Medical Biotechnology - Lone Star College System

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Oct 22, 2013 (3 years and 9 months ago)

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Medical Biotech Page

1

NSF Award

# 0401988





MEDICAL

BIOTECH
NOLOGY



A Resource Guide for Biotech
nology

Club
Sponsors



This chapter contains background information,
experiment ideas and contact suggestions. Topics
covered include:


Human Gene
Project


Detecting Genetic Diseases


Pharmacogenomics


Gene Therapy


Arrays






Medical Biotech Page

2

Medical Biotechnology

Medical biotechnology is an application of bio
technology that touches the lives

of
individuals every

day. Both wellness and illness have ties to biotechnology.
Advances in
biology over the last 20 years have generated new insights into the causes of disease. This
new level of unders
tanding has, in turn, created
opportunities for the development of new
th
erapies,
drugs,
diagnostic tools and research/clinical instrumentation. Medical
biotechnology is one of the fastest growing opportunities for employment in the medical
research field.

Scientists are looking at the genetic causes of diseases, genetic links
among family
members, and individualized cures. As the Human Genome Project continues to map the
locations of genes on human chromosomes, more solutions to
the
cause, prevention and
cure of diseases will be discovered. Students will enjoy many aspects of m
edical
biotechnology as they
study genetic

diseases

and relate them to

the medical experiences
of
family and friends.


Some of the topics related to medical biotechnology have been covered in other chapters.
This chapter will offer background information
and activities in the following areas:



Human Genome Project and its influence on medical biotechnology


Detecting Genetic D
iseases


Biotech in the Hospital

o

Pharmacogenomics

o

Gene therapy

o

Arrays


Medical Biotech Page

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Human Gene Project and its Influence on Medical
Biotechnology


The human genome project was begun

in 1990

and

was
coordinated by the U.S.
Department of Energy and the National Institutes of Health.
The project

was
projected

to
last 15 years, but rapid technological advances
facilitated completion in 2003
.
Some of
the
p
roject
’s goals were to:


identify

all the approximately 20,000
-
25,000 genes in human DNA,


determine

the sequences of the 3 billion chemical ba
se pairs that make up human
DNA


transfer

related technologies to the private sector


address
the ethical, legal,
and social issues (ELSI) that may arise from the project


A
genome

is all the DNA in an organism, including
all of
its genes. Genes carry
information for making all the proteins required by
an organism
. These proteins
determine

such things as

the
organism

s

appearance
, how it

metabolizes food
and

how it
fights infection. They can also
influence
an organism’s
behavior
.

DNA is made up of four similar
nucleotides

(
designated by an organic base they contain,

abbreviated A, T, C, and G) that are repeated millio
ns or billions of times throughout a
genome. The human genome, for example, has 3 billion pairs of
nucleotides or ―base
pairs.‖

Knowledge about the effects of DNA variations among individuals can lead to
revolutionary new ways to diagnose, treat, and somed
ay prevent the thousands of
disorders that affect us.

Some current and potential applications of genome research include


Molecular medicine


Energy sources and environmental applications


Risk assessment


Bioarchaeology, anthropology, evolution, and huma
n migration


DNA forensics (identification)


Agriculture, livestock breeding, and bioprocessing

Molecular Medicine


Some of the goals of molecular medicine include


Improved diagnosis of disease


Earlier detection of genetic predispositions to disease


Rational drug design


Medical Biotech Page

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Gene therapy and control systems for drugs


Pharmacogenomic (
"custom drugs"
)


Increasingly detailed genome maps have aided researchers seeking genes associated with
dozens of genetic conditions, including myotonic dystrophy, fragile X

syndrome,
neurofibromatosis types 1 and 2, inherited colon cancer, Alzheimer's dise
ase, and familial
breast cancer
.
Doctors can identify people at high risk for conditions that may be
preventable or its consequences lessened with appropriate treatment.

It

is projected that in the next 15 years, thousands of
potential
new drugs will be
identified

for testing as possible commercial products
. Many will be manufactured by
recombinant DNA technology so they will be "reagent
-
grade pure," just as human insulin
an
d growth hormone are today.

Individual medical record
s

may so
meday

include a
listing of that person’s
complete
genome as well as a catalogue of single base
-
pair variations that can be used to accurately
predict
his or her

responses to certain drugs and env
ironmental substances. This will
permit

each

person to be treated as a biochemical and genetic individual, thus making
medical interventions more specific, precise, and successful.

Today, many people die each year from adverse reactions to drugs, while ot
hers have
uncomfortable or dangerous side effects. As genes and other DNA sequences that
influence drug response are identified, it is projected that the number of toxic responses
will drop and most side effects can be eliminated.

Internet resources:

Dolan

DNA Learning Center
, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
: Great site for
information, video, audio, animations, etc. Many different topics can be accessed from
the same site.
(Click to view web snapshot)

Page 1
5

http://www.dnaftb.org/dnaftb/39/concept/index.html



All About The Human Genome Project
: Official site of the Human Genome Research
Institute: Great information and links with audio explanations of concepts.

(Click to view
web snapshot



three pages
)


Pages 16
-
1
8

http://www.genome.gov/10001772


The Science Behind the Human Genome Project:

Basic Genetics, Genome Draft
Sequence, and Post
-
Genome Sc
ience
. Basic information with many links

http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/project/info.shtml






Medical Biotech Page

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Journey into DNA: a NOVA movie
. The entire 2 hour movie
can be downloaded

in
segments so students can explore their areas of interest.

(Click to view web snapshot



two pages
)

Page 1
9

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/genome/dna.html


Cracking the Code of Life
.
A complete educational module from NOVA: The site has
wonderful animations and videos.

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/genome/



Computer simulation


Bacterial Identification Lab
:

This lab will familiarize students with the techniques used
to identify different types of bacteria based on DNA sequences. Steps include sample
prep, PCR amplification, PCR purification, sequencing preparation, DNA sequencing,
and sequence analysis. This

is a very engaging and colorful simulation.
(Click here for
introduction screen)

Page 3
8

http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/




Medical Biotech Page

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Detecting Genetic Diseases


Until recently, most genet
ic testing occurred on fetuses for the purpose of identifying the
sex of a child or to detect a small number of genetic diseases (such as Down syndrome).
Amniocentesis was used in these cases


a needle is inserted through the mother’s
abdomen into the poc
ket of amniotic fluid surrounding the fetus.
Removed c
ells are
treated to release their chromosomes which are then stained with different dyes and
paired. This technique is called
karyotyping
.


Karyotyping

is also carried out on adults to check for missing
, defective or duplicate
chromosomes. As research continues,
however,
more sophisticated techniques are being
developed
and used
to detect individual diseased genes

in children and adults
.
Correct
diagnosis of a genetic disorder allows for more rapid and
effective application of
appropriate treatment.


DNA
-
Based Gene Tests

currently available include those to detect
:



Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
(ALS; Lou Gehrig's Disease; progressive motor function loss
leading to paralysis and death)



Alzheimer's disease*
(APOE; late
-
onset variety of senile dementia)



Ataxia telangiectasia
(AT; progressive brain disorder resulting in loss of muscle control and
cancers)



Inherited breast and ovarian cancer*
(BRCA 1 and 2; early
-
onset tumors of breasts an
d
ovaries)



Hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer*
(CA; early
-
onset tumors of colon and sometimes other
organs)



Cystic fibrosis
(CF; disease of lung and pancreas resulting in thick mucous accumulations and
chronic infections)



Hemophilia A and B
(HEMA and
HEMB; bleeding disorders)



Myotonic dystrophy
(MD; progressive muscle weakness; most common form of adult muscular
dystrophy)



Sickle cell disease
(SS; blood cell disorder; chronic pain and infections)



Spinal muscular atrophy
(SMA; severe, usually lethal
progressive muscle
-
wasting disorder in
children)



Tay
-
Sachs Disease
(TS; fatal neurological disease of early childhood; seizures, paralysis) [3/99]


Many more DNA
-
based gene tests can be found at the following web site:

http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/medicine/assist.shtml



Internet resources:


DNA Learning center:
Great web site with animations and audio on several to
pics
.
Click on
the
Genes and Medicines module to explore the following topics:


Gene hunting:

Learn

about the race to identify and clone the first gene to be
associated with breast cancer.


Medical Biotech Page

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Gene testing:

Learn how to test for cancer
-
causing mutations, and
how the results
have affected lives.


Genetic profiling:

Find out how genome
-
wide analysis could lead to medical
innovations.


Drug design:

See how a form of leukemia can be effectively controlled.


Gene targeting:

Meet the scientist whose technique may one d
ay correct genetic
defects.

http://www.dnai.org/d/index.html


Human Genome Project Information
:

Information from the US

Department of Energy
Office of Science. Topics covered include: what is gene testing, how it works, pros and
cons, regulations, and links for more information.
(Click for web snapshot)

Page 2
7

http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/medicine/genetest.shtml


Access Excellence Resource Center:

Understanding gene testing


nice tutorial on
topics concerned with gene testing. Graphics and
simple explanations.

(Click for web
snapshot)

Page 2
8

http://www.accessexcellence.org/AE/AEPC/NIH/index.html


Human gene project

educational pages. Very animated, several film clips

http://www.genome.gov/Pages/EducationKit/online.htm


National Cancer Institute:

Slide show with graphics and information about cancer
te
sting

and genetic relationships
.

Each tutorial is also available in PDF and PowerPoint
formats that may be downloaded from the Web. The art presented is copyrighted
but

distributed free of charge for educational purposes
. Information is also available in
S
panish.

Tutorials include:


Cancer


The Immune System


Cancer
G
enomics


Molecular
D
iagnosis


Angiogenesis


Estrogen
R
eceptor


Genetic
V
ariation


Gene
T
esting


Cancer
G
enome Project


Nanodevices

http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/understandingcancer/genetesting/Slide1


Genetic Disorder Corner:

What are Genetic Disorders?
A great website with wonderful
links and
interactive labs.

(Click for web snapshot)

Page 2
9

http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/disorders/


Medical Biotech Page

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Internet activity:


Finding a Gene on the Chromosome Map
: Explanation of
steps involved in detecting a
genetically linked condition and computer activity,
Find the Gene for Whirling Disorder
!

http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/disorders/pedigree/


SNiPping
Away at the Problem:

An animated discussion of how tiny variations in a
person’s DNA make
-
up can help predict drug response or disease risk.

http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/pharma/index
.cfm



Classroom activity
:


Newborn Genetic Screening
: Complete packet ready to print and use
.
(Click for web
snapshot)

Page
30

http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/
disorders/newborn/


Simulated Genetic Counseling Session
: Complete packet ready to print and use

(Click
to view web snapshot)

Page 2
5

http://www.kumc.edu/gec/famhx/famhxins.ht
ml


Research a genetic
-
linked disease

of interest to the club and invite a member of a local
support group to speak to the club. Use the following
multimedia guide

to investigate
familiar genetic disorders:
(click for web snapshot)

Page 3
2

http://www.ygyh.org
.

Each condition is explained with graphics, animations and video clips. Some of the
disorders covered include hemophilia, cystic fibrosis, Huntington

disease, cycle cell
disease and Tay
-
Sachs disease.


Experiment:


S
ickle cell anemia
. Electrophoresis is used as a diagnostic tool to differentiate sickle cell
from normal hemoglobin. A PowerPoint presentation, training document and TEKS
reference is
included in the materials posted.

http://www.panam.edu/dept/biotech/modules.html



Local support groups:


Lone Star Chapter of the National Hemophilia Foundation

Debbie de la Riva

Executive Direc
tor

17414 Fairgrove Park Drive

Houston, Texas 77095

Phone: 281.861.6644


Medical Biotech Page

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Texas

Gulf

Coast Chapter

of the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation

50 Briar Hollow Lane

Suite 310W

Houston, TX 77027

(713) 621
-
0006


Huntington Disease Center


BCM
-

Department of Neurology

6550 Fannin, Suite 1801

Houston, Texas 77030

Phone: (713) 798
-
7438

Fax: (713) 798
-
6808

www.jankovic.org


Sickle Cell Association of the Texas Gulf Coast!

2626 South Loop West, Suite 245

Houston, Texas 7705
4

Phone: 713.666.0300

http://www.sicklecell
-
texas.org/



Local Contacts
/Field Trips
:


The following genetic
testing
clinics are available in the Houston area:


Baylor College of Medicine

Baylor Cancer Genetics Clinic

832
-
822
-
4293


Baylor College

of Medicine

Prenatal and Reproductive Genetics Clinic

713
-
798
-
7500


Center for Medical Genetics

713
-
790
-
1990


Dynagene/LabCorp

713
-
798
-
9500


UT MD Anderson Cancer Center

Clinical Cancer Genetics Program

713
-
745
-
7391

This group encourages and helps sponsor

field trips. Call Ann Bettinger at 713
-
745
-
1205
for information and help.




Medical Biotech Page

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University of Texas


Houston Medical School

Genetics Clinic

713
-
500
-
5765


UT Health Science Center at Houston

Women’s Health Center

713
-
704
-
5152


Medical Biotech Page

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Biotech in the Hospital


Part I.

Pharmocogenomics


Pharmocogenomics involves designing the most effective drug therapy and treatment
strategy based on the specific genetic profile of a patient. Different individuals react
differently to the same drug or treatment.
It is hoped that g
eneti
c studies will
lead to
personalized drugs with greater safety and efficacy.



Internet resources:


Human Gene Project Information:
Great background

and links
.
(Click for web
snapshot)

Page 3
3

http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/medicine/pharma.shtml



Roche Company
:
Links to several publications and free CD from the Roche
Pharmaceuticals Company

http://www.roche.com/home/science/sci_events/sci_events_genes.htm



Pharmaco
-
What? Introducing Personalized Medicine
:
Lessons, simulations and
interactive activities on
pharmacogenomics

http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/pharma/phwhatis/


Inside Cancer:

A wonderful site with multimedia information on the history, causes and
prevention, diagnosis and treat
ment, and the pathways to cancer. The sections on
pharmacogenetics and targeted therapies have v
ery nice graphic explanations.
(
Click here
for web snapshot)

Page 3
4

http://www.insidecancer.org




Part II.
Gene Therapy


Genes are the basic units of heredity. When one is damaged or missing, genetic disorders
can result. Gene therapy is a technique for correcting defective genes. This can be done
by:


Inserting a normal g
ene into a nonspecific location


Swapping abnormal gene for normal gene


Repairing abnormal gene


Turning a gene on or off



Medical Biotech Page

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Usually, a normal gene is inserted into the genome by a carrier molecule called a vector.
A common vector is a virus whose disease
-
cau
sing genes have been replaced by
therapeutic genes.


The Food and Drug Administration has not yet approved any human gene therapy
product for sale. All research is still in the experimental stage.



Publications:


Medicines by Design:

A very colorful, informative booklet about current and future
pharmacology research. Copies of the brochure can be downloaded or ordered free for
your entire class.
(
Click here f
or

a

list of topics covered)

Page 3
5

http://publications.nigms.nih.gov/medbydesign


Internet resources:


Gene Therapy: Molecular Bandage
:

Several topics covered, all with graphics and
animations
.
(Click for web snapshot)

Page 3
6

http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/genetherapy/index.cfm


Human Genome Project Information
: Information on gene therapy methods, current
status, recent developments and ethi
cal considerations.

(Click for web snapshot)

Page 3
7


http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/medicine/genetherapy.shtml


Nationa
l Cancer Institute:
Gene Therapy for Cancer
--

Questions and Answers

http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Therapy/gene


American Society of Gene Therapy
: Information and links
for interested

public and
patients

http://www.asgt.org/




Computer activity:

Space Doctor
:

An extraterrestrial gene therapy lab simulation

(Click to view web
snapshot)

Page
26

http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/genetherapy/spacedoctor/

Pus
-
Poppin’ Frogs:

Animated simulation of drug testing based on genetic profiles. Very
user friendly and entertaining.

http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/pharma/phfrogs/



Medical Biotech Page

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Part III
.
Assays

and genetic testing devices

Biosensor technology is an exciting area of biotechnology that has direct implications in
the
measurement of environmental pollutants and the detection of explosives, toxins and
biowarfare agents. A biosensor is composed of a biological component (cell, enzyme,
antibody, etc) and a tiny transducer. When the substance being tested binds with the
bio
logical component, the transducer produces an electrical or optical signal proportional
to the concentration of the substance.


Many companies now specialize in immunodiagnostics, also referred to as rapid
diagnostics or Hand
-
held Assays (HHA's). This tec
hnology very quickly and effectively
detects proteins, antibodies and/or infectious agents in a variety of formats with accuracy
rates as high as 100%, and within as little as three minutes
. A pregnancy test kit is one of
the most familiar medical devices
made possible by biotechnology. In a home pregnancy
test kit, a protein called a monoclonal antibody (MAb) binds to HCG, causing a color
change. HCG is present in a woman's urin
e

only during pregnancy. MAb test kits are the
most common type of biotech dev
ice regulated by FDA. The agency has cleared for
marketing more than 635 biotech

devices

to detect infections, hormone levels, drug levels
(therapeutic and
illegal
), and cancer cells. These devices are also an important tool in
combating bioterrorism and i
nfectious diseases.



Internet resources: Bioterrorism:


Bioterrorism Agents/Diseases from A to Z
: Great site for
links for
information from the
Department of Health and Human Services

(Click to view web snapshot
)

Page 2
2


http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/agentlist
-
category.asp


NOVA Online

A wonderful web resource that includes information on the eight lethal
biological agents that may pose the greatest threats of bi
owarfare, answers to frequently
asked questions, a timeline of the history of biological warfare, an online activity about
making vaccines, complete tv presentation, and more.

(Click to view web snapshot



2pages
)


Page

23
,2
4

http://www.pbs.org/nova/bioterror/


Video: "The History of Bioterrorism":

These videos describe the Category A diseases:
smallpox, anthrax, botulism, plague, tularemia, and viral hemorrhagic fevers.
If these
germs were used to intentionally infect people, they would cause the most illness and
death. Watch these videos to learn how some of these agents have been or can be used as
bioterrorist weapons.

http://www.bt.cdc.gov/training/historyofbt/


Avian Influenza:

This fact sheet provides general information about avian influenza
(bird flu) and information about one type of bird flu, called avian influenza A (H5N1
),
which

has caused infections in b
irds in Asia and Europe and in humans in Asia.

http://www.cdc.gov/flu/avian/gen
-
info/facts.htm


Medical Biotech Page

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Virtual tour of a BSL
-
4 lab
: BSL
-
4 labs are used to study agents that pose a high risk of
life
-
thr
eatening disease for which no vaccine or therapy is available. Lab personnel are
required to wear full
-
body, air
-
supplied suits and to shower when exiting the facility.
UTMB in Galveston has a BSL
-
4 research lab. It is also a Regional Center of Excellence
for Biodefense

and Emerging Infectious Diseases Research (RCE).

http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/Biodefense/Public/blt.htm


The National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases

(NIAID), part o
f the
National Institutes of Health, conducts and supports much of the research aimed at
developing new and improved medical tools against potential bioterrorism agents.

http://www3.niaid
.nih.gov/biodefense/about/default.htm


CNN educational Background
: 10 things you need to know about anthrax

http://cnnstudentnews.cnn.com/2001/fyi/news/11/02/antrax/index.htm
l


JBAIDS
(The Joint Biological Agent Identification and Diagnostic System) developed at
FORT SAM HOUSTON, Texas is a 40
-
pound device small enough to slip into a
rucksack and designed to increase the speed and accuracy of biological warfare agent
detection
. The device can simultaneously identify up to

10 different biological warfare

agents in a given sample, including smallpox, anthrax, plague and encephalitis.

(Click to
view web snapshot)

Page 2
1

http://www.defenselink.mil/transformation/articles/2005
-
05/ta051905a.html



Local Contacts:


UT
-
Center for Biosecurity and Public Health Preparedness

Jan DuBois
,
Executiv
e Assistant

1200 Hermann Pressler Drive

Houston, TX 77030

Phone:

713
-
500
-
9421

Email:

UT
-
CBPHP@uth.tmc.edu

http://www.texasbiosecurity.org/


Center for Biosecurity I
nformatics Research

UCT
-
Suite 650, School of Health Information Sciences

University of Texas
-
Houston Health Science Center

7000 Fannin

Houston, Texas 77030

713
-
500
-
3157

Parsa.miraji@uth.tmc.edu

Arunkumar.srinivasan@uth.tmc.edu




Medical Biotech Page

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Diagnostic Systems Laboratories, Inc.

445 Medical Center Blvd.,

Webster, TX 77598 USA

+ 1.281.332.9678 tel

1.800.231.7970 toll free

info@DSLabs.co
m


LabCorp Testing Facility, Houston

7207 North Gessner

Houston, TX 77040

Local Telephone 713
-
856
-
8288 (Automated)

Regional/National Toll
-
free Telephone 800
-
800
-
2387


Power 3 Medical Products


Dick Deabler
,
Director of HR and Administration

832/466
-
1600x204

RDeabler@power3medical.com


Medical Biotech Page

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http://www.genome.gov/10001772


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http://www.genome.gov/10001772


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http://www.genome.gov/10001772


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http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/genome/dna.html


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http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/genome/dna.html


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http://www.defenselink.mil/transformation/articles/2005
-
05/ta051905a.html


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http://www.bt.cdc.gov/agent/agentlist
-
category.asp


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http://www.pbs.org/nova/bioterror/

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http://www.pbs.org/nova/bioterror/

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http://www.kumc.edu/gec/famhx/famhxins.html


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http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/genetherapy/spacedoctor/






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http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/medicine/genetest.shtml




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http://www.accessexcellence.org/AE/AEPC/NIH/index.html




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http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/disorders/


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http://gslc.ge
netics.utah.edu/units/disorders/newborn/





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http://www.ygyh.org
.


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http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/medicine/pharma.shtml



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http://www.insidecancer.org



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http://publications.
nigms.nih.gov/medbydesign


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http://gslc.genetics.utah.edu/units/genetherapy/index.cfm


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http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/medicine/genetherapy.shtml





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http://www.hhmi.org/biointeractive/