Overview What is biotechnology? - etsEQ

mixedminerBiotechnology

Oct 22, 2013 (4 years and 21 days ago)

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1
TOPICS IN (NANO)
BIOTECHNOLOGY
Lecture I
2nd October, 2006
PhD Course
1.What is Biotechnology?
•Definitions of Biotechnology
•Timeline of Biotechnology
•Techniques used in Biotechnology
•Who's Who in Biotechnology
2. How is Biotechnology being used?
•Applications of Biotechnology
•Medicines on the market today
•Agriculture - GMFoods and Animals
•DNA fingerprinting and forensic science
•Gene Therapy and Transgenic Animals
•Human Embryonic StemCells and Cloning
3.What are some of the societal issues Biotechnology
raises?
•Bioethics/ "Genethics"
•Public attitudes to biotechnology - safety,awareness
•Therapeutic uses of human genes and tissues
Overview
What is biotechnology
?
• Biotechnology = bios (life) + logos (study of or
essence)
– Literally ‘the study of tools from living things’
• CLASSIC: The word"biotechnology" was first used in
1917 to describe processes using living organisms to
make a product or run a process, such as industrial
fermentations. (Robert Bud, The Uses of Life: A
History of Biotechnology
)
• LAYMAN: Biotechnology began when humans began
to plant their own crops, domesticate animals,
ferment juice into wine, make cheese, and leaven
bread (AccesExcellence)
2
What is biotechnology
?
• GENENTECH: Biotechnology is the process of
harnessing 'nature's own' biochemical tools to make
possible new products and processes and provide
solutions to society's ills (G. Kirk Raab, Former
President and CEO of Genentech)
• WEBSTER’S: The aspect of technology concerned
with the application of living organisms to meet the
needs and ends of man.
• WALL STREET:Biotechnology is the application of
genetic engineering and DNA technology to produce
therapeutic and medical diagnostic products and
processes. Biotech companies have one thing in
common - the use of genetic engineering and
manipulation of organisms at a molecular level.
What is biotechnology
?
• Using scientific methods with organisms to produce
new products or new forms of organisms
• Any technique that uses living organisms or
substances from those organisms or substances from
those organisms to make or modify a product, to
improve plants or animals, or to develop
microorganisms for specific uses
What is biotechnology
?
• Biotechnology is a multidisciplinarian in nature,
involving input from
• Engineering
• Computer Science
• Cell and Molecular Biology
• Microbiology
• Genetics
• Physiology
• Biochemistry
• Immunology
• Virology
• Recombinant DNA Technology Genetic manipulation
of bacteria, viruses, fungi, plants and animals, often for
the development of specific products
3
What are the stages of biotechnology
?
• Ancient Biotechnology
• early history as related to food and shelter,
including domestication
• Classical Biotechnology
• built on ancient biotechnology
• fermentation promoted food production
• medicine
• Modern Biotechnology
• manipulates genetic information in organism
• genetic engineering
Ancient biotechnology
• Paleolithic society – Hunter-gatherers  Nomadic
lifestyle due to migratory animals and edible plant
distribution (wild wheat and barley) (~2 x 10
6
yrs.)
• Followed by domestication of plants and animals
(artificial selection)  People settled, sedentary
lifestyles evolved (~10,000 yrs. ago)
• Cultivation of wheat, barley and rye (seed
collections)
• Sheep and goats  milk, cheese, button and
meat
• Grinding stones for food preparation
• New technology  Origins of Biotechnology 
Agrarian Societies
History of domestication and agriculture
• Long history of fermented foods since people
began to settle (9000 BC) (fervere –to boil)
• Often discovered by accident!
• Improved flavor and texture
• Deliberate contamination with bacteria or
fungi (molds)
• Examples:
•Bread
•Yogurt
•Sour cream
•Cheese
•Wine
•Beer
•Sauerkraut
Ancient biotechnology
Fermented foods and beverages
• Dough not baked immediately would undergo
spontaneous fermentation  would rise 
Eureka!!
• Uncooked fermented dough could be used to
ferment a new batch  no longer reliant on
“chance fermentation”
• 1866 – Louis Pasteur published his findings on
the direct link between yeast and sugars  CO
2
+
ethanol (anaerobic process)
• 1915 – Production of baker’s yeast –
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Ancient biotechnology
Fermented foods and beverages
4
• Different types of beer
• Vinegar
• Glycerol
• Acetone
• Butanol
• Lactic acid
• Citric acid
• Antibiotics – WWII (Bioreactor developed for large
scale production, e.g. penicilin made by fermentation
of penicillium)
•Today many different antibiotics are produced by
microorganisms
•Cephalosporins, bacitracin, neomycin,
tetracycline……..)
Classical biotechnology
Industry today exploits early discoveries of the fermentation
process for production of huge numbers of products
• Substrate  + Microbial Enzyme  Product
• Examples:
• Cholesterol Steroids (cortisone, estrogen,
progesterone) (hydroxylation reaction  -OH
group added to cholesterol ring)
Classical biotechnology
Chemical transformations to produce therapeutic
products
• Amino acids to improve food taste, quality or
preservation
• Enzymes (cellulase, collagenase, diastase,
glucose isomerase, invertase, lipase, pectinase,
protease)
• Vitamins
• Pigments
Classical biotechnology
Microbial synthesis of other commercially valuable
products
• Cell biology
• Structure, organization and reproduction
• Biochemistry
• Synthesis of organic compounds
• Cell extracts for fermentation (enzymes
versus whole cells)
• Genetics
• Resurrection of Gregor Mendel’s findings 1866 
1900s
• Theory of Inheritance (ratios dependent on traits of
parents)
• Theory of Transmission factors
• W.H. Sutton – 1902
• Chromosomes = inheritance factors
• T.H. Morgan –
Drosophila
melanogaster
Modern
biotechnology
5
Molecular Biology
• Beadle and Tatum (Neurospora crassa)
• One gene, one enzyme hypothesis
• Charles Yanofsky  colinearity
between mutations in genes and amino
acid sequence (E. coli)
• Genes determine structure of proteins
• Hershey and Chase – 1952
• T2 bacteriophage –
32
P DNA, not
35
S protein
is the material that encodes genetic
information
Modern
biotechnology
• Watson, Crick, Franklin and Wilkins (1953)

X-ray crystallography
• 1962 – Nobel Prize awarded to three men
• Chargaff – DNA base ratios
• Structural model of DNA developed
• DNA Revolution – Promise and Controversy!!!
• Scientific foundation of modern biotechnology
• based on knowledge of DNA, its replication,
repair and use of enzymes to carry out in vitro
splicing DNA fragments
Modern
biotechnology
• Breaking the Genetic Code – Finding the Central
Dogma
• An “RNA Club” organized by George Gamow (1954)
assembled to determine the role of RNA in protein
synthesis
• Vernon Ingram’s research on sickle cell anemia (1956)
tied together inheritable diseases with protein structure
• Link made between amino acids and DNA
• Radioactive tagging experiments demonstrate
intermediate between DNA and protein = RNA

RNA movement tracked from nucleus to cytoplasm  site of
protein synthesis
Modern
biotechnology
• DNA  RNA  Protein
Transcription Translation
Genetic code determined for all 20 amino acids by
Marshal Nirenberg and Heinrich Matthaei and Gobind
Khorana – Nobel Prize – 1968
• 3 base sequence = codon
Modern
biotechnology
6
What are the areas of biotechnology
?
• Organismic biotechnology
• uses intact organisms and does not alter genetic
material
• Molecular Biotechnology
• alters genetic makeup to achieve specific goals
Transgenic organism: an organism with artificially
altered genetic material
What are the benefits
of
biotechnology
?
• Medicine
• human
• veterinary
• biopharming
• Environment
• Agriculture
• Food products
• Industry and manufacturing
What are the applications of biotechnology?
• Production of new and improved crops/foods,
industrial chemicals, pharmaceuticals and livestock
• Diagnostics for detecting genetic diseases
• Gene therapy (e.g. ADA, CF)
• Vaccine development (recombinant vaccines)
• Environmental restoration
• Protection of endangered species
• Conservation biology
• Bioremediation
• Forensic applications
• Food processing (cheese, beer)
Monoclonal
Antibodies
Molecular
Biology
Cell
Culture
Genetic
Engineering
Anti-cancer drugs
Diagnostics
Culture of plants
from single cells
Transfer of new
genes into animal
organisms
Synthesis of
specific DNA
probes
Localisation of
genetic disorders
Tracers
Cloning
Gene therapy
Mass prodn. of
human proteins
Resource bank
for rare human
chemicals
Synthesis
of new
proteins
New
antibiotics
New types of
plants and
animals
New types
of food
DNA
technology
Crime solving
Banks of
DNA, RNA
and proteins
Complete
map of the
human
genome
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Biotechnology Timeline
1750 BC The Sumerians brew beer.
500 BC Chinese use moldy soybean
curds as an antibiotic to treat
boils
1590 Janssen invents the microscope
1675 Leeuwenhoek discovers cells
(bacteria, red blood cells)
1830 Proteins are discovered
1833 The first enzymes are isolated
1855 The Eschirium coli bacterium
is discovered
Biotechnology Timeline
1859 Charles Darwin publishes On
the Origin of Species
1864 Louis Pasteur shows all living
things are produced by other
living things
1865 The age of genetics begins
1902 Walter Sutton coins the term
‘gene’ - proposed that
chromosomes carry genes
Biotechnology Timeline
1910 Chromosomal theory of
inheritance proved
1928 Fleming discovers antibiotic
properties of certain molds
1941 George Beadle and Edward Tatum propose
that one gene makes one protein
1949 Sickle cell anaemia demonstrated to be
molecular disease
Biotechnology Timeline
1952 The ‘Waring Blender’
experiment
1953 The double helix is unravelled
1967 The genetic code is cracked
1973 Recombinant DNA
technology begins
1975 First international conference
on recombinant DNA
technology
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Biotechnology Timeline
1975 Monoclonal antibody
technology introduced
1975 DNA sequencing discovered
1978 Genentech Inc. established
1978 Genentech use genetic engineering to produce
human insulin in E.coli - 1980 IPO of $89
1978 Kary Mullis discovers PCR
Biotechnology Timeline
1989 The Human Genome Project begins
1990 First use of gene therapy
1990 First product of recombinant
DNA technology introduced
into US food chain
1993 FDA announces that
transgenic food is safe
1994 The FLAVRSAVR tomato -
first genetically engineered
whole food
Biotechnology Timeline
1996 First mammal cloned from adult
cells
1990s First conviction using genetic
fingerprinting
1996 Development of Affymetrix
GeneChip
1997 First artificial chromosome
History of
Biotechnology
1998 Human embryonic stem cells
grown
1999 Celera announces completion
of Drosophilia genome
sequence
2000 90% of Human Genome
sequence published on web
2003 Human genome project
complete
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Biotechnology Industry
Biotechnology Industry
Biotechnology Industry
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Useful Resources
• http://www.geocities.com/cwfennhcc/bi200/intro.html
• http://www.geocities.com/cwfennhcc/bi200/quiz1.htm
• http://www.accessexcellence.org/
• The Uses Of Life – A History of Biotechnology (Robert
Bud)