and how might we measure it?

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Nov 17, 2013 (3 years and 11 months ago)

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Faculty of Education

The status of teachers

and how might we measure it?

Linda Hargreaves & Julia Flutter

Faculty of Education

Faculty of Education

Status …


A struggle …


Loss of status excites the brain more than losing money


Alain de
Botton

equates it with wanting to be loved




sto

stare
…. Latin for standing in society


More than simple economic wealth


also determined by cultural and
life style choices


The right to the privileges and responsibilities of citizenship


the ‘socio
-
legal entitlements of the individual’ (Turner, 1988)

Faculty of Education

P
erceptions of teacher status over the years in
England (2006)

-

teachers’ pessimism

1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
T
eachers
T
eaching assistants
Go
v
ernors
P
arents
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

r
a
t
i
n
g

(

1

v
e
r
y

l
o
w
;

5

v
e
r
y

h
i
g
h
)

1967
1979
1988
1997
2003
2006
Faculty of Education

Occupational status of teachers

Three components (Hoyle, 2001)


Occupational
prestige


public perception of the rank of teaching in a hierarchy of occupations


Occupational
status


Is teaching a profession or not according to ‘knowledgeable others’?


Occupational
esteem


Public regard for teachers’ care, commitment, competence

In everyday terms,
status of teachers
usually

means
occupational prestige





Faculty of Education

Number of children


Number of teachers


Limited budget



Low pay

Children
as clients

Relationship with pupils


Intermediate world
between childhood
and adulthood



Pupils might get out
of control

Ambiguities in education


Diffuse roles



diversity of outcomes

Supply of people?
women:
unqualified/less
qualified people

Occupational
PRESTIGE of
teaching

All cells impinge
on the image of
teaching

What exactly is the
teacher’s
knowledge and
expertise?

The occupational prestige of teaching


(
simplifed

adaptation from Hoyle, 2001)

Faculty of Education

Contemporary factors likely to affect teacher status


Economic downturn


job satisfaction and pay


USA (2012
Metlife

survey)


job satisfaction at lowest ebb for 20 years


75% say schools have faced budget cuts


67% say schools faced teacher redundancies


60% report increased class sizes


Similar story in Europe : Cuts in Spain, Greece, Italy, Portugal


‘Status panic’ in France


But salaries have risen in
Czechia
, Poland, Slovakia, Iceland




Faculty of Education

More changes likely to influence status


Prescriptive teaching methods (teachers as generalists)


E
mphasis on accountability through tests, inspections, league tables


Rise of private tutoring


Teacher mobility and migration


an increasing phenomenon


Feminisation

of the profession


negative correlation between salaries : GDP and % women to all
primary teachers but not in Central Africa


UNESCO 2010


Influence of the media?


Teacher voice







Faculty of Education


12 case countries in the report

Faculty of Education

A range of states of teacher status


New Zealand


status depends on ‘
fame, fortune and power



Ghana


low pay, low living standards, but considerable investment in
engaging young people in teaching


Finland


teaching considered top career over other professions; highly
competitive; women enjoy high status in Finland


India


rapid decline in teacher status when state education introduced.
Role diffusion a problem


e.g. teachers to promote family planning


Egypt


teachers despised; very poorly paid; private tutoring seriously
undermines status


Spain


primary teachers enjoy higher status than their secondary
counterparts


Faculty of Education

Public perceptions of teacher attributes in Spain



T
a
bl
e
2:
P
ubl
i
c
pe
rc
e
pt
i
ons
t
ha
t
t
e
a
c
he
rs
ha
ve
‘A
l
ot
’ or ‘Q
ui
t
e
a
l
ot
’ of
t
he
na
m
e
d a
t
t
ri
but
e
(%) (F
e
brua
ry, 2013)


A
t
t
r
i
b
u
t
e

K
i
n
d
e
r
g
a
r
t
e
n

P
r
i
m
a
r
y

S
e
c
o
n
d
a
r
y
/
h
i
g
h

T
h
e
y

a
r
e

w
e
l
l
-
p
a
i
d

3
8
.
6

4
0
.
8

4
4
.
7

T
h
e
y

h
a
v
e

s
o
c
i
a
l

p
r
e
s
t
i
g
e

4
6
.
3

8
8
.
9

5
4
.
0

T
h
e
y

h
a
v
e

t
o

h
a
v
e

t
h
o
r
o
u
g
h


t
r
a
i
n
i
n
g

8
4
.
4

8
8
.
5

9
1
.
7

T
h
e
y

a
r
e

a
l
l
o
w
e
d

t
o

d
e
v
e
l
o
p

p
e
r
s
o
n
a
l

c
r
e
a
t
i
v
i
t
y

7
1
.
9

7
1
.
0

6
7
.
7

T
h
e
y

h
a
v
e

t
o

a
s
s
u
m
e

r
e
s
p
o
n
s
i
b
i
l
i
t
i
e
s


9
2
.
9

9
3
.
1

9
0
.
7

T
h
e
y

n
e
e
d

a

s
t
r
o
n
g

v
o
c
a
t
i
o
n

9
2
.
3

9
2
.
5

9
1
.
4

Com
pi
l
e
d f
rom

CIS
. Ce
nt
e
r of
S
oc
i
ol
ogi
c
a
l
Re
s
e
a
rc
h. 2013.
(N
=
2470)


Faculty of Education


The media effect …but in England
,

press reporting has
changed since the 1990s



‘I think .. teachers get a better press than they think they do. I think they
get more exposure than many other public servants, for good reason,
but I think that the cliché that the media represents teachers in a bad
light ..
is
a bit anachronistic now’


(Education Correspondent
-

‘Quality’ daily paper)



Changes in news reporting since
1990s
(Hansen, 2009)


Grammatical change (from objects to subjects)


Lexical change (from confrontational to promotional
language)


‘Teacher’ now carries powerful positive connotations


Education news now prominent and high status


Only other profession close to ‘teacher’ in headlines was ‘doctor’


Faculty of Education

How can we assess teacher status?


S
everal contextual layers to take into account


National characteristics of education


Establishment? Stability? universal primary education?


Unions
-

how well placed to assess teacher status?


Possibility of two questionnaires according to state of education


Use of McArthur ten rung ladder as ‘litmus test’ ?


Use of comparative ratings


Perceptions of change in teacher status over time


Relative status of kindergarten, primary and secondary teachers







Faculty of Education

Society

Education system

Teaching force

Regional/Local

Own School


History, economic stability


Demand, supply, source of
teachers


Pay and conditions


Longevity


Stablity


Complexity (public/private)


Recruitment

entry qualifications


Retention


Initial training and CPD


Cooperation or competition


Links with local schools


Relationships with community


Internal relations


Leadership style


democratic?


Sense of trust and responsibility


Resources and facilities


Conceptual framework: from distal to proximal contexts

CONTEXTUAL LAYER

ISSUES RELEVANT TO
STATUS

Faculty of Education

High Status

Occupation

High Status

Occupation

High Status

Occupation

Low Status

Occupation

Low Status

Occupation

Low Status

Occupation

Look at
this

ladder

.
If

a
very

high

status
occupation

was

on

the

top
rung
, and a
very

low

status
occupation

on

the

bottom

rung
,
which

rung

would

teaching

sit

on

in
your

local
area

/
region

/
national

context
?

Faculty of Education

Example of comparative ratings to define high status




T
o

w
h
a
t

e
x
t
e
n
t

a
r
e

t
h
e

s
t
a
t
e
m
e
n
t
s

b
e
l
o
w

t
r
u
e

o
f

a

h
i
g
h

s
t
a
t
u
s

p
r
o
f
e
s
s
i
o
n

a
n
d

t
h
e

t
e
a
c
h
i
n
g

p
r
o
f
e
s
s
i
o
n
,

1

=

n
o
t

a
t

a
l
l

t
r
u
e

a
n
d

5

=

v
e
r
y

t
r
u
e
?




T
r
u
e

o
f

a




























T
r
u
e

o
f

t
h
e



h
i
g
h

s
t
a
t
u
s

p
r
o
f
e
s
s
i
o
n








































t
e
a
c
h
i
n
g

p
r
o
f
e
s
s
i
o
n




1




2




3




4




5






H
a
s

h
i
g
h

e
n
t
r
y

q
u
a
l
i
f
i
c
a
t
i
o
n
s


1




2




3




4




5






1




2




3




4




5






R
e
q
u
i
r
e
s

r
i
g
o
r
o
u
s

t
r
a
i
n
i
n
g




1




2




3




4




5






1




2




3




4




5






E
n
j
o
y
s

g
o
o
d

w
o
r
k
i
n
g

f
a
c
i
l
i
t
i
e
s


1




2




3




4




5





1




2




3




4




5




M
e
m
b
e
r
s

t
r
u
s
t
e
d

t
o

u
s
e

t
h
e
i
r



1




2




3




4




5









j
u
d
g
e
m
e
n
t

i
n

c
l
i
e
n
t
s



i
n
t
e
r
e
s
t
s





Faculty of Education

Defining

a high status profession

and

the
teaching
profession in England (2006)

4.21
2.88
4.16
3.05
3.44
4.33
3.51
4.35
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
H
i
g
h

St
a
t
u
s
Pro
f
e
ssi
o
n

2003
T
e
a
ch
i
n
g

p
ro
f
e
ssi
o
n

2003
H
i
g
h

St
a
t
u
s
Pro
f
e
ssi
o
n

2006
T
e
a
ch
i
n
g

p
ro
f
e
ssi
o
n

2006
m
e
a
n

r
a
t
i
n
g


(
1

=

s
t
r
o
n
g
l
y

d
i
s
a
g
r
e
e
;

5

=

s
t
r
o
n
g
l
y

a
g
r
e
e
)




R
e
w
a
rd

a
n
d

R
e
sp
e
ct

C
o
n
t
ro
l

a
n
d

R
e
g
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

Faculty of Education

Perceptions of change in teacher status over time







Years could be significant event (change of government, major
educational reform) or just equal intervals as shown

C
h
a
n
g
e

i
n

t
e
a
c
h
e
r

s
t
a
t
u
s

o
v
e
r

t
h
e

y
e
a
r
s

(
o
n

a

s
c
a
l
e

o
f

1

(
v
e
r
y

l
o
w
)

t
o

5

(
v
e
r
y

h
i
g
h
)

)


Y
e
a
r

V
e
r
y

l
o
w




V
e
r
y

h
i
g
h

1
9
9
0






2
0
0
0






2
0
1
0







Faculty of Education

P
erceptions of teacher status over the years in England
(2006)
(critical dates)

1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
5
T
eachers
T
eaching assistants
Go
v
ernors
P
arents
P
e
r
c
e
n
t

r
a
t
i
n
g

(

1

v
e
r
y

l
o
w
;

5

v
e
r
y

h
i
g
h
)

1967
1979
1988
1997
2003
2006
Faculty of Education

Main Topics to be considered

N
ational level


Demand and supply of teachers
-

mobility and migration


Entry qualifications and competition


Respect for education


A voice for teachers
?


Public and private sectors?



Education system


Trust and autonomy


Control of entry to profession


Recognition of advanced teaching skills


Pay and conditions
?










Recruitment and retention



I
nitial and continuing professional development


Trust and autonomy


Recognition of advanced teaching skills, as defined by teachers


Consultation on key issues


Barriers to status


Improvements to teacher status



UNESCO 2012 recommends monitoring of


Teacher shortage


Teacher quality


Research knowledge production and communication










Recommendations from major reports

Faculty of Education

Topics at each layer for consideration

Regional/local level


School cooperation or competition


Provision of local training for
teachers


Relationships with community


Opportunities for research


School


Leadership style


Trust and responsibility


Internal
relations


Individual teacher


Self efficacy, commitment, motivation



Faculty of Education

Item suggestions from New Zealand

(Hall & Langdon, 2006)

Faculty of Education

Concluding comments


Hoyle’s determinants of teacher status remain valid over time and place
although they vary in impact from place to place


The achievement of universal primary education should raise not lower
teacher
status, if teachers are trained


Training and professional development, and greater competition to train
as a teacher, will promote teacher status


Being involved in research is now perceived (in England) as status
raising


Teachers need a voice to reveal their professionalism as well as basic
needs to make the public more aware of their responsibilities and
expertise

Faculty of Education

Teacher
organisations


are
uniquely well
placed, being in touch authentically with individual
teachers and with government ministers


to promote
teacher
voice


t
o collaborate with governments on reforms


t
o increase public awareness of teachers’ work and expertise



to make this first step in
consulting on the determinants
of teacher
status, how they may vary with national and local conditions



and
to bring
them to the
fore




Faculty of Education



Thank you!

M
erci
bien
!