3D Virtual Campus Tour

moanafternoonInternet and Web Development

Dec 11, 2013 (3 years and 7 days ago)

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3D Virtual Campus Tour





Interim Report




Supervisor:
Dr. Kevin Curran




Anthony McTaggart


Multimedia Computer Games


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Abstract

T
he success of
Google Maps

encouraged Google

to
incorporate

street view into the
already excellent Google Maps.
The only limitation this technology is that the street
view cars cannot go inside buildings or onto private property.


The aim of this project wa
s to create a virtual campus on Google Earth f
or new
s
tudents
,

so they may begin at the front gate and

navigate to their first class, even
before arriving at the university. This will relieve the pressure of getting lost or
having to ask fo
r directions. The method
used follow
s

the successful princip
les
already employed by the Google Street View team. A rig of eight webcams
mapped
where the Google Street View cars cannot: the interior of
all
buildings
.


The project w
as
tested by

select
ing

each individual image and enter
ing

inside it.
This
wa
s
necessary

to ensure that
the user i
s able to see
,

at the very minimum, the next
image in the sequence
,

as
well as the one previous.

The ultimate test for any project
is to
send it out into the public domain
. This process allows people who have never
see
n the project before to
spot errors,

and ultimately
cri
tique things that

may have
taken for granted as obvious.

To go along with this process
,

a questionnaire

will be

created

to

gi
ve the user the chance to put their individual views across.


Out of all of

the people who responded to the questionnaire almost all had a similar feedback
,
mostly positive
,

but most also had suggestions on how to make the functionality of
the site more user friendly.




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Acknowledgements

From the outset of this report
,

I would like to thank Dr. Kevin Curran for all the help
an
d guidance he has provided me with
,

allowing this assignment to take shape
. I
dread to think where I would have ended up
,

if he had not kept pulling m
e up on all of
the tangents

I was heading off
on.


Also, I would like to thank
Fionnuala,
my wife and my daughter Emma, without
whose love and support I don’t think I would ever have started typing at all.


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Table of Contents

Abstract

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2

Acknowledgements

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3

Table of Figures

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................................
.

6

2 Literature Review

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11

2.1 Introduction

................................
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.......................

11

2.2 Satellite Navigation

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11

2.3 Google Maps
................................
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12

2.3.1 Google Street View

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....

13

2.4 GPS

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14

2.5 Panoramic Stitching

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15

2.6 Google Earth

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18

2.7 Virtual 3D Tours

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19

2.8 New Students

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...................

20

2.9 Conclusion

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21

3 System Requirements & Analysis

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23

3.1 Aims

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23

3.2 Objectives
................................
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23

3.3 Milestones and Deliverables

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23

3.4 Methodology

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24

3.5 Work Packages

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25

3.6 Project Planning

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26

3.7 Working with Supervisor

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29

3.8 Risk Management

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..........

29

4 System Design

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...........................

31

4.1 User Interface

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32

4.2
HCI

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.......

32

4.3 Proposed Implementation of System

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........

33

5. Project Design

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..........................

35

5.1 Introduction

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........................

35

5.2 Webcams

................................
................................
................................
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35

5.3 Designing the
Rig

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36

5.4 Capturing the Images
................................
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.......

38

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5.5 Summary

................................
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...........................

39

6 Implementation

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..........................

40

6.1 Introduction

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........................

40

6.2 Stitching the Images

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........

40

6.3 Creating the .kml files

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.....

41

6.4 Aligning the Images on Google Earth (Offline)

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......................

43

6.5 Uploading the Project

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................................
................................
...

45

6.6 Updated Google Earth

................................
................................
................................
.....

46

6.7 Presenting the Project to the Public

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................................
............

46

6.8 Deployment

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................................
......................

46

6.9 Summary

................................
................................
................................
.............................

47

7 Testing

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................................
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................................
..........

49

7.1 Introduction

................................
................................
................................
......................

49

7.2 Testing

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................................
.

49

7.2.1 Testing for defects as a walkthrough

................................
................................
..

49

7.2.2 Testing Resolutions and Screen Size

................................
................................

49

7.2.3 Testing laptops and other computers

................................
................................
..

50

7.3 Public Testing

................................
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....................

51

7.4 Summary

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53

8 Evaluation

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...

56

8.1 Introduction

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56

8.2 Public Evaluation

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56

8.4 Summary

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63

9 Conclusion

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................................
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................................
.

65

9.1 Conc
lusions after the Interim

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.....................

65

9.2 Report Summary

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66

9.3 Evaluation Summary

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.......

69

9.4 Future work and Enhancements

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70

10 References

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71

11 Appendix

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...

73



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Table of Figures

Figure 1: Google Street Views current
coverage of the Magee Campus

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10

Figure 2: Bergman’s GigaPan Obama Image

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................................
......

17

Figure 3: : Bergman’s Image zoomed in to President Obama

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.....

17

Figure 4: Google Earth’s Moon Landing Tour

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................................
....

20

Figure 5: Missing Google Earth Plug
-
in

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32

Figure 6: System Implementation

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34

Figure 7: Image of Lifecam NX
-
6000

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35

Figure 8: Original six sided prototype

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36

Figure 9: Final
eight sided rig top

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36

Figure 10: Tripod selected as the adjustable base

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37

Figure 11: Finished eight sided piece of wood made to perfectly fit into the
tripod

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37

Figure 12: Eight sided piece

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......

37

Figure 13: Finished tripod

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37

Figure 14: Finished rig

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37

Figure 15: Rig with eight webcams in place.

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......

37

Figure 16: Main page with a .jpg image ready to be converted.

................................

42

Figure 17: ‘create’ screen where the user enter
s the important Google Earth
data.

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....................

43

Figure 18: ‘Field of View’ screen, where the camera visibility is set.

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43

Figure 19: Position in which the MS Research building stands on Google Earth.
44

Figure 20: The finished project as it sits on Google Earth.

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..........

45

Figure 21: Initial understanding of the site layout.

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........................

56

Figure 22: Familiarity with the MS Rese
arch Building.

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................

57

Figure 23: Which image did you select to begin your tour?

................................
........

5
8

Figure 24: Once the tour had begun did you understand how to move between
images?

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58

Figure 25: Moving between floors.

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59

Figure 26: Got lost whilst using the tour.

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...........

60

Figure 27: What type of machine did you use to view the tour?

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60

Figure 28: What resolution did you use to view the tour?

................................
..........

61

Figure 29: What size of screen did you use to view the tour?

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....

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Figure 30: Would you recommend this tour to friends, new and current
students.

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...........

62

Figure 31: Proposed time plan.

................................
...

Error! Bookmark not defined.

1


Introduction

Having to find your way around in the world is a problem that
has faced human
beings for centuries
. We have overcome this problem in several ways. Firstly, with
the creation of maps that depicted

mountains and trails, then as we
advanced,

they
involved increasing amounts of detail
.


Mapping;

or as it is more commonly known
:

Cartography
;

is the art of representing a
given area by drawing a graphic representation or recreating a scale model that can be
used to reference an area or convey geographical information. As maps do not
include extensive literature and are mostly visual and graphi
c
,

they can be used and
understood by anyone from anywhere in the world and this is one of their primary
attractions
,

as a
form of
universal language

(Aber, 2008)
.


The ea
rliest known maps are dated

as far
back
as 2300 B.C.
What we refer to as
maps
,

nowadays
,

are modern maps which have been around since the 17
th

century and
from that time they have been continually redrawn as the
years have passed

and

as our
knowledge of the
world and our own individual countries have

grown.

It was around
1912
however, tha
t mapping took a big

leap forward and it was
,

as is with many
major breakthroughs and leaps forward

in technology,

thanks to a war

(Aber, 2008)
.


The First World War saw the introduct
ion of
aerial photography due

to the massive
advantage that came from being able to see what your enemy was doing
,

without their
knowledge

(Publishing, 2001)
. Along with this advantage came a vast improvement
in the accuracy and scal
e of maps. All of our maps that we have and use today are
made up of observations that are drawn from both ground and aerial photography

(Aber, 2008)
.


Approximately, three and a half years ago, Google began to roll out what

has to be
acknowledged as the new ‘big leap’ forward in our struggle to know our world more
intimately. ‘Google Street View’ as it is known, takes mapping to a new level: the
company strives to put every

corner of the map online, where visual images all
ow
users
see their destination
s in advance,
plan out routes to travel and
locate

local
amenities

(Google, Google Milestones, 2010c)
.

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The idea behind Google Street V
iew is to take Google maps to the

next level

. They
describe

it as “allowing you to visually explore and navigate a neighbourhood through
panoramic street
-
level photographs”

(Google, Street View, the basics, 2010a)
.


Google have included this feature as the closest level of the zoom function that is built
into Google Maps. If you are studying an area of the world for holiday purposes or
even for study, and you zoom in on Google Maps, if you are lucky enough, that area

of the world will already have been mapped with this new functionality and it will
allow you to explore the world in a whole new way.


It is Google’s

leap forward that has inspired this final year project. The vast nature of
the project undertaken by Goo
gle has meant that they have had to place certain
restrictions on themselves for now, so as

to ensure that the

project
would
not take
decades to complete. Some of

these limitations mean that

only streets
are mapped,
and
they
do not attempt to enter any pr
ivate property or film anywhere that they need
to gain extra consent.

This limitation has inspired the desire

to further t
heir work by
continuing it at an individual
university

level
, but this time
,

taking it inside the
property line.


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Figure
1
:

Google Street Views current coverage of the Magee Campus

One of the biggest problems facing new students arriving at
university

is the inability
to navigate the maze of buildings and corridors, or get a clear sense of how it is l
aid
out. The aim of this project is to create a virtual campus on Google Earth for new
students to begin at the front gate and to navigate to their first class, even before
arriving at the university. This will relieve the pressure of getting lost or hav
ing to
ask for directions.


The method t
hat will be utilised t
o
overcome this problem will
follow the successful
principles already employed by the Google Street View team. A rig of eight webcams
is going to be used to map where the Google Street View c
ars cannot: the interior of
all of the buildings

(Hickey, 2009)
.



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2


Literature Review

2.1


Introduction

Included in this chapter is an investigation into

the software that is already available
in the marketplace
, which
will help in the creation and completion of t
his project. As
well as this, there is a summary of
the software
that is going to be

improve
d: Google
Street View. Also
highlight
ed will be

all of the software that lead to
the creation of
Street View,
the history behind each and how
Google draws on a piece of each
one of
these technologies
,

to create Street View.


2.2

Satellite

Navigation

The world of
Satellite/C
omputer navigation is a sector of the market that a few years
ago did

no
t exist
,

but over

the last ten years it has exploded into one of the biggest
industries in the world. It encompasses everything from online mapping to
Route
Planners
.


The common and global standard name for satellite navigations systems is the Global
Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), however most members of the public know it as

sat nav

. The primary function of the
GNSS is to “provide autonomous geo
-
spatial
positio
ning with global coverage”. In layman’s terms
,

this means that the GNSS
enables small electr
onic receivers to determine
loc
ations, i.e. their longitude,

latitude
and altitude
. The locations tha
t these receivers deliver are extremely accurate
,

usually
to
within a few metres

(Associations, 1999)
.


Before satellites were used to help aid navigation
,

they were
preceded

by several
ground
-
based

systems;

the most famous and common of these were DECCA,
LORAN and O
mega radio. These
three ground
-
based systems relied on the terrestrial
long

wave radio transmitters. Utilising the long wave transmitters, these systems
broadcast radio pulses from what were referred to as

master


locations
, after which
they would send pulses from “slave”

stations. The signals that were sent from these
“slave” stations would arrive at the destination at different times as they originated in
different locations. The times at which they were received was carefully monitored
and recorded. Comparing the tim
es that the pulses took to travel to the destinations
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with the time and location of the “master” pulses, it was possible to locate the
distance and location of the “slave” pules

(Associations, 1999)
.


The first satellite navigation system was developed by the U.S military in the 1960s
and was named

Transit

.

Transit

works by having
satellites travel

on
constant and
well
-
known
trajectories,
broadcast
ing

their signals on a
well
-
known and common
frequenc
y.
The frequency
returned
will
be
slightly

different

from the broadcast
frequency; this is due to

the movement of the satellite
in relation to
the receiver.

By
recording these changes over a given amount of time,
the receiver
will be able to
d
etermine
wh
at side of the satellite it is on. Several of these
measurements
,

used i
n
conjunction with the

precise knowledge of the satellite's orbit
,

can fix a particular
position.

Modern satellite
s, however, are radically

different, they return a signal to
the ground

that contains
their
orbital data
, and this can then be used

to extrapolate
exact location
s

(Associations, 1999)
.


A

few years ago there
was a vast array

of different places you could visit
on the web
,

to plan a trip or see pictures of your destination. However, today there is

only one
place that you

go:
Google.


2.3


Google Maps

When it comes to computer navigation and online maps there is only one place that
anyone thinks about when looking
online
:
Google Maps.

When Google
’s

map
ping
service was

first released on September 14
th

2004, it was known as Google Local.

It
would be abo
ut six months before it was upgraded to the Google Maps service that we

now

know.

The Goo
gle Corporation provides Google
Maps;

it is a free service for
the public as long as it is not used for commercial purposes

(Google, Google
Maps/Google Earth APIs Terms of Service, 2009)

(Google, The journey may be the
reward, but so is finding the right hotspot, 2004)
.


In February 2005
,

Google Maps was officially released.
On April 12
th

2005
,

Google
Local
, n
ow Google Maps
,

was released onto mobile phones and this allowed users to
look up driving instructions once they had left the house
. In April 2005, the mapping
service was again upgraded to incorporate satellite images of the world and it is a
service that is still being completed in certain areas of the world today. In June of the
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same year
,

Google released API for their maps and t
his allowed all websites in the
world to incorporate and embed Google Maps onto their site
s. This i
s a fantastic
service that many companies avail

of
,

especially for
the convenience of assisting

customers to locate their business and allowing them to prin
t out a map from their
fro
nt door directly to the latter
. It wasn’t until February 2007
,

that Google introduced
their next new idea and this was to add traffic information and traffic updates via their
map service. This was a big feature as it launched i
n five major U.S cities and
allowed drivers to use their mobiles
,

featuring Google maps
,

to
avoid bad traffic areas
in the city.

It wasn’t until May 2007
,

that Google Street View
was
début
ed

(Google,
Mobile? Get Local, 2005)

(Google, Google Milestones, 2010c)
.


2.3.1


Google Street View

It was in taking inspiration from Google Street V
iew,
that
this project took direction
and shape. After considerable research into whether on not it would be
a viable and
interesting final year project, research turned to wheth
er or not someone else

had tried
a similar venture. It wasn’t long until several others with similar ideas had been
found, and these websites, along with many others, are providing the i
nspiration
needed
,

along with
the
new ideas that the project needs
, in order

to succeed
(Gahran,
2009)
.


The biggest inspiration so far is the American company ‘Earthmine’. They have
actually been going back over the Google
Street Map and recreating them to a much
higher level of detail, including building measurements and information points in 3D.
This of cou
rse is easy for them to do on their
much smaller scale. They are not
affiliated with Google in any way, but their im
proved version of Google Street View
would be impossible to complete for the whole world, as it would require years to
finish and thousands of workers. Having said this, it is good to see
that there are
people
working on improving a feature that hasn’t ev
en been completely finished
(Clarke, 2009)
.

It gives deserved credit to the original idea.


The newest feature available in the Google Street

View program is their new face
-
blur
technology. This technology was mainly develope
d to protect the company from
being sued by the general public
, for the use of

image
s

without consent.
Unfortunately, this technology is not going to be easily replicated, but it is going to be
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possible to use Adobe Photoshop to blur faces during the mani
pulation process, if
necessary

(Google, Behing the Scenes, 2010b)
.


2.4


GPS

When

think
ing

about computer navigation
,

the first thing that
comes to

mind is GPS.
GPS or the Global Positioning
System
,

is a global navigation satellite system that is
primarily

based in space.
The system is made of 32 satellites that orbit the earth on
six different height levels (or planes). The number of satellites can vary as older ones
are retired and new ones are l
aunched to replace them.


The system provides accurate location and time information to anyone with a GPS
receiver, regardless of the weather conditions. The system itself was created by the
American military an
d is maintained by the American government
.


Although it was originally created
by,
and used primarily as
,
a military application
,
GPS is now regarded as a dual application technology. This means that it is used by
both the military and the civilian population at large. Despite this
diversity
of
application
, it is really only those who

forwarded the cr
eation of online mapping that
will be
focused upon
. Many civilian applications rely on at least one of the three
basic sources of
information that GPS provides:


1.

Absolute Location

2.

Relative
Movement

3.

Time Transfer


Utilising the

three sources

that GPS provides
,

has helped people map the world as we
know it
,

in a much higher level of detail. It is as a result of these exact measurements
,

that map scales are so much
clearer.

(USA.gov, 2010)


It was also these three
principles

that allowed Google to incorporate

their online
mapping technology onto the mobile phone and in turn
,

move
one step closer to the
Street View project.



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The sat nav in your car works by

connecting to the
network of Global Positioning

Satellites that are

orbit
ing

the earth. The GPS
connects to the

sat nav receiver
and
then proceeds to locate the receiver’s

position on the surface of the earth.

Once this is
complete, the GPS uses the sat
nav

s determined

longitude, latitude and altitude
and
places the locations over the top of the standard road maps
, which

are stored within
the sat nav itself.

The software within the device can then use the data that it has been
provide
d with,

to work out the quickest and shortest routes between its location and
the destination location. The availability of road speeds and other data within the
device also allow it to calculate an
d provide the driver with arrival

time estimates
(Admin, 2010)
.


2.5


Panoramic
Stitching

Panoramic Stitching is

the process of bring
ing

together multiple photographs that
have overlapping fields of view
,

to produce a segmented
panorama

or high
-
resolution
image. This process is usually achieved vi
a the use of computer software. O
ne of
the most common
,

publicly used
, pieces of software is

PTGUI (Panorama Tools
Graphical User Interface)
(Szeliski, 2005)
.

Image stitching encompasses everything
from stitching two images together
,

to stitching two hundred pictures together.



The proces
s of panoramic stitching provides

the keen amateur photographer
with
the
ability to
create massive scenic view, using

just

a normal digital camera and
Photoshop. To create a larger view
, the photographer must simply capture the final
image they
want
,

in smaller images (any number of shots t
hat they wish)
. A number
of constants must be kept: ensure the

camera stays at the sa
me zoom and focus levels

th
roughout the capturing process; and
the camera must also stay at the same height
and angle. This may seem like a lot, however, it is made much easier by the use of a
tripod or stand. The smaller images absolutely must have over
lapping fields of view
so that the program being used
,

can easily line up the similar areas or so that the user
can slide the images together easily
, even

by eye. Even though all of these measures
together make the process seem long and
complex,

it is quite simple and only requires
a few extra moments of the photographer
’s time
. O
nce the stitching is complete
,

the
final photo will be vastly superior to an individual still.



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There are three types of stitching that the photographer might employ
in the creation
of the larger image. The first is called Rectilinear
Stitching:

t
his involves either
rotating a single camera or using multiple cameras to capture all angles.
Using
multiple cameras allows the images to
be
captured without additional movem
ents
,

whereas using just one camera means that the camera must be rotated in set segments
of about 40 to 45 degrees, depending on the type of lens being used. No matter which
method

is used
,
with
single or multiple cameras
,

it is the combination of precis
e
angles and camera that allow the photographer to
capture

precise rectangular slices of
the scene or room being captured. Although this technique is very time consuming
,

it
has still remain
ed

very popular amongst photographer
s

due to the inexpensive natu
re
of the equipment required and the fact that any standard camera will be adequate for
capturing the images.

This method of stitching is also referred to as
"cylindrical"
.

T
his is because whilst it does offer the user the ability to pan around the full
360°
, it
only offers

around 5
0° degrees above or below the horizon line
, which means the user
is unable to capture the floor or the roof of their image
.


The second of the
image stitching methods is the S
pherical method.

The first
drawback to this method
is that it requires a f
ish eye lens to work. This requires

money
,

and the better the lens you purchase
,

the few
er

images you will need to
capture. This method was

very popular during the mid 90’s,

as it was possible
,

with
the correct equipment
,

to captur
e a full 360
-
degrees horizontally and vertically with
the correct equipment
,

in just two images.

A virtual tour created in this man
ner was
much

more expensive to create
,

as it required expensive equipment such as
a Sigma
8mm f/3.5 lens which allowed
its
rotator heads to
be set to
90°
and as a result of this
,

could capture a tour of any scene in just four images.


The final method is Cubical Stitching.

This form of stitching was the original top to
bottom virtual tours and it was very
‘immersive’


coveri
ng all images of a location,
from floor to ceiling, left to right, and front to back.

It was created and marketed by
Apple Computers and launched as their Apple Quicktime VR product in the early
90’s. By modern standards this technique in now very old fa
shioned and has all but
been replaced by the above method of stitching
,
Spherical Stitching.


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One of the most iconic moments of the last decade has been immortalized by the use
of image stitching. The inauguration of President Obama was captured by the
GigaPan Project.
It was captured at the U.S Capitol building in Washington D.C on
January 20 2009
, and

was made up of 220 images with a final resolution of 1,474
megapixels

(Bergman, 2009)
.


Figure
2
:
Bergman’s GigaPan Obama Image














Figure
3
:
: Bergman’s Image zoomed in to President Obama


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The GigaPan Project is
a
collaboration

between Carnegie Mellon University and
NASA Ames Intelligent Systems Division’s Robotics Group
,

with support from
Google. It has an aim of
creating

a vast collection of
‘gigapixel’ shots and placing
them on the web
,

for everyone to enjoy.

They are also
making their technology
available for the public to purchase so that they may also take these shot
s, and when
done, may
add them to the GigaPan website if they
so
wish

(GigaPan, 2010)
.



2.6


Google Earth

The
Google Earth
project

was initially the brain child of a company called Keyhole,
Inc. The project was originally called

EarthViewer 3D

. Keyhole, Inc was
purchased by Google in 2004 and

they

re
-
released EarthViewer 3D as Google Earth
in 2005

(H
irshon, 2010)
.


Google E
arth works by placing images of the world
,

taken by satellite
,

in the correct
geographical location and also placing several images of the same area in the correct
order of height. This resulting
layering of images gives the
user the illusion of
zooming in on a location. As the user descends through the layers
,

they will be able
to see the world change from large land masses to muc
h more defined areas of land,
then roads and house
s,

and finally
,

if they are in an already mapp
ed area
,

they will
reach the street view stage and see the actual streets as it looked

on the day it was
captured,

pedestrians, traffic and all

(Hirshon, 2010)
.


Unfortunately, the majority of Google Earth is still only availabl
e with low quality 2D
images unless you are living in a city or extremely large town. As a result of this
,

the
buildings are flat and not well suited to having images placed on them as givi
ng them
height will be very difficult
.


One of the key features of

Google Earth
,

which

will be vital to the project
,

is that it is
also

available a
s a browser plug
-
in and
available on new smart phones.
These
features will allow a presentation of the project
to students
,

without asking them to
download an
d install Google

E
arth on their machines
,

as a plug
-
in is all that is
required. The mobile application will also mean that the pr
oject is available
anywhere, which

has an
Internet

connection.


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2.7

Virtual 3D Tours

The world of virtual tours has become a bit of a ‘fad
’ in today

s society. They are
used for everything from viewing show house
s

and showroom
s
,

to viewing the insides
of famous building
s,

half way across the world.

One website includes the definition:


A 360 virtual reality tour is created with 360 degree
panoramas, which shows 360
degree fiel
d of view of the virtual place


(Easypano, 2010)
. This is exactly what this
project is aiming to create
,

for the University of Ulster.


There are two main methods when it comes to the crea
tions of
3D virtual tours: the

stitching of photographs and video based virtual tours. The reason behind this project
using the stitching
method

is that it allows much more control of the images and
means that they can be manipulated
,

as

is needed. Also, the use of stitching
means
that the user finds themselves

inside a personally created 360
-
degree image that has
been stitched image by image,
rather than being
placed inside a video that has no
personality and is simply the result of pre
ssing record
,

and therefore lacks the
personal touch that makes the user feel like they are there.


However, Google Earth
, when downloaded onto your machine, comes with free
virtual 3D tours that are nothing less than out of this world. It offers the user

the
ability to view the site of
the first moon landing in a manne
r than is as close as
actually being there.
These tours utilise the same single images stitched together that
this project hopes to achieve.


This is

the goal of this project
,

so it impe
rat
ive that all
possible detail
-
providing sources

are

looked at, to gain a wide understanding of what
is involved, and what should be emulated
.


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Figure
4
:
Google Earth’s Moon Landing Tour

2.8



New Students

The
University of
Ulster has a total stude
nt body that numbers around 27,
500. On
average they have about 6,000 new students each year across all campuses and
courses. Speaking from personal experience
,

many of these students find the prospect
of
negotiating the large camp
uses as
a scary and worrying task

(HESA, 2010)
.


The Magee campus provides the students with no maps or any means of

finding their
way around, except by

the process of trial and error. To many new students
,

the
need

to stop a stranger and ask them for directions around the campus is still a
daunting
task
.

To test how helpful the

average student

would be at giving directions,

ten
students
were stopped
at ra
ndom and asked

to point the searcher
towards a given
building
. Only
three students out of ten were successful in
providing directions

to the
building

being
enquired about. The rest either didn’t know or didn’t care enough to
think about it and just grunted “no idea
,

sorry” while

not

stopping their walking
. One

student couldn’t even provide directions

to the MC building from outside the union
shop. This is an unacceptably low amount of help that new students are being
provided by the university and its student body. Armed with these results,
it is
obvious that

there is a need for new geographical information to be provided for the
university and the student body as a whole.

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As a new student some years ago,
the opportunity to go online and take a t
our of the
university campus,

to
familiarise

oneself

with the loc
ations of the rooms
to be
attended

as well as the locations of
lecturer’s

offices
, would have been greatly
appreciated
. Even after the students are familiar with the campus, the system would
still be of use to them if they received new lecturers and class
es in the next semester
or
were sent to
a building
they had never been in before.


The University of New South Wales
, last year,
had an student Engineering team that
created an application for
a Window mobile device that provided the users with live
feedba
ck as to their exact locati
on inside the university campus. I
t actually updated
live as they walked
,

without the need to reload the page. This application
,

although
quite complicated to create
, once finished
,

could have vast applications far and
beyond the university.
I
t is projects such as the latter,

that have inspired this project.
Although they are not exactly the same, they are, however, of a similar vein, one that
would like to help new students to find

their way around a strange new place
(UNSWCommunity, 2010)
.


I
n a similar style to the University of New South Wales, The University of Exeter has
employed a new system to help new students find their way around campus. They
have devised a system that allows students with new smartphones like iPhones and
BlackBerrys to scan barcodes that are placed at key areas of the campus and once
scanned
,

the barcode tell
s

the user where they

are and allows them to request direction
from

t
hat location to the locations of any of the other barcodes that are available on
campus. These direct
ion
s are then avai
lable in a text format for the
user to read as
they move.


2.9


Conclusion

All of the above sections have highlighted individual pieces of software and
technology
that are both unique and innovative. However, it is in combining elements
from each of these resources that

an improvement to Google Street View is to be
investigated
:

by taking it inside buildings and as a result
,

improving the lives of new
students.


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The primary feature

that will make up the main body of the project will be the Google
Earth application that will provide a platform from which the project can be launched.
After this
,

there will be a process of taking all of the captured images and stitching
them together
using the process described
,

to turn them into the 360
-
degree images
that are required to create a believable walkthrough.


Having considered all of the methods of stitching
, and noting
the advantages and
disadvant
ages of each,
the technique of Rectilinear Stitching
will be used for the
project. This dec
ision is based upon

both the financial costs required by the others
,

plus the fact that it requires the most work in image manipulation
. T
he project
must
not appear easy
,
in the
capturing of fewer images, as the reality is that it

will be a very
long and lengthy process to manipulate them all individually. The option of using
video to capture the 360
-
degree images is also not viable
,

as already has been stated it
lack
s

the person
al feel of the walkthrough and the point of the project is make the end
user, the new student, feel like they are not alone.


After having put a significant amount time into reading and
digesting the appropriate
literature
,
the combination of elements and
utilisation of

the available technologies
makes the gathering of data possible,

and ensures the creation of a
viable walkthrough
of the university that new students will be able to use easily and without
comp
l
ic
ation
.








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3


System Requirements &

Analysis

3.1
Aims

The aim of the project is to create an educational tool for new students to the
university. This tool will remove the pressure of new students as to class locations, as
they will be able to load up the university campus on Google Earth
and roam freely,
without time pressure.


3.2
Objectives

The objectives involved in making this project a success, are:

1.

Developing a rig that will be suitable for housing the webcams.

2.

Gathering the required images with the new webcam rig.

3.

Finding the requir
ed programs to help create appropriate files that are
compatible with Google Earth.

4.

Formatting the gathered images into a clear and continuous image with no
overlapping.

5.

Retrieving the appropriate Longitudes and Latitudes of the images collected
and having

them loaded onto Google Earth with correct sizing.

6.

Linking all of the completed 360


images together to make one continuous
walkthrough.

7.

Keep a constant diary of my activities and progress to aid my final report.


3.3
Milestones and Deliverables

Below are

denoted the most significant milestones that I will encounter and complete
during my project:


Milestones

1.

Constant contact with Supervisor (Dr. Kevin Curran).

2.

Commence Interim Report.

3.

Research the problem of Internal Imaging of buil
dings.

4.

Build a rig for webcams that is suitably mobile.

5.

Image entire campus.

6.

Completion of Image capture.

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7.

Completion of the Interim Report.

8.

Commence Final Report.

9.

Investigate required programs for image manipulation.

10.

Completion of the Image Manipulation.

11.

F
ormat images.

12.

Place images on Google Earth.

13.

Completion of the Testing and Implementation.

14.

Completion of the Street View Project.

15.

Completion of the Final Report.


Find below the itemised deliverables that will result from the various
works leading
up to, and in the completion of

the
final project:


Deliverables

1.

Submit Proposal Form.

2.

Submit Project Management.

3.

Submit Completed Interim Report.

4.

Submission of a completed walkthrough of the entire campus that is available
via Google Earth.

5.

Submission of a final project report, containing all of my works from start to
finish including everything, even if it was unsuccessful.


3.4

Methodology

T
his project will require a lot of research into how the existing technology of Google
Earth and G
oogle Street View work, including finding out what are the file types
associated with each. A literature review of diaries and reports of those who have
also attempted similar projects will be invaluable to
the research as it will reveal
all of
the
approaches that did and did not work
, and assist in the

plan
ning of
the most useful
and time effective method to proceed with.


The

initial research plan is to read all available research from the creators of the
technology themselves
. Online websites a
re an unending source of ideas with their
sugges
ted methods for data capture

(Hickey, 2009)
. Invaluable resources like this
will have to be studied carefully and co
mpletely, to ensure that once the research is
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complete,

there
are no questions left to be answered. The plan of how to complete the
project successfully needs to be clear and
plainly

written down on paper for the
purposes of the final report.


Also, as the images to be used to create the walkthrough are the only re
al data that
needs to be coll
ected, they need to be accurate,

so certain questions need to
considered: What is the best way to capture the i
mages so that they look most
accessible
? Should it be early in the morning
,

to avoid students in the pictures
;

or
should it be later in the
day with better light, but
with the chance of having students in
every picture?


Once the data has been collected and organised, it will have to be loaded into the
software so that it can be interpreted in the correct way an
d will produce the correct
end results. These will firstly be completed .jpeg files made up of eight webcam
images. They will then need to be converted in the .kml files so as to be compatible
with Google Earth
,

before being given GPS locations and synce
d with Google Earth.


The final results will be presented in Google Earth, linked together and knitted into
one continuous walkthrough so that when the user enters, they will feel engaged and
they will not be aware that the images were eight separate shots

rather than one. The
perfect result for the project is to have the entire campus at Magee mapped in the
same style as the rest of the city of Derry. This means that when complete, the end
user (most likely a student) will be able to move seamlessly thro
ughout the campus
and locate classrooms as well as the offices of their lecturers. There will also be an
extensive report made that will highlight all of the success and failures that happened
throughout the entire project.


3.5

Work Packages

Task 1


Research to ensure task can be completed successfully.

To complete this task the following criteria must be met:

1.

Research into the technology that Google Street View uses

2.

Tracking down the software used if available.

3.

Replacement software found if necessary
.

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4.

Research into success and failings of other people who have attempted similar
ideas.


Task 2


Rig Assembly and Image Capture.

To complete this task the following criteria must be met:

1.

Develop initial rig designs.

2.

Test rig and look improvements.

3.

Have com
pleted rig design manufactured.

4.

Use equipment to take the required images.


Task 3


Software download and Image manipulation.

To complete this task the following criteria must be met:

1.

Download software that will be used for image manipulation.

2.

Use the
software to manipulate images.


Task 4


Google Earth and Linking Images.

To complete this task the following criteria must be met:

1.

Download latest Google Earth software.

2.

Test and ensure image compatibility with Google Earth.

3.

Link images together to make a

walkthrough on Google Earth.


Task 5


Interim Report and Final Project Report.

To complete this task the following criteria must be met:

1.

Keep

a diary of all work, towards the

final goal.

2.

Use diary entries and own knowledge to complete an interim report f
or the
Christmas deadline that encompasses all work done to that point.

3.

Complete the Final Project Report outlining everything that has happened in
the project development from start to finish.


3.6

Project Planning

The

project
has been divided
into a
number of manageable tasks. These tasks cover
both milestones and deliverables.


Task One
-

Research

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This involves conducting the research necessary to ensur
e a successful completion of
the
project. A number of areas must be researched. Firstly, it is i
mportant to fully
understand the technology that Google Street View makes use of and note the areas
and reason why they are restricted to external viewing only. It is a remedying of this
situation
that is to be focussed upon.


Secondly, if available, to

d
iscover and utilise the software used by Google
Street View and if this is not possible,
to

procure similar software that will imitate
their production of images.


Next, to

research the attempts made with similar projects. These
will be found
online and a
fter thoroughly investigating their successes and failures,
one will be
more

fully aware of possible pitfalls and areas where successes are ubiquitous.


Having completed the above areas,
a confident completion of the

project
proposal form

will be made, followed by

a submission of a copy to both project
supervisor and
second marker. Once both supervisors approve and have signed off on
the latter, the Project Management task can also be completed and submitted.


Task Two
-

Rig Assembly and
Image Capture.

H
aving taken inspiration from
online research
,

a number of ideas for the design of the
rig

have come to light
. The most viable options will be made, tested and improved
upon. The successful rig design will be professionally manufactured
and once ready,
the equipment will be used to take all required images.


The initial hope is to

picture some external views of the campus, followed by a
thorough sweep of the interior


covering as many of the corridors a
nd floors as
possible. With
eight
cameras,
there will be a

cap
turing of

a simultaneous image of a
360


perimeter every 25 feet, allowing for as thorough a presentation
of the interior as
possible. The
aim
is
to capture these images during weekends, when student presence
will be at a minim
um. The reason for this is twofold: legal implications, and
continuity in the 360


image capturing.


Task Three


Software download and Image manipulation.

In order to successfully manipulate the captured images,
suitable
software
is to be
downloaded
that

will assist in the production of a 360


sweep. Trial and error will
form a large part of this section, as the aim is to create as seamless and realistic a 360


sweep as possible, with no inaccurate distortions. The manipulation of the 8 images
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is vital
to the success of the
project, and the authentic impression it will give of the
campus.


Task Four
-

Interim Report

From Week 1,
a

diary
will be kept
of all activities pertaining to each of the above
tasks. Alongside this, predict
ions will be made, of

any

situations that may arise from
the tasks not yet attempted. All such collected data will be formulated into a report
and submitted on, or before, 9
th

December.


Task Five
-

Google Earth and Linking Images.

The
intention is to gather all images that hav
e been captured and manipulated during
Task Three, and upload them into the latest version
of Google Earth. To do this, the
images
must firstly turn the images from .jpg into Google Earth’s native extension of
.kml.

Once this has been completed, Googl
e Earth
will be used
to indicate the
correct co
-
ordinates, both latitude and longitude, of the university buildings, as well
as the exact location of each individual picture. Accuracy is paramount in this task,
so that all images may be placed inside the
appropriate building, and not overlapping
upon each other.

When each picture has been correctly placed, the next step will be a simple
matter of indicating to the Google Earth programme, which image should link to
another, and where. The user will now be

able to access the images, and enjoy a
continuous walk
-
through of the campus.



Task Six


Completing Final Deliverables

Before the
completed Street View Project,

can be delivered, each area will

have
been
fully tested

and ensured that it works correctly

on Google Earth. All troubleshooting
will be noted and corrected. The Street View practical project will now be completed,
and all that remains is to complete and submit the Final Project Report.


In order to have a thorough Report,
the kept diary will
be accessed,

use
will be
made
of the Interim repo
rt, and the will be a provision of

further details of subsequent
work.
A

comprehensive account

will be supplied,

of that all that has occurred during
the project, from start to finish.


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3.7


Working with

Supervisor

I sought out my appointed supervisor because his project proposals were of a similar
vein to mine. With his encouragement, I feel confident in tackling my project and his
enthusiasm leads me to believe that my final outcome will prove a usefu
l tool for
Magee.


Kevin Curran and I have been in contact both face to face and via email. He has
requested that we have face
-
to
-
face meetings no less than every two weeks; alongside
this, I must send detailed emails at least once a week about my current

progress in the
project. As mentioned above, it is vital to have weekly demands in order to ensure
that the allowance of an entire year is used as effectively as possible.


My supervisor is present to provide support, appraisal, guidance and if he consid
ers it
necessary, samples of past work for perusal. Most recently, he emailed me when he
felt that I was not utilising him to the full potential and encouraged me to ask him as
many questions as I wanted to. This gesture made me feel supported and even m
ore
motivated to attack my project.


3.8


Risk Management

There are a number of
anticipated risks involved in the

project.


In terms of physical consequences
, the lead required to extend the

camera a
significant length through the campus corridors, w
ill require frequent monitoring.
The substantial risk this involves is reduced in the imaging of the campus during
weekends only.









This also assists with the legal complications of reducing the number of
students present, and the problems involve
d with publishing these faces on the
Internet. It would be difficult to gain consent from all students involved, and so
pixilation would be a solution, al
though a time consuming one. The

desire is to be
able to picture a corridor with as few people in it

as possible, or simply ask for their
cooperation during the process. With a distance of 25 feet between each shot, it
should be of little consequence to wait for people to pass, as there will hopefully only
be small numbers present at any one time.






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An investigation into the copyright law of both, the use of the Google Earth
idea and the photographing of the internal private property of the University, is
necessary. To complete the
project within the for
mer’s copyright requirements, one
must not gene
rate profits from their intellectual property. As for the
University,
staff
approval from the highest level

is required
, in order to gain permission to film within
the buildings. This is achievable.

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4


System
Design

Systems design

is the process of defining the architecture, components, modules,
interfaces, and data for a system to satisfy specified requirements.
The following
pages will contain details of the design that will be
involved

in the 3D Virtual
Campus Tour. This will
entail details involved in the creation of the user interface
that will house the tour as well as
system

architecture that
give a visual depiction of
how everything in the process fits together.


The plan is to create a web
page

that will present the user w
ith
a flash based site. The
site itself will include a Google Earth plug
-
in. This method of presenting the project
will remove the pressure on the user to download the entire Google Earth program as
the b
rowser will automatically offer

to retrieve the re
quired plug
-
in for them.


Once the user has arrived at the site and their browser has retrieved the required plug
-
in, they will be automatically zoomed into the University of Ulster on Google Earth.
From here they will be able to see a graphical 3D repres
entation of the University
buildings. On top of these buildings the user

will be able to see
all of the images that
have be
en produced from the capture and image manipulation process. The user will
have the ability to select any of the images and begin
the tour from there; however,
the recommended start locations will be clearly highlighted.


The capturing of the images will require a Mac, eight webcams, a specially created
webcam stand and an external power supply. Once the gear has been set

up and
pow
er
ed,
the Mac will be used to take one image from each of the webcams and once
this is complete
,

the images will need to be checked to ensure that they are of good
quality and all of their contents are easily seen. The specially designed stand will
ensure

that they are all overlapping properly so this will not be an issue during
capture.


With all images captured
, the lengthy

process of stitching the images together can
begin. This will involve using software and making identical locations in each pictur
e
so that the software can line them up properly. After this
,

the picture
s

are then
converted to Google Earth files and uploaded. The buildings that are going to be
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placed in Google Earth will b
e created using Google Sketch

and will be rough 3D
represent
ations of the Magee buildings and surrounding areas that have been imaged.


4.1 User Interface

The figure below illustrates the
message that the user will be presented with when
they attempt to access the website without the Google Earth Plug
-
in. It wi
l
l be held
inside a window with
in the site and when clicked
,

will automatically install the
missing plug
-
in.


Figure
5
: Missing Google Earth Plug
-
in


4.2

HCI

The website itself will be created following the eight golden
rules set forth by
Shneiderman. D
oing this will ensure the user finds the website easy to follow and the
website itself will be as user friendly as possible.
It is important that these rules a
re
adhered to. T
he eight golden rules are listed below:

C
onsi
stency
:
Consistent sequences of actions should be required in similar
situations; identical terminology should be used in prompts, menus, and help screens;
and consistent commands should be employed throughout

(Shneiderman)
.

F
requent user

shortcuts:
As the frequency of use increases, so do the user's desires
to reduce the number of interactions and to increase the pace of interaction.
Abbreviations, function keys, hidden commands, and macro facilities are very helpful
to an ex
pert user

(Shneiderman)
.

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I
nformative feedback
:
For every operator action, there should be some system
feedback. For frequent and minor actions, the response can be modest, while for
infrequent and major actions, the response sh
ould be more substantial

(Shneiderman)
.

Design dialog to yield closure
:
Sequences of actions should be organized into
groups with a beginning, middle, and end. The informative feedback at the
completion of a group of actions gi
ves the operators the satisfaction of
accomplishment, a sense of relief, the signal to drop contingency plans and options
from their minds, and an indication that the way is clear to prepare for the next group
of actions

(Shneiderman)
.

S
imple error handling
:
As much as possible, design the system so the user cannot
make a serious error. If an error is made, the system should be able to detect the error
and offer simple, comprehensible mechanisms for handling the error

(Shneiderman)
.

E
asy reversal of actions
:
This feature relieves anxiety, since the user knows that
errors can be undone; it thus encourages exploration of unfamiliar options. The units
of reversibility may be a single action, a d
ata entry, or a complete group of actions

(Shneiderman)
.

Support internal locus of control
:
Experienced operators strongly desire the sense
that they are in charge of the system and that the system responds to their actions.
De
sign the system to make users the initiators of actions rather than the responders

(Shneiderman)
.

Reduce short
-
term memory load
:
The limitation of human information processing
in short
-
term memory requires that displays be kept

simple, multiple page displays be
consolidated, window
-
motion frequency be reduced, and sufficient training time be
allotted for codes, mnemonics, and sequences of actions

(Shneiderman)
.


4.3 Proposed Implementation of Syst
em

The figure on the following page depicts an
overview of the proposed system.

The
diagram has also been written out fully in text form in the project planning section
found above in 3.6.





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Research the
Project

Final Report

Build
Rig

Use
Research


Find More Topics to Research

Research Rig Ideas


Rig Designed


Rig Built

Create Website

Image Capture

Fraud Possible


Website
Constructed

Plugin check ready

Plug
-
in checker

Capture Images

Format
Images

Eight Images Collected

Google Earth File

Google Earth

Images Placed

Completed
Images

Access Website

Does the system have plug
-
in?

Install
Plug
-
in

Yes or it has now
been installed.

Google Earth loads

Start Image Selected

Click in direction
you wish to go

Use application until finished

Close Website

Begin
Project

Project
Complete

Figure
6
: System Implementation

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5.

Project Design

5.1 Introduction

This section details the planning of the project, which includes details and technical
information about the web
-
cams that were used; the stages of design that the rig for
holding the webcams went through; as well as im
ages of the prototypes that came
before the final product. It will also outline the process involved in the capturing of
the images.


5.2 Webcams

A high resolution
webcam
is necessary

for capturing the images
. A variety of
webcams were looked at. The Mi
crosoft Lifecam NX
-
6000 was found to be sufficient
for the task. It has a hi
-
speed USB interface
with
resolution 1600 x 1190, field of
view

of

71° a
nd a
3x digital zoom

(see
Error! Reference source not found.
).










Figure
7
: Image of Lifecam NX
-
6000


Having eight of these webcams in hand allowed the project to move forward and
encourage the designing and creation of the rig that would house them.
Once all of
the webcams had been acquired, tested and
been proven to be working individually,
they were all connected to

the Macbook Pro. They were connected using two,
generic, unbranded USB hubs. However, it was in doing this practise run that it was
found that both of these hubs required a power source i
n order to run the four cameras
each supported. To resolve this issue, a 25 metre extension cord was utilised to solve
the power requirements.



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5.3 Designing the Rig

A freestanding rig was required to house multiple cameras. The rig also needed to
d
eal with the mass of cables from the webcams and the external power supplies. It
also needed to incorporate an adjustable height feature to maintain the exact height
from which the pictures would be taken. A decision was made on site, when samples
were a
vailable, to aid the height decision.


The prototype rig was initially designed to hold only six webcams as it was calculated
that this would be enough to create the desired 360° view. However, once the
prototype was created and tested, it was obvious tha
t this was not the case and as a
result, a second design had to be drawn up that held eight webcams. This provided
25% more image to be worked with, and allowed the production of a much cleaner,
clearer image. Images that show both the first and second v
ersions of the rig are
shown in
Error! Reference source not found.

and
Error! Reference source not
found.
.






Figure
8
: Original six sided prototype


Figure
9
: Final

eight sided rig top


Once the top of the rig had been successfully designed and constructed, it was time to
move to making the rig height adjustable. To achieve this required the use of the age
old photographer’s friend, a tripod. After acquiring a tri
pod, a mount was made that
would fit into the tripod and could also be securely attached to the newly constructed
top. After completing all of these stages, the final rig could be assembled and put
together to create the final build that would be used to
mount the cameras and capture
the images. Shown below are a series of images of the individual pieces of the rig
and then an image of the rig itself, built up and ready to go.

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Figure
10
: Tripod selected as

the adjustable
base


Figure
11
: Finished eight sided piece of wood
made to perfectly fit into the tripod







Figure
12
: Eight sided piece




Figure
13
: Finished tripod








Figure
14
: Finished rig

Figure
15
: Rig with eight webcams in place.




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5.4 Capturing the Images

In order to capture the images in

the best way possible, the rig was always placed in
the centre of the corridor being imaged. Once this position had been set for the first
image, it was measured from both sides of the corridor and recorded, so that it could
be replicated at every imagin
g stop along the corridor. The distance between stops
was also strictly measured, this was important because it ensured that the finished
walkthrough would be smooth and would flow together. If they had been left
unmeasured or placed only ‘near enough’ i
t would have left the images jumping
random distances and take away from the illusion of a finished walkthrough.


As stated earlier, the webcams required external power, in order to have them all
functioning at once. This meant that the extension cord was

constantly plugged in to
one spot on the corridor that we were imaging, and never unplugged. The reason that
it was not simply unplugged and moved was due to the fact that a loss of power meant
that the Macbook lost contact with the cameras and sometimes

took over ten minutes
to reconnect them. At other times it required a restart to find them again. This
process was very time
-
consuming so the decision was made to use a power source
that was central in the corridor, so that it could be stretched in both

directions without
unplugging it. Whenever possible, the lead was tucked tight against the side of the
corridor so that it was not seen.


The software used on the Macbook was a free piece of software provided by Apple on
every Macbook: Photo Booth. The
software automatically detects any imaging
technology that is connected to the Macbook, and allows the user to use it to capture
images. Once all cameras were connected, it was a simple process of selecting each
camera individually and capturing an image
from it. It was also important to have no
-
one walking the corridor when the images were taken, as it would ruin the completed
image. (Otherwise they would appear only to disappear, and reappear as the user
navigated the finished walkthrough.) This meant

that a lot of patience was required as
the MS Research building is quite busy and experiences a very large footfall in the
main corridors. However, this extra waiting time gave ensure no image was missed,
and that an image had been captured from every ca
mera before moving. If one image
was missed, it would have been disastrous as it would have been impossible to return
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at a later date, find the exact location the rig had been sitting in, with the exact same
rotation and thus capture the missed image.


In

the MS Research building, the narrow corridors often open into foyers or large
rooms that have multiple occupants. When this occurred, it was important that a new
point of reference for measuring was acquired. This was important because if the rig
began

to drift from its designated line, it would leave the user jumping left and right
when they moved from image, to image which would leave the project with an
amateur or ‘rushed’ feel.


5.5 Summary

The

webcams being used in the project were
Microsoft Li
fecam NX
-
6000.

The
prototype rig design was initially designed to hold only six webcams as it was
calculated that this would be enough to create the desired 360° view. However, once
the prototype was created and tested it was obvious that this was not t
he case and as a
result a second design had to be drawn up that held eight webcams which provided
25% more image.
When capturing the images, t
he distance between stops was also
strictly measured. This was important because it ensured that the finished
wa
lkthrough would be smooth and would flow together
.
In the MS Research building
the narrow corridors often open into foyers or large rooms with multiple occupants.
When this occurred it was important a new point of reference for measuring was
acquired. I
t was important because if the rig began to drift from it designated line, it
would leave the user jumping left and right as they moved through the images.





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6

Implementation

6.1 Introduction

This section aims to illustrate the process involved in taking the individually captured
images and creating stitched images and how these were made into .jpegs before
finally being converted into the required .kml file formats. The chapter will then
illu
strate how to provide .kml images with the necessary coordinates and information
that allow them to work together, as a completed walkthrough on Google Earth.
Following this will be information on how the completed project was uploaded onto
personal web s
pace and the creation of a page through which it could be viewed by
any user, on any machine, thus making it available to the public. It also talks about