Lecture1

mittenturkeyElectronics - Devices

Nov 26, 2013 (3 years and 8 months ago)

108 views

240
-
451 VLSI ,
2000

1

Lecture
1

A review of microelectronics and an introduction

to MOS technology

Department of Computer Engineering, Prince of Songkla University




by Wannarat Suntiamorntut

240
-
451 VLSI ,
2000

2

Department of Computer Engineering, Prince of Songkla University




by Wannarat Suntiamorntut

Why VLSI?

Introduction to integrated circuit technology

-

Affected by electronics engineering technology

-

Characterization of electronics at present
-
day



integration improved the design



reduces manufacturing cost

240
-
451 VLSI ,
2000

3

Department of Computer Engineering, Prince of Songkla University




by Wannarat Suntiamorntut

From design to market

Circuit Design


Layout


Fabrication


Packaging


Test


Packaging

240
-
451 VLSI ,
2000

4

Department of Computer Engineering, Prince of Songkla University




by Wannarat Suntiamorntut

Integrated circuit (IC) era

Moore’s law

: number of transistors per chip doubles

every year

240
-
451 VLSI ,
2000

5

Department of Computer Engineering, Prince of Songkla University




by Wannarat Suntiamorntut

IC technology scaling

240
-
451 VLSI ,
2000

6

Department of Computer Engineering, Prince of Songkla University




by Wannarat Suntiamorntut

Metal
-
oxide
-
semiconductor

MOS = Metal Oxide Semiconductor



In the past : Metal gate over Oxide insulation


Present
-
day :
polycrystalline silicon that we call





“Poly”



We use metal (aluminum) for interconnection wires


on the surface of the chip.

240
-
451 VLSI ,
2000

7

Department of Computer Engineering, Prince of Songkla University




by Wannarat Suntiamorntut

VLSI design process

1
. Specification : Defined function, estimate cost

Adder

2
. Architecture : Large block




Partition must be added in good design process if

the circuit has complexity.

240
-
451 VLSI ,
2000

8

Department of Computer Engineering, Prince of Songkla University




by Wannarat Suntiamorntut

VLSI design process

3
. Logic :we can divide into 3 steps


-

Describe the behavior of circuit (Input, Output



and behavior




C = A + B


-

Describe the structure of circuit

R 1

R 2

R 3

Adder

A


B

240
-
451 VLSI ,
2000

9

Department of Computer Engineering, Prince of Songkla University




by Wannarat Suntiamorntut

VLSI design process


-

Detail design

R 1

R 2

R 3

A


B

240
-
451 VLSI ,
2000

10

Department of Computer Engineering, Prince of Songkla University




by Wannarat Suntiamorntut

VLSI design process


4
. Circuit Transistor : Speed, power


5
. Layout :




Now we are in those 2 process (process 4 and 5 )

240
-
451 VLSI ,
2000

11

Department of Computer Engineering, Prince of Songkla University




by Wannarat Suntiamorntut

Architectural

Logic

Circuit

Behavioral


Structural


Physical




device


Today’s view

Relation in design process

240
-
451 VLSI ,
2000

12

Department of Computer Engineering, Prince of Songkla University




by Wannarat Suntiamorntut

Design Technology

240
-
451 VLSI ,
2000

13

Department of Computer Engineering, Prince of Songkla University




by Wannarat Suntiamorntut

VLSI Technology

1
. Schottky TTL (Transistor
-
transistor logic)


A
B
C= A * B
Vcc
240
-
451 VLSI ,
2000

14

Department of Computer Engineering, Prince of Songkla University




by Wannarat Suntiamorntut

VLSI Technology

2
. ECL (Emitter coupled logic)

C= A + B
Vcc
C= A + B
A
B
-
V
EE
NOR

240
-
451 VLSI ,
2000

15

Department of Computer Engineering, Prince of Songkla University




by Wannarat Suntiamorntut

3
. MOS (Metal Oxide semiconductor)

VLSI Technology

VDD
C = A + B
B
A
NOR

240
-
451 VLSI ,
2000

16

Department of Computer Engineering, Prince of Songkla University




by Wannarat Suntiamorntut

VLSI Technology

4
. CMOS (Complementary MOS)

VDD
C = A + B
A
B
240
-
451 VLSI ,
2000

17

Department of Computer Engineering, Prince of Songkla University




by Wannarat Suntiamorntut

Transistor Structure

240
-
451 VLSI ,
2000

18

Department of Computer Engineering, Prince of Songkla University




by Wannarat Suntiamorntut

Manufacturing Steps

240
-
451 VLSI ,
2000

19

Department of Computer Engineering, Prince of Songkla University




by Wannarat Suntiamorntut

Photolithography

Diffusion = High temperature

Ion implementation = High velocity

240
-
451 VLSI ,
2000

20

Department of Computer Engineering, Prince of Songkla University




by Wannarat Suntiamorntut

Process Steps

p
-
tub

n
-
tub

substrate

Doped substrate for n
-
type, p
-
type transistor

240
-
451 VLSI ,
2000

21

Department of Computer Engineering, Prince of Songkla University




by Wannarat Suntiamorntut

Process Steps (con’t)

Pattern polysilicon before diffusion regions:

p
-
tub

n
-
tub

poly

poly

gate oxide

240
-
451 VLSI ,
2000

22

Department of Computer Engineering, Prince of Songkla University




by Wannarat Suntiamorntut

Process Steps (con’t)

p
-
tub

n
-
tub

poly

poly

n+

n+

p+

p+

Add diffusions, performing self
-
masking:

240
-
451 VLSI ,
2000

23

Department of Computer Engineering, Prince of Songkla University




by Wannarat Suntiamorntut

Process Steps (con’t)

p
-
tub

n
-
tub

poly

poly

n+

n+

p+

p+

metal 1

metal 1

vias

Start adding metal layers:

240
-
451 VLSI ,
2000

24

Department of Computer Engineering, Prince of Songkla University




by Wannarat Suntiamorntut

NMOS Process

240
-
451 VLSI ,
2000

25

Department of Computer Engineering, Prince of Songkla University




by Wannarat Suntiamorntut

Transistor Layout

n
-
type (tubs may vary):

w

L

240
-
451 VLSI ,
2000

26

Department of Computer Engineering, Prince of Songkla University




by Wannarat Suntiamorntut

N
-
well CMOS Process

240
-
451 VLSI ,
2000

27

Department of Computer Engineering, Prince of Songkla University




by Wannarat Suntiamorntut

N
-
well CMOS Process (con’t)

240
-
451 VLSI ,
2000

28

Department of Computer Engineering, Prince of Songkla University




by Wannarat Suntiamorntut

CMOS Transistor layout

240
-
451 VLSI ,
2000

29

Department of Computer Engineering, Prince of Songkla University




by Wannarat Suntiamorntut

MOS Symbol


nMOS



nMOS



pMOS

enhancement


depletion


enhancement

240
-
451 VLSI ,
2000

30

Department of Computer Engineering, Prince of Songkla University




by Wannarat Suntiamorntut

Discussion and Question