Gifted and Learning Disabled:

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Nov 17, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

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Gifted and Learning Disabled:
What Can We Do?

Dr. Agnes
Meyo

Cyrie

Wilson

Kelly Roth

St. Louis Association for
Gifted Education


St. Louis, Mo


Outline


Definition of Gifted with Learning
Diabilities


Strategies for Intervention


Environment


Reading


Mathematics


Writing


Testing

Definition of Gifted with Learning
Disabilities (Twice
-
Exceptional)

1.
Children who are identified as gifted and talented in
one or more areas of exceptionality (specific
academics, general intellectual ability, creativity,
leadership, visual,
spacial
, or performing arts).


and also identified with:


2.

A disability defined by Federal/State eligibility criteria:
Reading, math, written expression, and/or oral
language disorders, significant identifiable emotional
disability, physical disabilities, sensory
disabilies
,
autism, or ADHD.

Learning Disorders


Reading Disorder




Reading achievement, as measured by
individually administered standardized tests of
reading accuracy or comprehension, is
substantially below that expected given the
person’s chronological age, measured
intelligence, and age
-
appropriate education.

Learning Disorders (2)


Mathematics Disorder


Mathematical ability, as measured by
individually standardized tests, is substantially
below that expected given the person’s
chronological age, measured intelligence, and
age appropriate education.

Learning Disorders (3)


Disorder of Written Expression


Writing skills, as measured by individually
administered standardized tests, is
substantially below that expected given
the person’s chronological age,
measured intelligence, and age
appropriate education.

Learning Disorders (4)


Learning Disorder, Not Otherwise
Specified


This category is for disorders in
learning that do not meet criteria for
any specific learning disorder.

Strategies for Intervention:

Environment for Learning

1.
Awareness of individual strengths and
weaknesses

2.
High, yet flexible standards and structure

3.
Promotion of learning from mistakes

4.
Appreciation of self
-
advocacy

5.
Praise and encouragement

6.
Use of assistive technology

Strategies for Intervention

Environment for Learning (2)

7.
Extended time for tests

8.
Extended deadlines for assignments

9.
Individualized curriculum

10.
Pre
-
testing and post
-
testing

11.
Curriculum compacting

12.
Use of mnemonics

13.
Multimedia resources


Strategies for Intervention

Environment for Learning (3)

14. Personal choice regarding assignment topics
whenever possible

15. Instruction for active listening

16. Preferential seating and freedom of
movement

17. Alternative projects or testing for the
demonstration of mastery (e.g., oral testing
versus written)

Strategies for Intervention:

Reading

1.
Determination of goals for instruction:
amelioration or accommodation

2.
When seeking amelioration with younger
children, use of a structured reading program
(e.g., Wilson, Barton, Reading Reflex)

3.
When seeking accommodation with older
children, use of methods that minimize
reading (e.g., texts of tape/CD, hands
-
on)

Strategies for Intervention:

Reading (2)

4. Clearly defined goals for progress

5. Rewards for effort and practice

6. Personal choice for reading material

7. Multiple sensory approaches for instruction
(e.g., textured letters, songs)

8. Only one
-
on
-
one reading aloud

9. Incorporation of demonstrations


Strategies for Intervention:

Reading (3)

10. Computer graphics, maps, and illustrations
for emphasizing content

11. Chunking of reading material into smaller
amounts with breaks between

12. Oral explanations to ensure comprehension
of abstract concepts

Strategies for Intervention:

Mathematics

1.
Assessment of difficulties: conceptual or
computational

2.
With conceptual problems…


provision of mathematical rational and
reasoning


Hands
-
on, visual, and manipulative devices to
demonstrate concepts


Computer graphics and programs that
illustrate numerical properties


Strategies for Intervention:

Mathematics (2)

3. With computational problems…


Provision of alternative methods for
determining answers


Instruction and practice regarding use of
calculators and mathematical technology


Counting knuckles for recalling multiplication
facts


Nine and Eight tricks for addition and
subtraction.

Strategies for Intervention:

Mathematics (3)


Song for enhancing to recall and math facts


Mnemonics for remembering the order of
operations and formulas


Symbols adjustments to prevent confusion of
plus/minus signs


Graph paper to align/organize problems


Conceptual applications of computational
problems (
e.g.,rounding

up/down)


Rules (e.g., fractions cannot have wheels)


Strategies for Intervention:

Writing

1.
Assessment of difficulties: muscular
strength/control, spacing,
graphomotor
,
“concrete thinking”, sequencing, sentence
structure, spelling, capitalization,
punctuation, letter reversals and
transposals

2.
With muscular problems…


Occupational therapy strategies, such as
pencil grips and voice recognition programs


Teacher notes (instead of note
-
taking)

Strategies for Intervention:

Writing (2)

3. With sequencing,
grahomotor
, “concrete
thinking”, and/or sentence structure problems…


Computer graphic organizers and programs that
illustrate concepts


Templates, mind
-
mapping methods, and writing
prompts for organizing thoughts


One
-
on
-
one review sessions with teachers (prior
to writing) for clarifying expectations for grading
and organizing thoughts

Strategies for Intervention:

Writing (3)


Personal choice for writing assignments

3. With capitalization, spelling, punctuation, and
letter reversals/
transposal

errors…


Use of computer highlighters to indicate
mistakes and options for corrections

Strategies for Intervention:

Testing

1.
Multiple options for assessing mastery or
“testing”: projects, oral presentations,
teaching others, papers, artwork, plays,
written tests, Power Point presentations

2.
Choices regarding test methods

3.
Determination of the optimal time for testing
during the day

4.

Clearly defined expectations for testing and
grading (e.g., review sheets, pre
-
testing)

Strategies for Intervention:

Testing (2)

5.
Options for correcting mistakes to obtain a
higher grade

6.
Quiet testing environment and/or earplugs

7.
Access to oral reading of test questions and/or
oral expressions of answers

8.
Extra credit options

9.
Breaks during long testing sessions

10.

Computer for recording answers to test items

Strategies for Intervention:

Testing (3)

11.
Freedom of movement during testing

12.
Unlimited time for test completion

13.
Credit for written work that contains
misspellings, punctuation mistakes, and
grammatical errors if the content is accurate

14.

Separate grading for progress and effort

15.

Access to tests that can be written on and
handed in to prevent errors from recopying

References

American Psychiatric Association. (1994).
Diagnostic and statistical
manual of mental disorders
-
fourth edition.

Washington, DC: Author.

Baum, S. (2008). Bumps along the road. In M.A.
Gosfield

(Ed.),

Expert
approaches to support gifted learners (199
-
204).

Minneapolis, MN:
Free Spirit.

Meckstroth
, E. (2007). Abnormally brilliant, brilliantly normal. In K. Kay,
D. Robson, & J.F.
Brenneman

(Eds.),
High IQ kids: Collected Insights,
information, and personal stories from the experts (311
-
343).
Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.

Neville, C.S. (2007). Of importance, meaning, and success: Application
for highly and profoundly gifted students. . In K. Kay, D. Robson, &
J.F.
Brenneman

(Eds.),
High IQ kids: Collected Insights, information,
and personal stories from the experts (161
-
178).
Minneapolis, MN:
Free Spirit.


References (2)

Quart, A. (2006).
Hothouse kids: The dilemma of the gifted child.

New
York, NY: Penguin.

Renzulli
, S. (2008). The irony of “twice exceptional.” In K. Kay, D.
Robson, & J.F.
Brenneman

(Eds.),
High IQ kids: Collected Insights,
information, and personal stories from the experts (205
-
208).
Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.

Renzulli
, S.(2008). The irony of “twice
-
exceptional.” . In M.A.
Gosfield

(Ed.),
Expert approaches to support gifted learners (205
-
208).
Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.

Rimm
, S. , Gilman, B. and Silverman, L. (2008). Nontraditional
applications of traditional testing. In J.
VanTassel
-
Baska

(Ed.),
Alternative assessments with gifted and talented students (175
-
202).
Waco, TX:
Prufrock
.




References (3)

Shaywitz
, S. (2003).
Overcoming Dyslexia,

New York, NY: Vintage
Books.

Silverman, L.K. (2008). The power of images: Visual
-
spatial
learners. In M.A.
Gosfield

(Ed.),
Expert approaches to support
gifted learners (218
-
233).
Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.

Schultz, R. &
Delisle
, J. (2007).
More than a test score: Teens talk
about being gifted, talented, and otherwise extra
-
ordinary
.
Minneapolis, MN: Free Spirit.

Webb, J., Amend, E., Webb, N.,
Goerss
, J.,
Beljan
, &
Olenchek
, R.
(2005).
Misdiagnosis and dual diagnosis of gifted children and
adults.
Scottsdale, AZ: Great Potential Press.