Requirements for WiMAX Coexistence with LTE Network

miststizzaMobile - Wireless

Dec 10, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

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Requirements for
WiMAX
®

Coexistence with LTE Network

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WMF
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WMF

Approved

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2011
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WiMAX Forum Proprietary

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Copyright © 2011 WiMAX Forum. All Rights Reserved.

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Copyright Notice, Confidentiality Statement, Use Restrictions,
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TABLE OF CON
T
ENTS

1

1

INTRODUCTION

(INFORMATIVE)

................................
...............................

5

2

2

OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE

................................
................................
.............

5

3

3

BACKGROUND (INFORMAT
IVE)

................................
................................
.

5

4

3.1

Deployment Scenarios

................................
................................
................................
........................

5

5

3.2

Deployment Challenges

................................
................................
................................
......................

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6

4

ABBREVIATIONS, DEF
INITIONS, AND CONVEN
TIONS
(INFORMATIVE)

8

7

4.1

Conventions
(Informative)

................................
................................
................................
..................

8

8

4.2

Abbreviations and Acronyms (
Informative)

................................
................................
.....................

8

9

4.3

Definitions (
Informative)

................................
................................
................................
.....................

9

10

4.3.1

WiMAX Network:

................................
................................
................................
.........................

9

11

4.3.2

WiMAX System:

................................
................................
................................
...........................

9

12

4.3.3

LTE Network:

................................
................................
................................
................................

9

13

4.3.4

LTE System:

................................
................................
................................
................................
..

9

14

5

REFERENCES

................................
................................
...............................

9

15

6

USE CASES (INFORMATI
VE)

................................
................................
.......

9

16

6.1

Use Case 1
-

WiMAX
-
TDD LTE co
-
existing spectrum, WiMAX Only Device

.............................

9

17

6.1.1

Short Description

................................
................................
................................
...........................

9

18

6.1.2

Actors

................................
................................
................................
................................
.............

9

19

6.1.3

Pre
-
Conditions

................................
................................
................................
.............................

10

20

6.1.4

Post
-
Conditions

................................
................................
................................
............................

10

21

6.1.5

Normal Flow

................................
................................
................................
................................

10

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6.1.6

Alternative Flows

................................
................................
................................
.........................

10

23

6.1.7

Exceptions

................................
................................
................................
................................
....

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24

6.2

Use Case 2
-

WiMAX
-
TDD LTE, load balancing

................................
................................
...........

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6.2.1

Short Description

................................
................................
................................
.........................

11

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6.2.2

Actors

................................
................................
................................
................................
...........

11

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6.2.3

Pre
-
Conditions

................................
................................
................................
.............................

11

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6.2.4

Post
-
Conditions

................................
................................
................................
............................

11

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6.2.5

Normal Flow

................................
................................
................................
................................

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6.2.6

Alternative Flows

................................
................................
................................
.........................

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6.2.7

Exceptions

................................
................................
................................
................................
....

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7

REQUIREMENTS (CONDIT
IONAL NORMA
TIVE)

................................
......

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7.1

System Requirements

................................
................................
................................
.......................

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7.2

Device Requirement

................................
................................
................................
..........................

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1

7.3

Network Requirements

................................
................................
................................
.....................

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2

7.4

Air Interface Requirements

................................
................................
................................
.............

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3

7.5

Accounting Requirements

................................
................................
................................
................

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4

7.6

Security Requirements

................................
................................
................................
.....................

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7.7

Management Requirements

................................
................................
................................
.............

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7.8

Performance Requirements

................................
................................
................................
.............

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8

GUIDANCE AND RECOMME
NDATION TO OTHER WIM
AX WGS

............

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1

Introduction

(
Informative
)

1

This document specifies the stage
-
1 requirements to support the
co
existence

of WiMAX
®

broadband wireless
2

networks based on WiMAX Forum Certified
®

products with LTE broadband wireless networks based on 3GPP
3

specifications.
These requirements
are specified for WiMAX Systems from
the perspective of network operators.

4

This r
equirements document specifies usage scenarios, functional requirements, and performance guidelines for
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WiMAX
-
LTE coexistence. Architecture details for this feature shall be specified in WiMAX stage
-
2 and stage
-
3
6

specifications based on the requirements sp
ecified in this document.

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2

Objective and
Scope



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The objective of this specification is to specify requirements for WiMAX Systems to facilitate the
coexistence

of
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WiMAX and LTE wireless access networks
operated
in a
coordinated or uncoordinated

mode. The W
iMAX and
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LTE networks may operate in the same
or adjacent bands
, in the same geographical
area or
on the same tower
. This
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specification will define network and air interface requirements for WiMAX Systems

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An objective of this specification is to ensure
th
at
the
solution
is

backward

compatible

with

these
previous WiMAX
15

releases
:

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1)

Network: Release 1.5, 1.6 and 2.0 and

18

2)

Air Interface: Release 2.0 (Including
coexistence

in IEEE802.16e
-
IEEE802.16m mixed mode) and Release 1.0
19

(as specified in T24
-
002
-
R010_TPA)

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T
he scope of this specification is to define
requirements
for

WiMAX

S
ystems to facilitate
the
coexistence

of
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WiMAX and LTE wireless access networks and

includes
but is not limited to

the following aspects:


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1)

R
equirements related
to

synchronization

of WiMAX
and LTE
-
TDD
networks to mitigate interference.

25

2)

Requirements related to the radio for the purpose of interference mitigation when WiMAX and LTE networks
26

are simultaneously operating in the same band.

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3)

Requirements relevant to
in
-
band carrier separation of th
e two networks
.

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4)

Requirements related to

coexistence

support by
WiMAX
ASN & CSN
and LTE

RAN and

core
-
network.

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5)

R
equirements

related to

performance impact
s

to WiMAX
S
ystems.


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3


Background

(Informative)

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3.1

Deployment Scenarios

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Air
-
Interface Coexistence Scenarios

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There are
several
deployment scenarios for WiMAX and LTE
coexistence
;

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WiMAX

TDD and LTE

TDD coexisting in the same band


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WiMAX

TDD and LTE

FDD coexisting in adjacent bands

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Core Deployment Scenarios

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Two

core
deployment scenarios

are possible when WiMAX

and LTE coexist and are operated by the same provider:

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WiMAX

an
d LTE access network connected to a common core

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W
iMAX and LTE

access networks connected to their respected cores but share some common core
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resources (e.g. AAA, billing)

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3.2

Deployment Challen
ges

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Service providers may face deployment challenges that may result in performance degradation of one or both
3

networks. In the following sections, we will explain some of the deployment challenges.

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WiMAX and TDD


LTE Interference

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The adjustable config
uration settings of WiMAX and LTE may be selected by the system operator. This includes the
7

allocated time period to DL transmission, UL transmission and the guard periods. Interference between the systems
8

may happen due to time overlap between one system
transmitting its TDD DL subframe while the other system is
9

transmitting its TDD UL subframe.

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WiMAX Frame Structure

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Deployed WiMAX systems use a 5 ms TDD frame structure. Each frame has 47 symbols while the DL to UL ratio
13

(DL: UL) may be configured.

14



Popul
ar WiMAX frame structures are DL/UL 29:18 and 35:12 symbols


15



WiMAX TTG/RTG Transmit Time Guard/Receive Time Guard is the switching point between DL/UL

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LTE TDD Frame Structure

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LTE TDD Systems use a 10 ms TDD frame structure. Each 10 ms frame cons
ists of two half
-
frames of 5 ms each.
27

The LTE TDD frame structure (Type 2) is shown below.

28



Existing LTE Frame structure with special frames


used for switching between DL and UL

29



The three symmetrical LTE TDD frame configurations with 5msec cycle are LTE C
onfiguration 0
30

(1DL/3UL), Configuration 1 (2DL/2UL) and Configuration 2 (3DL/1UL)

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WiMAX


LTE Frame misalignment

40

Interference between the two systems may occur due to time overlap between one system transmitting its TDD DL
41

subframe while the other

system is transmitting its TDD UL subframe. This type of interference may be minimized
42

by ensuring the right time
-
alignment between the WiMAX frame and LTE TDD frame such that neither system
43

transmits its DL subframe while the other system is transmitting

its UL subframe. The alignment may be achieved
44

by synchronizing the frame structure of WiMAX and LTE TDD systems in time, and by using the appropriate
45

DL/UL configurations for each system.

46

In order to achieve this time alignment, the LTE system must use a

5 ms switching period as well as a similar
47

downlink and uplink transmission periods.

48

LTE TDD configurations 1 and 2 have 5 ms switching periods and are potentially useful for WiMAX and LTE TDD
49

coexistence.

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29
DL symbols
=
2982
.
94
us
.
UL
=
18
symbols
=
1851
.
3
us
RTG
=
60
us
TTG
=
105
.
7
us
0
1
Radio Frame
(
10
ms
)
2
4
3
5
6
7
9
8
Subframe
(
1
ms
)
DwPTS
UpPTS
GP
Special Subframe
(
1
ms
)
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The most common DL/UL ratio for WiMAX in 10 MHz
channelization is 29:18. The case of (29:18) is shown in
1

the figure below, where the operation of the WiMAX and LTE systems is compared. The WiMAX system cannot
2

complete its downlink transmission before the LTE system starts uplink transmission which resu
lts in interference to
3

the LTE system. For this reason, a solution is needed to address the frame misalignment between the two frames.
4

Note that

in

the
exemplary picture below the
LTE TDD frame starts 1 ms later than the WiMAX frame
, however
5

other delay co
mbinations are also possible.

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7

Frame alignment can be done to avoid the DL transmission of one technology interfering with the UL transmission
8

of the other technology which will minimize interference without using frequency guard bands.


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The overlap problem may be solved by dropping two WiMAX DL symbols. This will reduce the available data
25

carrying resources of the WiMAX DL by approximately 8.3%.

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WiMAX and FDD


LTE Interference

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In the 2.6 GHz band, the 3GPP band 7 is defined by assi
gning the lower 70 MHz of the spectrum, from 2.50 GHz to
31

2.57 GHz, to UpLink and the upper 70 MHz, from 2.62 GHz to 2.69 GHz, to DownLink.

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The figure below shows that both edge channels of the TDD band
at 2.57 GHz and 2.62 GHz
can receive
and create
48

interference from the adjacent edge channel of the FDD UL and DL, which can impact the coexistence of LTE FDD
49

and WiMAX.

50

FDD UL
TDD DL and UL
FDD DL
Frequency
Edge of channel
creates interference


29
DL symbols
=
2982
.
94
us
.
UL
=
18
symbols
=
1851
.
3
us
RTG
=
60
us
TTG
=
105
.
7
us
DL
UL
DL
DwPTS
UL
DL
GP
LTE Configuration
1
UpPTS
2% overlap

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Energy the Receiver captures
from channels other than its
own can cause overload
effects such as
Blocking
and
Intermodulation
(IM)
.
Transmitter emissions into
other channels are
Out Of
Band Emissions (OOBE)
.
Out of Band
Emission
Receiver
Overload
Out of Band
Emission
Interfering
Transmitter
(System A)
Victim
Receiver
(System B)
Receiver
Overload
Out of Band
Emission
Receiver
Overload
Out of Band
Emission
Interfering
Transmitter
(System A)
Victim
Receiver
(System B)
Receiver
Overload

1


2

To minimize the possible interference, a specific spectrum gap may be used to provide isolation. Isolation can also
3

be ac
hieved with a combination of provisions including guard band allocation, antenna separation, and filtering.

4


5

4

Abbreviations, Definitions, and Conventions
(Informative)

6

4.1

Conventions
(Informative)

7

The key words “MUST”, “MUST NOT”, “REQUIRED”, “SHALL”, “SHALL
NOT”, “SHOULD”, “SHOULD
8

NOT”, “RECOMMENDED”, “MAY”, and “OPTIONAL” in this document are to be interpreted as described in
Ref
9

[2]

RFC 2119
.

10


11

4.2

Abbreviations and Acronyms (
Informative)

12


13

AAA


Authentication Authorization Accounting

14

ASN


Access Service

Network

15

BS


Base Station

16

CSN


Connectivity Service Network

17

DL


Down Link

18

DwPTS

Downlink Pilot Time Slot

19

FDD


Frequency Division Duplexing

20

GP



Guard Period

21

LTE


Long Term Evolution

22

MRU


Most Recently Used

23

MS


Mobile Station

24

NAP


Network Access Provider

25

NBR
-
ADV

Nei
ghBoR ADVertisement

26

RTG


receive transition gap

27

RAN


Radio Access Network

28

TDD


Time Division Duplexing

29

TTG


Transmit Transition Gap

30

UL


Up Link

31

UpPTS


Uplink Pilot Time Sl
ot

32

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4.3

Definitions (
Informative)

1

4.3.1

WiMAX Network:

2

For the purpose of this specification, Wi
MAX Network refers to the concatenation of
the
ASN and
the
CSN network
3

nodes and services.

4


5

4.3.2

WiMAX System:

6

For the purpose of this specification, WiMAX System refers to
the concatenation of the WiMAX N
etwork & the
7

User Device.

8


9

4.3.3

LTE Network:

10

For the purpose
of this specification, LTE Network refers to the concatenation of LTE RAN and core network nodes
11

and services.

12


13

4.3.4

LTE System:

14

For the purpose of this specification, LTE System refers t
o the concatenation of the LTE N
etwork & the User
15

Device.

16


17

5

References

18

[1]

IEEE

802.16 Air Interface for Wireless Broadband Systems


19

[2]


3GPP TS
36.201 LTE Physical Layer General Description

20


21


22

6

Use Cases

(Informative)

23

6.1

Use Case 1

-

WiMAX
-
TDD LTE co
-
existing spectrum, WiMAX Only Device

24

6.1.1

Short Description

25

An operator with WiMAX deployed in t
he 2.5 GHz band re
-
deploys the spectrum to incorporate WiMAX and TDD
26

LTE. The use case discusses the scenario and possible MS device impacts for WiMAX
-
only devices with a pre
-
27

provisioned channel plan.

28

6.1.2

Actors

29

John, user of a WiMAX only MS covering the full

2.5 GHz band

30

Ned, who works for the carrier, and is

in charge of managing/configuring the 4G network

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6.1.3

Pre
-
Conditions

1

The 2.5 GHz band is fully deployed using M2500T
-
01 profile, with 5 and 10 MHz bandwidths. The current
2

WiMAX only MS devices Channel Plan,

stored in a pre
-
provisioned data file, is configured to scan the entire 2.5
3

GHz band for WiMAX carriers. An MRU (Most Recently Used) list is utilized by the MS to determine the
4

frequencies to scan after an initial power up of the device.

5


6

The NAP has d
eployed TDD LTE RAN in some portion of the 2.5 GHz band, with a plan to “go live” with the dual
-
7

RAN WiMAX/TDD LTE system on D
-
day at the 0600 hour.

8


9

6.1.4

Post
-
Conditions

10

The 2.5 GHz band now operates as a co
-
existent dual
-
RAN WiMAX/TDD LTE system. The impact

to the
11

WiMAX
-
only devices is minimal.

12

6.1.5

Normal Flow

13

1.

At the 2200 hour on D
-
day
-
1, John’s WiMAX
-
only device is operating properly on a WiMAX frequency that
14

is scheduled to convert to LTE mode.

15

2.

At the 2300 hour on D
-
day
-
1, Ned shuts down the WiMAX frequencies
scheduled to convert to LTE the next
16

day. John’s WiMAX
-
only device uses the NBR
-
ADV list to determine a new candidate WiMAX channel to
17

move to. John shuts off his MS 10 minutes later.

18

3.

On D
-
day at the 0600 hour, the Ned “turns on the switch” to make the L
TE RAN equipment go live.

19

4.

At D
-
day, 0800 hour John turns on his WiMAX MS. The device scans its MRU list, attempts to reconnect to
20

the channel it was on last night, senses energy on this redeployed LTE channel but cannot decode its
21

preamble since it is l
ooking for a WiMAX preamble. Then it looks at the Channel Plan file and finds more
22

LTE channels but eventually locks onto a valid WiMAX channel which is written into the MRU. The total
23

WiMAX channel acquisition time has increased in this situation.

24

5.

John
shuts off his MS and drives to another area in the new WiMAX
-
TDD LTE coverage region. He powers
25

up the MS and again finds that, since in this case the MRU does not contain a valid channel for his new
26

location, the WiMAX acquisition time has increased.

27

6.

When John stays in the same general service area, his acquired channels are stored in an MRU list so that re
-
28

acquisition after an MS device power cycle is rapid. When he powers down his device and moves to a new
29

location in the newly deployed WiMAX
-
TDD LT
E coverage region, the acquisition time continues to be
30

longer than before, especially since there are now LTE channels in the old WiMAX channel slots. John calls
31

the carrier and complains about this.

32

7.

The carrier asks John to come to the local service cen
ter and get his Channel Plan configuration file updated.
33

John does so and the initial channel acquisition time in a new service area is improved.

34

6.1.6

Alternative Flows

35


Same as above, but step 3 now reads: On D
-
day at the 0600 hour, the Ned “turns on the s
witch” to make
36

the LTE RAN equipment go live.

37


38


Same as above, but the frequency band is 3.5 GHz or 2.3 GHz.

39


40


The MS device may also have a 3G modem in a different band, but this is not expected to impact the use
41

case.

42


43


44


The network transition may
occur when the device is live. (FFS)

45

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6.1.7

Exceptions

1

None

2


3

6.2

Use Case 2
-

WiMAX
-
TDD LTE, load balancing

4

6.2.1

Short Description

5

A service provider supporting both WiMAX and LTE has a spectrum of 30MHz uses 10MHz f1 to deploy WiMAX
6

and 10MHz f2 to deploy LTE. The other

10MHz f3 is used for load balancing. The use case discusses carrier
7

allocation between WiMAX and LTE depending on the load of each system.

8

6.2.2

Actors

9

Ned, works for the service provider, and is in charge of managing/configuring the 4G network.

10

Service provid
er network.

11


12

6.2.3

Pre
-
Conditions

13

The 2.5 GHz band is fully deployed using 10 MHz f1 for WiMAX and 10MHz f2 for LTE and 10MHz f3 is not
14

assigned.

15


16

6.2.4

Post
-
Conditions

17

The 10 MHz f3 is now assigned for WiMAX.

18

6.2.5

Normal Flow

19

8.

The service provider supports WiMAX and LTE
accesses. Devices may be WiMAX only, dual mode
20

WiMAX & LTE or LTE only.

21

9.

The band is deployed using 10 MHz f1 for WiMAX and 10MHz f2 for LTE while the 10MHz f3 is not
22

assigned

23

10.

The load on the WiMAX system increases as more dual mode devices are introduced
.

24

11.

The service provider network automatically activates the 10MHz f3 for WiMAX use.

25

12.

If the WiMAX only devices decrease, the load on the WiMAX network decreases then the service provider
26

network automatically reconfigures part or all of the 10MHz f3 resourc
es for LTE use.

27

6.2.6

Alternative Flows

28


Same as above, but step 4 & 5 now read:

29

4.

Ned manually configures the 10MHz f3 for WiMAX use
.

30

5.

If
the WiMAX only devices decrease, the load on the WiMAX network decreases then Ned manually
31

reconfigures part or all of th
e 10MHz f3 resources for LTE use.

32

6.2.7

Exceptions

33

None

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1

Note; The detailed implementation on when and how to configure/reconfigure the resources is FFS.

2

7

Requirements

(
Conditional
Normative)

3

7.1

System Requirements

4

R
-

[1]

WiMAX S
ystems SHALL
support

coexist
ence

wit
h
LTE
-
TD
D (a.k.a TD
-
LTE) S
ystems
.

5

R
-

[2]

WiMAX S
ystems SHALL
support coexistence with LTE
-
FDD S
ystems
.

6


7

7.2

Device

Requirement

8

R
-

[
3
]

A WiMAX device supporting LTE
coexistence

SHALL be able to inter
-
operate with a WiMAX network
9

which does not support LTE
coexi
stence
.

10


11

R
-

[
4
]

When a WiMAX network is reconfigured
to accommodate

both WiMAX and LTE operation in the same
12

band

13

, a
WiMAX only

device SHOULD have its WiMAX channel plan reprogrammed to improve
its
initial network
14

acquisition time.

15


16

R
-

[
5
]

When a WiMAX N
etwork is reconfigured to support WiMAX and LTE
coexistence

in the same band, the
17

device MAY use over the air device configuration procedures

to perform channel plan reconfiguration.

18


19

R
-
[6
] A WiMAX device, not supporting LTE
coexistence
, SHALL be able to i
nter
-
operate with a WiMAX network
20

which does support LTE
coexistence
.

21

7.3

Network

Requirements

22

R
-

[
7
]

A WiMAX Network co
-
existing with a
n

LTE
-
TDD Network SHALL support interference mitigation
23

mechanisms to minimize or avoid interference (e.g. frame synchroniza
tion, transmission coordination
, in band
24

carrier separation, etc.
).

25


26

R
-

[
8
]

A WiMAX Network co
-
existing with an LTE
-
FDD Network SHALL support interference mitigation
27

mechanisms to minimize or avoid interference (e.g. in band carrier separation
, geographica
l spacing, etc.
).

28


29

R
-

[
9
]

A WiMAX Network supporting LTE
coexistence

SHALL be backward compatible with a WiMAX
30

networks which doesn’t support LTE
coexistence
.

31


32

R
-

[
10
]

A WiMAX BS supporting LTE
coexistence

SHALL be able to interwork with a WiMAX BS that d
oes not
33

support LTE coexistence.

34


35

7.4

Air Interface

Requirements

36

7.5

Accoun
ting
Requirements

37

R
-

[
1
1
]

WiMAX Systems supporting LTE
coexistence

SHALL NOT impact the existing accounting mechanisms
38

specified for WiMAX

Systems.

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7.6

Security Requirements

1

R
-

[
1
2
]

WiMAX Syste
ms supporting LTE
coexistence

SHALL NOT impact the existing security mechanisms
2

specified for WiMAX Systems.

3


4

7.7

Management Requirements

5

R
-

[
1
3
]

When a WiMAX Network is reconfigured to support WiMAX and LTE
coexistence

in the same band, the
6

WiMAX System MAY u
se over the air device configuration procedures to perform channel plan reconfiguration.

7


8

R
-

[14
] WiMAX Networks not supporting LTE coexistence SHALL be able to manage devices that support LTE
9

coexistence using existing device management mechanisms.

10


11

R
-

[1
5
]

Coexistence solutions SHOULD allow for dynamic or manual carrier allocation between WiMAX & LTE
12

networks.


13


14


15

7.8

Performance

Requirements

16

R
-

[
1
6
]

Coexistence solutions SHOULD minimize reduction in spectrum efficiency of WiMAX or LTE
networks
.

17


18

R
-

[1
7
] Coe
xistence solutions SHOULD minimize reduction in throughput of WiMAX or LTE networks.

19


20

R
-

[1
8
] Coexistence solutions SHOULD m
inimize reduction

in coverage of WiMAX or LTE networks.

21

R
-
[
19
]

Any performance degradation in WiMAX Systems supporting LTE coexisten
ce SHOULD not exceed 10%.

22

8

Guidance and Recommendation to other WiMAX WGs

23

N/A

24