presentation_ICDVRAT2012x

minedesertSoftware and s/w Development

Oct 31, 2013 (3 years and 7 months ago)

72 views

Upper
-
Body Interactive Rehabilitation System for
Children with Cerebral Palsy: The Effect of
Control/Display Ratios


Takehiko
Yamaguch
i
1
,
Paul
Richar
d
2
,
Fabienne
Veau
x
3
,
Mickaël
Dinomai
s
4
,
Sylvie
Nguye
n
5


1,2,3,4,5
L
aboratoire
d'Ingénierie des Systèmes
Automatisés,
Université
d’Angers, Angers
, France

3,4
Centre les Capucins, Département de Médecine Physique et de Rééducation Pédiatrique,
Angers
, France

4
Faculté de Médecine; Département de Médecine Physique et de Réadaptation Pédiatrique, Université


d’Angers, Angers
,
France

9th International Conference
on Disability
, Virtual Reality and Associated
Technologies Laval
,
France September
10

12, 2012

-
Related Studies

-
Proposed System

-
System Evaluation

-
Results
and
Discussion

-
Conclusion


9th International Conference
on Disability
, Virtual Reality and Associated
Technologies Laval
,
France September
10

12, 2012

Introduction

Introduction


Constraint
-
induced movement
therapy
(CIMT)

It encourages
the use of the

affected
hand by restricting the

unaffected
hand
and asking for

intensive
movement with
the

impaired
upper
limb

Having the "good" arm blocked for
long

periods
of time can generate
frustration

in
the
child

More
"child
-
friendly"
approaches are
needed

9th International Conference
on Disability
, Virtual Reality and Associated
Technologies Laval
,
France September
10

12, 2012

Cerebral palsy (
CP)
:

various
motor impairments caused by damage to the central
nervous
system during foetal
development


It affects about
0.3
%

of
births

(
Krageloh
-
Mann
, and Cans,
2009
)

It often
manifests itself
during childhood

Physical therapy is need;

-

Improve
their movement
patterns.

-

Maintain
the range of the affected
arm/leg
joints.

Introduction

Virtual Reality (VR)
:
systems offer the capability to achieve rehabilitative goals through the
use of real
-
time feedback and adaptive strategy/difficulty (
Le Gal et al., 2008
)

VR
remains motivating and
entertaining

Goal of project
:
is
to develop a

child
-
friendly,
motivating, and
entertaining”
rehabilitation
system for children
with
CP

Traditional CP Therapy
:
is often
of little interest to a child, affecting his motivation to
continue such therapeutic activities
(
Schmidt, and Lee, 2005
)

Traditional CP Therapy is not motivating
and
entertaining for child

9th International Conference
on Disability
, Virtual Reality and Associated
Technologies Laval
,
France September
10

12, 2012

Introduction

Virtual Reality (VR)
:
systems offer the capability to achieve rehabilitative goals through the
use of real
-
time feedback and adaptive strategy/difficulty (
Le Gal et al., 2008
)

VR
remains motivating and
entertaining

Traditional CP Therapy
:
is often
of little interest to a child, affecting his motivation to
continue such therapeutic activities
(
Schmidt, and Lee, 2005
)

9th International Conference
on Disability
, Virtual Reality and Associated
Technologies Laval
,
France September
10

12, 2012

Motion
capture based
VR rehabilitation system using Kinect sensor

Traditional CP Therapy is not motivating
and
entertaining for child

-
Proposed System

-
System Evaluation

-
Results
and
Discussion

-
Conclusion


9th International Conference
on Disability
, Virtual Reality and Associated
Technologies Laval
,
France September
10

12, 2012

Related
Studies

-
Introduction

Related Studies

Working
S
pace of Previous Systems


V
isually limited
since the user’s movement is
directly projected on a screen via a tracking
system

IREX

EyeToy

Cybex Trazer

VR Rehabilitation


U
sing full
-
body interaction via a tracking device

-
Limited working space could generate
frustration

on children’s motivation

-
L
imit
system
capability:
task variation
, and
interaction
techniques

for the rehabilitation task.



Concept of our system:

Assist
children
with CP in a full
-
range of avatar movements to
adapt the
Control/Display (C/D)
ratio

of
limb positions

9th International Conference
on Disability
, Virtual Reality and Associated
Technologies Laval
,
FranceS

eptember

10

12, 2012

Related Studies

Working
S
pace of Previous Systems


V
isually limited
since the user’s movement is
directly projected on a screen via a tracking
system

VR Rehabilitation


U
sing full
-
body interaction via a tracking device

-
Limited working space could generate
frustration

on children’s motivation

-
L
imit
system
capability:
task variation
, and
interaction
techniques

for the rehabilitation task.




Aim of this study
: Explore
the effectiveness of C/D
ratios to
analyze user performance,

work
load, and user
enjoyment

9th International Conference
on Disability
, Virtual Reality and Associated
Technologies Laval
,
France September
10

12, 2012

IREX

EyeToy

Cybex Trazer

-
System Evaluation

-
Results
and
Discussion

-
Conclusion


9th International Conference
on Disability
, Virtual Reality and Associated
Technologies Laval
,
France September
10

12, 2012

Proposed
System

-
Introduction

-
Related Studies


Proposed System

System Configuration

-
A
60” TV monitor
,

-
A laptop

-
A
Microsoft Kinect
sensor

-
A
rehabilitation application running on the
laptop

The
application renders a visually
-
realistic 3D environment.

9th International Conference
on Disability
, Virtual Reality and Associated
Technologies Laval
,
France September
10

12, 2012

Proposed System

VR Rehabilitation Application

9th International Conference
on Disability
, Virtual Reality and Associated
Technologies Laval
,
France September
10

12, 2012


-
Results
and
Discussion

-
Conclusion


9th International Conference
on Disability
, Virtual Reality and Associated
Technologies Laval
,
France September
10

12, 2012

System Evaluation

-
Introduction

-
Related Studies

-
Proposed system


System Evaluation

Participants

-
12 university students
:

-
9
male and 3
female,

-
between
19 and 30 years
(
M
=

24.3, S
D
=
3.3 years
)

-
Dominant hand
: All
participants were
right
-
handed

-
Health
: in
good health,

-
Kinect experience
: had
not used a game using
Kinect

All subjects were at a distance of about 3 meters from the Kinect sensor.

Apparatus

-
Kinect
: one Kinect
was used for training exercises and experimental
tasks

-
FPS
: Kinect was updated to about 20Hz

-
Platform:

The
Unity3D platform
was used
for graphic
rendering

-
Monitor
: 60 inch LG

-
PC
: TOSHIBA laptop

-
OS
: Windows 7

-
CPU
: Intel
Core i7 720QM processor

-
RAM
: 4GB
of
memory

9th International Conference
on Disability
, Virtual Reality and Associated
Technologies Laval
,
France September
10

12, 2012

System Evaluation

Task Procedure

-
Independent
variable:

C/D ratio

-
Level
:
ratio 1.0, ratio 1.5, ratio 2.0



Training

Trial

Questionnaire

x

3 times

1 session

9th International Conference
on Disability
, Virtual Reality and Associated
Technologies Laval
,
France September
10

12, 2012

System Evaluation

Task Procedure

-
Independent
variable:

C/D ratio

-
Level
:
ratio 1.0, ratio 1.5, ratio 2.0



Training

Trial

Questionnaire

x

3 times

Training

-
20


40 objects were
applied

e
very 2
seconds


Randomly

between 0
-
180
°

1 session

9th International Conference
on Disability
, Virtual Reality and Associated
Technologies Laval
,
France September
10

12, 2012

System Evaluation

Task Procedure

-
Independent
variable:

C/D ratio

-
Level
:
ratio 1.0, ratio 1.5, ratio 2.0



Training

Trial

Questionnaire

x

3 times

1 session

9th International Conference
on Disability
, Virtual Reality and Associated
Technologies Laval
,
France September
10

12, 2012

Trial

-
60 objects

-
The applied direction : randomly selected out of 3 angles

60
°

-
5
°

-
40
°

C/D 1.0

System Evaluation

Task Procedure

-
Independent
variable:

C/D ratio

-
Level
:
ratio 1.0, ratio 1.5, ratio 2.0



Trial

-
60 objects

-
The applied direction : randomly selected out of 3 angles

9th International Conference
on Disability
, Virtual Reality and Associated
Technologies Laval
,
France September
10

12, 2012

60
°

-
5
°

-
40
°

C/D 1.0

2
7.5
°

125
°

-
25
°

C/D 1.5

190
°

-
10
°

6
0
°

C/D 2.0

Training

Trial

Questionnaire

x

3 times

1 session

System Evaluation

Task Procedure

-
Independent
variable:

C/D ratio

-
Level
:
ratio 1.0, ratio 1.5, ratio 2.0



Questionnaire

-
Nasa TLX for workload

-
Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) for Enjoyment of the training

9th International Conference
on Disability
, Virtual Reality and Associated
Technologies Laval
,
France September
10

12, 2012

Training

Trial

Questionnaire

x

3 times

1 session


-
Conclusion


9th International Conference
on Disability
, Virtual Reality and Associated
Technologies Laval
,
France September
10

12, 2012

Results and Discussion

-
Introduction

-
Related Studies

-
Proposed system

-
System evaluation


Results and Discussion

Dependent variables

-
Performance data:

-
Take success rate

-
Subjective data:

-
Nasa TLX

-
Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale

9th International Conference
on Disability
, Virtual Reality and Associated
Technologies Laval
,
France September
10

12, 2012

Results and Discussion

Task success rate

-
C/D 1.0 (
M =

99.72% ,
SD =

0.96%)

> C/D 2.0 (
M =

90.28% ,
SD =

10.77
%)

-
C/D 1.5 (
M =

97.50% ,
SD =

3.51% )
>
C/D
2.0

(
M =

90.28% ,
SD =

10.77
%)

C/D ratio was related to task
difficulty

190
°

-
5
°

-
40
°

60
°

125
°

-
10
°

60
°

-
25
°

27.5
°

User comments

9th International Conference
on Disability
, Virtual Reality and Associated
Technologies Laval
,
France September
10

12, 2012

Results and Discussion

-
C/D 1.0 (
M =

99.72% ,
SD =

0.96%)

> C/D 2.0 (
M =

90.28% ,
SD =

10.77
%)

-
C/D 1.5 (
M =

97.50% ,
SD =

3.51% )
>
C/D
2.0

(
M =

90.28% ,
SD =

10.77
%)

190
°

-
40
°

-
5
°

60
°

125
°

-
10
°

60
°

-
25
°

27.5
°

Task success rate

User comments

T
he
user’s movement strategy for the task could
be changed

9th International Conference
on Disability
, Virtual Reality and Associated
Technologies Laval
,
France September
10

12, 2012

C/D ratio was related to task
difficulty

Results and Discussion

Nasa TLX

-
Temporal Demand (
Significant trend
):

-
C/D 2.0 (
M =

3.67 ,
SD =

1.15)
> C/D 1.0 (
M =

2.67 ,
SD =

0.98
)

-

Effort

(
Significant effect
):

-
C/D 2.0 (
M =

3.41 ,
SD =

1.24)

> C/D 1.0 (
M =

2.08,
SD =

0.67
)



-
Required to make an effort to complete a task with a C/D 2.0
ratio

-
There was time pressure with C/D 2.0 ratio

-
Concerning frustration:

-
Expected Result

: Felt stress
for avatar operations in C/D 1.5 and 2.0 ratio
conditions

-
Result

:

N
o
significant
effect

-
comfortable operation for
the C/D 2.0 ratio
because
of the speed of the avatar's movement
.

-
uncomfortable operation for C/D 1.0
because the avatar’s movement was slow.

User comments

9th International Conference
on Disability
, Virtual Reality and Associated
Technologies Laval
,
France September
10

12, 2012

Results and Discussion

Enjoyment

-
No significant effect

-
C/D 1.5 and 2.0
:

-
C
ould
be challenged, excited, and motivated to perform the
task

-
C/D
1.0
condition :

-
no excited, and no challenged
, but the
movement was realistic, natural,
simulated

User comments

User
motivation can be changed with different C/D ratios.

9th International Conference
on Disability
, Virtual Reality and Associated
Technologies Laval
,
France September
10

12, 2012

Conclusion

-
Introduction

-
Related Studies

-
Proposed system

-
System evaluation

-
Results and Discussion


9th International Conference
on Disability
, Virtual Reality and Associated
Technologies Laval
,
France September
10

12, 2012

Conclusion

Aim of this study

-
Explored
the effectiveness of C/D ratios in our prototype
application


-


Applied the object catching task with 3 kinds of C/D ratio to analyze
user performance, work load,
and user enjoyment with university
students without
motor
impairments

Method

-
Performance data
-

Success rate
:

-
C/D
ratio was related to task
difficulty

-
T
he
user’s movement strategy for the task could
be changed

-
Subjective data
-

Workload
:

-
High C/D ratio could make an effort, and time pressure

-
High C/D ratio could make it comfortable on avatar movement

-
Low C/D ratio could make it uncomfortable on avatar movement

-
Subjective data
-

Enjoyment
:

-
User
motivation
could
be changed with different C/D ratios.

Findings

-
Different
kinds of C/D ratios will be designed to better understand their
effectiveness.

-
O
ther
kinds of interaction techniques we have developed will be investigated using patients
with impaired motor function.

Future works

9th International Conference
on Disability
, Virtual Reality and Associated
Technologies Laval
,
France September
10

12, 2012

Any questions?

9th International Conference
on Disability
, Virtual Reality and Associated
Technologies Laval
,
France September
10

12, 2012