruptible Power
Supply (UPS) is supplied to the RAM.










ROM


Is the part of the main
memory that contains system
programmes in permanent
form. It cannot be erased
even if power is off.










ROM
Con’t


The computer cannot change
the information stored in
ROM. The information stored
in ROM was manufactured
and can only be read
(retrieved) by the computer.










Note



A digit in binary (i.e. 0 or 1) is
called a bit (Binary Digit)


A group of 8 bits is called a byte


Each byte represents a character
(e.g. a, ?, . etc)


The size of a disk and memory is
expressed in bytes (i.e. how much
data can e.g. a floppy disk holds)












Processing Device


The processing device is
the device that does all the
processing or computation
of the raw data into useful
information.











Software



Software or Programs are
the step


by


step
instructions that tell the
computer how to perform
a task.












Software
Con’t



In computing, there are 2
major types of software:
System Software or
Operating System and
Application Software












System software



System software controls
the physical components
of the computer. It enables
the application software to
interact with the computer
hardware.











System software
Con’t



It is also the Master control
program in computer. That is
the essential program in a
computer that maintains disk
files, runs applications, and
handles devices such as the
mouse and printer.











System software
Con’t



Examples of system software
include:


MS
-
DOS (Microsoft Disk
Operating System), Windows,
UNIX, LINUX, etc.












MS
-
DOS



It is an operating system developed
by Bill Gates for personal computers.
It is a single
-
user OS. It is character
user interface. The MS
-
DOS prompt
is:












Windows (Microsoft Windows)



It

is a multitasking graphical
user interface environment
that runs on MS
-
DOS based
computers.













UNIX and LINUX


UNIX: It is also multi
-
user. It was
developed in 1969 by Ken Thompson
and Dennis.


LINUX: The first version of LINUX
was written by
Linus

Torvalds
, a
second
-
year student of computer
Science at the University of Helsinki
in Finland in 1991. The basic LINUX
OS is free.














Application Software


Application software are software
that people use to perform a general
or specific task such as word
processing software used to create,
edit, save and print documents.
Application software may either be
customized or packaged.














Customized software



Customized software is software
designed for a particular customer.
This is the kind of software that you
would hire a professional computer
programmer (a software creator) to
develop for you.















Packaged software



Packaged software is the
kind of program developed
for sale to the general public.
Some types of packaged
software include:
















Packaged software
Con’t



Word processing
: Word
processing software allows a
person to use a computer to
create, edit, save and print
documents. Examples of word
processing software are
WordPerfect, Microsoft Word,
Ami Pro, Mac Write etc.

















Packaged software
Con’t



Database Manager:
A database
manager is a program used to
manage multiple data file.
Examples are Dbase, Microsoft
Access, Paradox, FoxPro etc


















Packaged software
Con’t



Spreadsheet:
Spreadsheet software
allows a person to use rows,
columns and formulae to display,
analyze and summarize data, mostly
numerical data. Examples are Lotus
1
-
2
-
3, Microsoft Excel, Javelin,
Multiplan, Context MBA, SPSS
(Statistical Package for the Social
Sciences) etc.


















Packaged software
Con’t



NB:
Whiles word processing is
largely used in text processing,
spreadsheets are used for numeric
data processing. Spreadsheet is a
program that takes text and
numbers but it is normally used
for manipulation of numeric data.


















How Computers Function

Data

Input

Output

Process

Information

THE END