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LECTURE NOTE





NO

M
IS
-
00
3

Chapter

Chapter
4


Lecture Format

Lecture

Learning

Objectives



目的



Describe several important trends occurring in computer software



Give examples of several major types of a
pplication and system software



Explain the purpose of several popular software packages for end user productivity
and collaborative computing



Outline the functions of an operating system



Describe the main uses of high
-
level, fourth
-
generation, object
-
orien
ted, and
Web
-
oriented programming languages and tools.


K
ey

Lecture

Contents

1.

Software

2.

Application Software
.

3.

System Software

4.

Operating Systems

5.

Programming Languages

时间

分配

(
h
牳r









LECTURE CONTENTS






3


Section I: Application Software
-

End User Applications

Introduction to Software:

This chapter presents an overview of the major types of software that you depend on as
you work with computers and access comput
er networks. It discusses their
characteristics and purposes and gives examples of their uses.

Software Trends
:
[Figure 4.2]

Eleventh Edition
James A. O

Brien
3
Introduction to Information Systems
College of Tourism,
Hainan
University
Categories of Computer Software
General
-
Purpose
Programs
General
-
Purpose
Programs
Application
-
Specific
Programs
Application
-
Specific
Programs
System
Management
Programs
System
Management
Programs
System
Development
Programs
System
Development
Programs
Application
Software
Application
Software
Computer
Software
Computer
Software
System
Software
System
Software

This chapter presents an overview of the major types and functions of
application
software

and
sys
tem software

that are available to computer users. Information systems
depend on software resources to help end users use computer hardware to transform data
resources into a variety of information products. Software is needed to accomplish the
input, pr
ocessing, output, storage, and control activities of information systems.


Computer software is typically classified into two major types of programs:



Application Software
-

Programs that direct the performance of a particular use,
or application, of compu
ters to meet the information processing needs of end
users.



System Software
-

Programs that manage and support the resources and
operations of a computer system as it performs various information processing
tasks.


Two major software trends are taking plac
e:

[Figure 4.3]

Eleventh Edition
James A. O

Brien
4
Introduction to Information Systems
College of Tourism,
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University
Trends in Computer Software
First
Generation
First
Generation
Second
Generation
Second
Generation
Third
Generation
Third
Generation
Fourth
Generation
Fourth
Generation
Fifth
Generation
Fifth
Generation
User
-
Written
Programs
Machine
Languages
Packaged
Programs
Symbolic
Languages
Operating
Systems
High
-
Level
Languages
DBMS
Fourth
-
Generation
Languages
Microcomputer
Packages
Natural &
Object
-
Oriented
Languages
Multipurpose
Graphic
-
Interface
Network
-
Enabled
Expert
-
Assisted
Packages
Trend:
Toward Easy
-
to
-
Use Multipurpose Network
-
Enabled Application
Packages for Productivity and Collaboration
Trend:
Toward Visual or Conversational Programming Languages and
Tools



Trend away from
:


(1)

Custom
-
designed programs developed by the professional programmers of an
organization.

(2)

Technical, machine
-
specific programming languages using binary
-
based or
symbolic codes

(3)

Procedural la
nguages
, which use brief statements and mathematical
expressions to specify the sequence of instructions a computer, must perform.



Trend towards
:

(1)

Use of off
-
the
-
shelf software packages acquired by end users from software
vendors.

(2)


Use of a visual graphic
-
interface for object
-
oriented programming, or
toward nonprocedural
natural languages

for programming that are closer
to human conversation.

Reasons for these trends are:



Development of relatively inexpensive and easy
-
to
-
use application software
packages a
nd multipurpose
software suites

for microcomputers.



Software packages are designed with Web
-
enabled networking capabilities and
collaboration features that optimize their usefulness for end users and workgroups
on the Internet and corporate intranets and
extranets.



Many software packages can now be downloaded, updated, managed, and rented
or leased from software companies or
application service providers

(ASP’s
) over
the Internet and corporate intranets.



Creation of easy
-
to
-
use, nonprocedural
fourth
-
genera
tion languages

(4GLs).



Developments in object technology, graphics, and artificial intelligence to
produce natural language and graphical user interfaces (GUI). These
technologies make both programming tools and software packages easier to use.



Developmen
ts in a new generation of
expert
-
assisted

software packages that
combine expert system modules and artificial intelligence features (
wizards

and
intelligent

agents
)


Results of these trends:



Current trends are converging to produce a fifth generation of po
werful,
multipurpose, expert
-
assisted, and network
-
enabled software packages with
natural language and graphical interfaces to support the productivity and
collaboration of both end users and IS professionals.


Application Software for End Users
:
[Figure 4
.
3
]


Eleventh Edition
James A. O

Brien
5
Introduction to Information Systems
College of Tourism,
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University
Common General
-
Purpose Applications

Electronic Mail

Word Processing

Presentation Graphics

Multimedia

Personal Information Manager

Groupware

Application software consists of a variety of programs that can be subdivided into
general
-
purpose
and
application
-
specific
categories. These programs are called
application packages because they direct the processing
required for a particular use, or
application, that end users want to accomplish. Examples include:



Business Applications
-

accounting, sales management, transaction processing,
electronic commerce, etc.



Science and Engineering Applications


research and

development



Personal Applications


finance and home management



Education and Entertainment Applications


schools, learning institutions, DVD
movies


General
-
purpose

application programs are programs that perform common information
processing jobs for e
nd users. Examples include:



Wordprocessing programs



Spreadsheet programs



Database management programs



Graphics programs



Web browsers



Electronic mail



Groupware


Software Suites and Integrated Packages


Software suites

are a combination of the most widely
used productivity packages that
come bundled together. They include suites such as Microsoft Office, Lotus
SmartSuite, Corel WordPerfect Office, and Sun’s Star

Office.


Advantages of software suites:

These software tools can be used to increase your produ
ctivity, collaborate with your
colleagues, and access intranets, extranets, and the Internet.



Suites integrate software packages for Web browsing, wordprocessing,
spreadsheets, presentation graphics, database management, personal information
management, an
d more.



Suites cost a lot less than the total cost of buying their individual packages
separately.



All programs use a similar
graphical user interface
, which gives them the same
look and feel, and makes them easier to learn and use.



Suites also share commo
n tools, such as spell checkers and help wizards to
increase their efficiency.



Programs are designed to work together seamlessly and import each other’s files
or transfer data between applications.



Costs vary between $100 for a competitive upgrade to over
$700 for a full
version.


Disadvantages of software suites:



Critics argue that most end users never use many software suite features.



Suites take up a lot of disk space and may require significant amounts of memory.



Suites may compromise on the speed, powe
r, and flexibility of some of their
functions to achieve integration.


Integrated packages

-

the disadvantages of using software suites is one of the reasons for
the continued use of integrated packages like Microsoft Works, Lotus eSuite WorkPlace,
and App
leWorks. Integrated packages combine some of the functions of several
programs into one software package.


Advantages of integrated packages:



Combine some of the functions of several programs into one software package.



They require a lot less disk space

than software suites.



Can cost less than a hundred dollars.



Are frequently pre
-
installed on many low
-
end microcomputer systems.



Many integrated packages have enough functions and features for many computer
users.


Disadvantages of integrated packages:



Lea
ve out many features and functions that are in individual packages and
software suites. They cannot do as much as individual packages and software
suites.


Web Browsers and More: (Netscape Navigator / Microsoft Explorer

Eleventh Edition
James A. O

Brien
6
Introduction to Information Systems
College of Tourism,
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University
Web Browsers
Discussion
Groups
Surf the Net
Launch
Information
Searches
E
-
Mail
Multimedia
File
Transfer
Typical uses of a Web
Browser in Internet,
Intranet, and Extranet
Environments

Th
e most important software component to many computer users today is the
Web
browser.

A b r o ws e r l i k e N e t s c a p e N a v i g a t o r o r Mi c r o s o f t E x p l o r e r i s t h e k e y s o f t w a r e
i n t e r f a c e y o u u s e t o p o i n t a n d c l i c k y o u r wa y t h r o u g h t h e h y p e r l i n k e d r e s o u r c e s o f t h e
Wo r l d W
i d e We b a n d t h e r e s t o f t h e I n t e r n e t, a s w e l l a s c o r p o r a t e i n t r a n e t s a n d e x t r a n e t s.


We b b r o w s e r s a r e u s e d b y e n d u s e r s a s t h e u n i v e r s a l s o f t w a r e p l a t f o r m, w h i c h t h e y u s e
t o:



L a u n c h i n f o r ma t i o n s e a r c h e s



E
-
ma i l o t h e r s



P e r f o r m mu l t i me d i a f i l e t r a n s f e r s



P a r t
i c i p a t e i n d i s c u s s i o n g r o u p s a n d wo r k g r o u p c o l l a b o r a t i o n



A c c e s s I n t e r n e t, i n t r a n e t, a n d e x t r a n e t a p p l i c a t i o n s



Wa t c h a v i d e o



Ma k e a p h o n e c a l l



D o w n l o a d s o f t w a r e



H o l d a v i d e o c o n f e r e n c e


Electronic Mail: (Microsoft Exchange / Netscape)


Electronic mail

has c
hanged the way people work and communicate.
E
-
mail

is used to
send and receive electronic messages via the Internet or through organizational intranets
or extranets. E
-
mail is stored on network servers until you are ready. Features of
e
-
mail include:



Ro
ute messages to one or many individuals



Route messages to multiple end users based on predefined mailing lists



Provide password security



Automatic message forwarding



Remote user access



Allow users to store messages in folders with provisions for adding att
achments
to message files



Edit and send graphics and multimedia as well as text



Provide bulletin board and computer conferencing capabilities



Filter and sort incoming messages and route them to appropriate user mailboxes
and folders


Wordprocessing (Word)
and Desktop Publishing (Adobe PageMaker
)
:


Wordprocessing

packages computerize the creation, editing, revision, and printing of
documents

by electronically processing
text data
. Some of the features of these packages
include:



Desktop publishing capabilitie
s



Converting documents to HTML format for publication as Web pages on
corporate intranets or the World Wide Web.



Advanced features such as spell checker, thesaurus, grammar and punctuation
capabilities.



Suggest possible improvements in your writing style

with grammar and style
checker functions.



Idea processor or outliner functions, which help you, organize and outline your
thoughts before preparing a document or developing a presentation.



Design and create pages from scratch for an Internet or intranet w
ebsite.


Desktop Publishing (DTP):


End users and organizations can use
desktop publishing

(DTP) software to produce their
own printed materials such as newsletters, brochures, manuals, and books with several
type styles, graphics, and colo
u
rs on each page
. Typically text material and graphics
can be generated by word

processing and graphics packages and imported as text and
graphics files. Optical scanners may be used to input text and graphics from printed
material. You can also use files of clip art,
which are pre
-
drawn graphic illustrations
provided by the software package or available from other sources.


The heart of desktop publishing is a page design process called
page markup

or
page
composition
. The video screen becomes an electronic paste
-
up b
oard with rulers,
column guides, and other page design aids. Text material and illustrations are then
merged into the page format you design. The software will automatically move excess
text to another column or page and help size and place illustrations

and headings.


Electronic Spreadsheets: (Lotus / Excel)


Electronic spreadsheet packages are programs that are used for business analysis,
planning, and modelling. They provide electronic replacement for more traditional
tools such as paper worksheets,
pencils, and calculators. They generate an
electronic
spreadsheet
, which is a worksheet of rows and columns, which can be stored on your
PC, a network server, or converted to HTML format and stored as a Web page or

web
-
sheet

on the World Wide Web. Data
and formulas are entered into the worksheet
via the keyboard. The computer performs the calculations based on the formulas
entered. Most packages also have graphic capabilities.


A spreadsheet package can also be used as a decision support tool to perfo
rm
what
-
if
analysis.

F o r e x a mp l e: “ Wh a t wo u l d h a p p e n t o t h i s v a r i a b l e


i f y o u c h a n g e a n o t h e r
v a r i a b l e?”


D a t a b a s e Ma n a g e me n t: ( A c c e s s / A p p r o a c h / P a r a d o x )

E l e v e n t h E d i t i o n
J a m e s A. O

B r i e n
7
I n t r o d u c t i o n t o I n f o r m a t i o n S y s t e m s
C o l l e g e o f T o u r i s m,
H a i n a n
U n i v e r s i t y
Dat abase Management Packages
Da t a b a s e
De v e l o p me nt
Da t a b a s e
Ma i nt e na nc e
Da t a b a s e
I nt e r r o g a t i o n
Ap p l i c a t i o n
De v e l o p me nt
P r i ma r y T a s k s o f
D a t a b a s e Ma n a g e me n t
P a c k a g e s
P r i ma r y T a s k s o f
D a t a b a s e Ma n a g e me n t
P a c k a g e s

D a t a b a s e ma n a g e me n t p a c k a g e s a l l o w y o u t o s e t u p a n d m a n a g e d a t
a b a s e s o n y o u r P C,
n e t w o r k s e r v e r, o r t h e Wo r l d Wi d e We b. Mo s t D B MS p a c k a g e s c a n p e r f o r m f o u r
p r i ma r y t a s k s ( d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r 5 ):



D a t a b a s e D e v e l o p me n t
-

D e f i n e a n d o r g a n i z e t h e c o n t e n t, r e l a t i o n s h i p s, a n d
s t r u c t u r e o f t h e d a t a n e e d e d t o b u i l d a d a t a b a
s e, i n c l u d i n g a n y h y p e r l i n k s t o d a t a
o n We b p a g e s.



D a t a b a s e I n t e r r o g a t i o n
-

A c c e s s t h e d a t a i n a d a t a b a s e t o d i s p l a y i n f o r ma t i o n i n
a v a r i e t y o f f o r ma t s. E n d u s e r s c a n s e l e c t i v e l y r e t r i e v e a n d d i s p l a y i n f o r ma t i o n
a n d p r o d u c e f o r ms, r e p o r t s, a n d o t h e r d o c u
me n t s, i n c l u d i n g We b p a g e s.



D a t a b a s e Ma i n t e n a n c e
-

A d d, d e l e t e, u p d a t e, a n d c o r r e c t t h e d a t a i n a d a t a b a s e,
i n c l u d i n g h y p e r l i n k e d d a t a o n We b p a g e s.



Application Development
-

Develop prototypes of Web pages, queries, forms,
reports, and labels for a propos
ed business application. Or use a 4GL or
application generator to program the application.


Presentation Graphics and Multimedia
:


Presentation packages

are used to convert numeric data into graphics displays such as
line charts, bar graphs, pie charts,

and many other types of graphics. Most of the top
packages also help you prepare
multimedia presentations

of graphics, photos, animation,
and video clips, including publishing to the World Wide Web.


Advantages of using graphics and multimedia:



They ar
e easier to comprehend and communicate than numerical data.



Use of multiple
-
color and multiple
-
media displays can more easily emphasize key
points, strategic differences, and important trends in the data.



Presentation graphics have proven to be much more e
ffective than tabular
presentations of numeric data for reporting and communicating in advertising
media, management reports, or other business presentations.



Presentation graphics software packages give you many easy
-
to
-
use capabilities
that encourage the

use of graphics presentations (
slide shows
), which contain
many integrated graphics and multimedia displays. Examples: Microsoft’s
-

PowerPoint, Lotus’s
-

Freelance, or Corel’s
-

Presentations.



Graphics and multimedia presentations can be transferred
in HTML format to
websites on corporate intranets or the World Wide Web.


Multimedia Software Technologies


Eleventh Edition
James A. O

Brien
8
Introduction to Information Systems
College of Tourism,
Hainan
University
Key
Technologies
of
Multimedia
Video Capture
Card
Video Capture
Card
Authoring
Language
Authoring
Language
Storyboard
Storyboard
Compact Disk
Interactive
Compact Disk
Interactive
Sound Board
Sound Board
Compressed
Audio
Compressed
Audio
Digital Video
Interactive
Digital Video
Interactive
MIDI
MIDI
Computer
Edit System
Computer
Edit System
Interactive
Video
Interactive
Video
Digital Audio
Digital Audio
Multimedia Technologies

Hypertext and hypermedia are software technologies used in multimedia presentations.
By definition
hypertext

contai
ns only text and a limited amount of graphics.
Hyper
-
media

are electronic documents that contain multiple forms of media, including
text, graphics, video, and so on. Key terms and topics in hypertext or hypermedia
documents are indexed by software links s
o that the reader can quickly search them.


Hypertext and hypermedia are developed using specialized programming languages such
as Java and the Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), which create hyperlinks to other
parts of the document, or to other document
s and multimedia files. Examples:
Websites on the World Wide Web of the Internet.


Personal Information Managers (PIMs) (Lotus Organizer and Microsoft Outlook)


The
personal information manager

is a popular software package for end user
productivity and

collaboration. They are used to help end users store, organize, and
retrieve information about customers, clients, and prospects, or schedule and
management appointments, meetings, and tasks. PIMs are being used for:



Electronic calendar or list of appoi
ntments, meetings, or other things to do.



Timetable for a project



Display of key facts and financial data about customers, clients, and sales
prospects



Accessing the World Wide Web



Providing e
-
mail capability.



Internet and e
-
mail features to support team

collaboration by sharing information
with other networked PIM users.


Groupware: (Lotus Notes, Novell GroupWise, Microsoft Exchange, Netscape
Communicator)

Groupware

is
collaboration software

that helps workgroups and teams work together to
accomplish gr
oup assignments. Groupware is a fast growing category of
general
-
purpose application software that combines a variety of software features and
functions to facilitate collaboration.

Groupware products support collaboration through:



Electronic Mail




Discu
ssion groups and databases



Scheduling



Task management



Data, audio, and videoconferencing



Internet, corporate intranets and extranets to make collaboration possible on a
global scale by
virtual teams

located anywhere in the world.



Joint Web page development



Publish project news and progress reports



Working jointly on documents stored on Web servers

Other Business Software: [Figure 4.14]

Eleventh Edition
James A. O

Brien
9
Introduction to Information Systems
College of Tourism,
Hainan
University
Business Enterprise Application Software
Customer
Relationship
Management
Human
Resource
Management
Accounting and
Financial
Management
Supply
Chain
Management
Enterprise
Resource
Planning
Business
Decision
Support

Application software packages support managerial and operational uses such as:



Data warehou
sing and data mining (Chapter 5 & 9)



Accounting, marketing, manufacturing, human resource management, and financial
management, customer relationship management, enterprise resource planning,
supply chain management, and electronic commerce (Chapter 7)



De
cision support and data analysis applications (Chapter 9)

Section II: System Software: Computer System
Management

System Software Overview


System software consists of programs that manage and support a computer system and
its information processing activi
ties. For example, operating systems and network
management programs serve as vital
software interface
s between computer system
hardware and the application programs of end users.

Analyzing Air Products, Farmers Group, and Others

We can learn a lot about

the business value of competitive developments in system
software from this case. Take a few minutes to read it, and we will discuss it (See Air
Products, Farmers Group, and Others: Microsoft’s Battle for the Enterprise Software
Market in Section IX).


Overview:


Two major functional categories of system software include:
[Figure 4.1
6
]




System Management Programs
-

Programs that manage the hardware, software,
and data resources of the computer system during its execution of the various
information proces
sing jobs of users. They include:



Operating systems



Network management programs



Database management systems



System utilities



System Development Programs
-

Programs that help users develop information
system programs and prepare user programs for processi
ng. Major development
programs include:



Programming language translators and editors



Programming tools



CASE (Computer
-
Aided Software Engineering) packages


Operating Systems
:




The most important system software package for any computer is its operating
system.
An operating system is an integrated system of programs that:



Manages the operations of the CPU



Controls the input/output and storage resources and activities of the computer
system



Provides various support services as the computer executes the ap
plication
programs of users


Primary purpose of the operating system is to:



Maximize the productivity of a computer system by operating it in the most
efficient manner



Minimize the amount of human intervention required during processing



Assist the applicat
ion programs in order to perform common operations such as
accessing a network, entering data, saving and retrieving files and printing or
displaying output


Operating System Functions
:
[Figure 4.17]

Eleventh Edition
James A. O

Brien
10
Introduction to Information Systems
College of Tourism,
Hainan
University
Functions of an Operating System
Resource
Management
Resource
Management
Task
Management
Task
Management
User
Interface
User
Interface
File
Management
File
Management
Utilities
and Other
Functions
Utilities
and Other
Functions

An operating system perf
orms five basic functions in the operation of a computer
system. It provides:



User interface



Resource management



Task management



File management



Utilities and support services


The User Interface
:


The
user interface

is the part of the operating system th
at allows the end user to
communicate with the operating system so they can load programs, access files, and
accomplishes other tasks. Three main types of user interfaces are:



Command driven



Menu driven



Graphical user interface (GUI)


Trend Away From
: The

entry of brief end user commands, and choices from menus of
options


Trend Towards
: Easy
-
to
-
use
graphical user interface

(GUI), which uses icons, bars,
buttons, boxes, and other images relying on pointing devices, like the electronic mouse
or trackball to

make selections that help you get things done.


Resource Management:


An operating system uses a variety of resource management programs to manage the
hardware and networking resources of the computer system, including its:



CPU



Memory



Secondary storage
devices



Telecommunications processors



Input/Output peripherals


Memory management programs:



Keep track of where data and programs are stored



Subdivide memory into a number of sections and swap parts of programs and data
between main memory and magnetic dis
ks or other secondary storage devices



Provide a computer system with a
virtual memory

capability, which is larger than
the actual main memory of its primary storage circuits


File Management
:


File management programs of an operating system:



Control the cr
eation, deletion, and access of files of data and programs



Keep track of the physical location of files on magnetic disks and other secondary
storage devices


Task Management:


Task management programs of an operating system:



Manage the accomplishment of t
he computing tasks of end users



Allocate CPU time to tasks and interrupt tasks being executed to substitute other
tasks



Multitasking

capability where tasks of several programs can process at the same
time. Multitasking may involve
multiprogramming

where t
he CPU can process
the tasks of several programs at the same time, or
time
-
sharing
, where the
computing tasks of several users can be processed at the same time



In multitasking, a single computer can act as if it were several computers, or
virtual machines
, such that each application program is running independently at
the same time


Popular Operating Systems
:


The most popular microcomputer operating systems are:


MS
-
DOS

-

f o r m a n y y e a r s MS
-
D O S w a s t h e m o s t w i d e l y u s e d m i c r o c o m p u t e r
o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m.


C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s:



S i n g l e u s e r, s i n g l e
-
t a s k i n g o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m



Wa s g i v e n a g r a p h i c a l u s e r i n t e r f a c e a n d l i m i t e d m u l t i t a s k i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s b y
c o m b i n i n g i t w i t h Mi c r o s o f t Wi n d o w s.



Wi n d o w s 9 5

-

Mi c r o s o f t b e g a n r e p l a c i n g i t s D O S/Wi n d o w s c o mb i n a t i o n i n 1 9 9 5 w
i t h
t h e Wi n d o w s 9 5 o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m.


Wi n d o w s 9 8

-

Mi c r o s o f t i n t r o d u c e d a n e n h a n c e d v e r s i o n o f Wi n d o ws 9 5 i n 1 9 9 8.


C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s:

-

A d v a n c e d o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m

-

G r a p h i c a l u s e r i n t e r f a c e

-

T r u e mu l t i t a s k i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s

-

N e t wo r k i n g c a p a b i l i t i e s

-

Mu l t i me d i a c a p a b i
l i t i e s

-


E n h a n c e d I n t e r n e t c a p a b i l i t i e s


Wi n d o w s 2 0 0 0

-

Mi c r o s o f t h a s r e l e a s e d s e v e r a l v e r s i o n s o f t h i s o p e r a t i n g s y s t e m.


C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s/v e r s i o n s a v a i l a b l e:

-

Professional Version: a full
-
featured operating system for PC desktops and
laptops.

-

Server Versio
n: a multipurpose operating system for network servers and Web
servers in smaller networks.

-

Advanced Server Version: a network operating system used to manage large
networks and websites powered by server farms of many servers.

-

Data
-
center Server Version:

a high
-
performance network operating system for
large
-
scale business applications, such as online transaction processing and data
warehousing.


Windows NT


Microsoft multitasking network operating system


Characteristics:

-

Powerful, multitasking, multi
-
user network operating system

-

Installed on network servers to manage client/server networks and on PCs with
high performance requirements.

-

Microsoft merged its Windows 98 and Windows NT products into the Windows
2000 operating system during the year 2000.


UNIX

-

a popular operating system that is available for micros, minis, and mainframe
computer systems.


Characteristics:

-

Originally developed by AT&T, UNIX is now offered by other vendors,
including Solaris by Sun Microsystems and AIX by IBM.

-

Multitasking

and multi
-
user system, network
-
managed operating system whose
portability allows it to run on mainframes, midrange computers, and
microcomputers.



LINUX

-

is a low
-
cost, powerful, and reliable Unix
-
like operating system that is rapidly
gaining market sha
re as a high
-
performance operating system for network servers and
Web servers in both small and large scale networks.


Characteristics:

-

Linux Torvald of Finland and millions of programmers around the world
developed Linux as a free or low
-
cost shareware or

open
-
source software over
the Internet in the 1990’s.

-

Linux is still being enhanced in this way, but is sold with extra features and
support services by software vendors such as Red Hat, Caldera, and VA Linux.

-

PC versions of Linux are available which supp
ort office software suites, Web
browsers, and other application software.


Mac OS X

-

is the latest operating system from Apple for the iMac and other Macintosh
microcomputers.



Characteristics:

-

Mac OS X has a new graphical user interface

-

Advanced multita
sking and multimedia capabilities, along with a new suite of
Internet services called iTools.



Network Management Programs (Example: Novell NetWare, Microsoft’s
Windows NT Server and Windows 2000 Server)


Today’s information systems rely heavily on the I
nternet, intranets, extranets, local area
networks, and other telecommunications networks to interconnect end user workstations,
network servers, and other computer systems. This requires a variety of system
software for
network management
, including:



Net
work operating systems



Network performance monitors



Telecommunications monitors


Network management programs perform such functions as:



Automatically checking client PCs and video terminals for input/output activity



Assigning priorities to data communicati
ons requests from clients and terminals



Detecting and correcting transmission errors and other network problems



Some network management programs function as
middleware

to help diverse
networks communicate with each other.


Database Management Systems: [Cha
pter 6]


A
database management system

(DBMS) is a set of software programs that control the
development, use, and maintenance of the databases of computer
-
using organizations. A
database management system:



Helps organizations use their integrated collectio
n of data records and files known
as databases.



Allows different user application programs to easily access the same database.



Simplifies the process of retrieving information from databases in the form of
displays and reports.



Enables end users to get inf
ormation from a database using a
query language
.



Many DBMS packages provide fourth
-
generation languages (4GLs) and other
application development features.


Other System Management Programs:


System support programs are a category of software that performs
routine support
functions for the end users of a computer system. Examples are:


Utility programs
-

Programs that perform miscellaneous housekeeping and file
conversion functions. Examples: Norton Utilities


Performance Monitors

-

Programs that monitor
the processing of computer system
jobs, helps develop a planned schedule of computer operations that can optimize
computer system performance, and produces detailed statistics that are used for computer
system capacity planning and control.


Security
Monitors
-

Programs that monitor and control the use of computer systems and
provide warning messages and record evidence of unauthorized use of computer
resources.


Programming Languages: [Figure 4.22]

Eleventh Edition
James A. O

Brien
11
Introduction to Information Systems
College of Tourism,
Hainan
University
Categories of Programming Languages
Machine Languages
Use binary coded
instructions
1001 1001
1100 1101
High Level Languages
Use brief statements
Compute X = Y + Z
Markup Languages
Use embedded
control codes
Assembler Languages
Use symbolic coded
instructions
LOD Y
ADD Z
Fourth Generation
Languages
Use natural statements
Object
-
Oriented
Languages
Define objects that
contain data and actions
Document.write
(

Hi There

)
<H1>First heading</H>
<!ELEMENT Product
(#Item | manuf)>
SUM THE FOLLOWING
NUMBERS

Programming languag
es are the languages used to write computer programs. A
programming language

allows a programmer or end user to develop the sets of
instructions that constitute a computer program. Many programming languages have
been developed, each with its own unique
vocabulary, grammar, and uses:



Machine languages



Assembler languages



High
--
level languages



Fourth generation languages



Object
-
oriented languages


Machine Languages
:


Machine languages

are the most basic level of programming languages. They were the
first
generation

of programming languages.


Disadvantages of machine languages:



Programs had to be written using binary codes unique to each computer



Programming involved the difficult task of writing instructions in the form of
strings of binary digits (ones an
d zeros) or other number systems



Programmers had to have a detailed knowledge of the internal operations of the
specific type of CPU they were using



Programmers had to write long series of detailed instructions to accomplish even
simple processing tasks



Pr
ogramming is difficult and error
-
prone



Assembler Languages
:


Assembler languages

are the
second generation

of programming languages. They
were developed to reduce the difficulties in writing machine language programs.
Assembler languages are frequently

called symbolic languages because symbols are used
to represent operation codes and storage locations.


Advantages:



Uses symbolic coded instructions, which are easier to remember



Programming is simplified, as a programmer does not need to know the exact
s
torage location of data and instructions



Provides programmers greater control and flexibility in designing a program for a
particular computer



Programmers can produce more efficient software that requires a minimum of
instructions, storage, and CPU time to

perform a specific processing assignment


Disadvantages:



Assembler languages are unique to particular lines of computers



High
-
Level Languages


High
-
level languages

are the
third generation

of programming languages. They
include COBOL (business applicat
ion programs), BASIC (microcomputer end users),
and FORTRAN (scientific and engineering applications).


Advantages:



Easier to learn and understand than an assembler language as instructions
(
statements)

resemble human language or the standard notation of m
athematics



Have less
-
rigid rules, forms, and syntax’s, so the potential for error is reduced



Machine
-
independent programs therefore programs written in a high
-
level
language do not have to be reprogrammed when a new computer is installed



Programmers do not

have to learn a new language for each computer they
program



Disadvantages:



Less efficient than assembler language programs and require a greater amount of
computer time for translation into machine instructions


Fourth
-
Generation Languages
: (4GLs):


Fou
rth
-
generation

languages (4GLs) include a variety of programming languages that
are more nonprocedural and conversational than prior languages.


Advantages:



Simplified the programming process



Nonprocedural languages

encourage users and programmers to spe
cify the
results they want, while the computer determines the sequence of instructions that
will accomplish those results



Use
natural languages

that impose no rigid grammatical rules


Disadvantages:



Less flexible that other languages



Less efficient (in ter
ms of processing speeds and amount of storage capacity
needed)



Object
-
Oriented Languages:


Object
-
oriented programming

(OOP) languages tie data elements and the procedures or
actions that will be performed on them together into
objects
. Examples include

Visual
Basic, Turbo C++, C++, Object C++, and Java.


Advantages:



OOP languages are easier to use and more efficient for programming the
graphics
-
oriented user interface required by many applications



Programmed objects are reusable


HTML, XML and Java


HTM
L and Java are two relatively new programming languages, which have become
vital tools for building multimedia Web pages, websites, and web
-
based applications.


Characteristics of
HTML

(Hypertext Markup Language) include:



HTML is a page description languag
e that creates hypertext or hypermedia
documents



HTML inserts control codes within a document at points you can specify to create
links (hyperlinks) to other parts of the document or to other documents anywhere
on the Web



HTML embeds control costs in the A
SCII text of a document, which designate
titles, headings, graphics, and multimedia components, as well as hyperlinks
within the document.



Characteristics of
XML

(eXtensible Markup Language) include:



XML is not a Web page format description language like

HTML



XML describes the contents of Web pages by applying identifying tags or
contextual labels to the data in Web documents.



By classifying data in this way, XML makes website information a lot more
searchable, sortable, and easier to analyze.


XML promis
es to make electronic commerce a lot easier and efficient by supporting the
automatic electronic exchange of business data between companies and their customers,
suppliers, and other business partners.


Characteristics of
Java

include:



Java is an object
-
o
riented programming language created by Sun Microstations



Java is revolutionizing the programming of applications for the World Wide Web
and corporate intranets and extranets



Java is related to the C++ and Objective C programming languages, but is much
sim
pler and secure, and is computing platform independent



Java is specifically designed for realtime, interactive, web
-
based network
applications



Java applications consist of small application programs called
applets
, which can
be executed by any computer and

any operating system anywhere in a network.



Applets can reside at websites on a network server until needed by client systems,
and are easy to distribute over the Internet or intranets and extranets.



Java applets are platform independent


they can run on

Windows, UNIX, and
Macintosh systems without modification.



Java is becoming the programming language choice for many organizations intent
on capitalizing on the business potential of the Internet, as well as their own
intranets and extranets.



Programmin
g Software


A variety of software packages are available to help programmers develop computer
programs. For example,
programming language translators

are programs that translate
other programs into machine language instruction codes that computers can exe
cute.
Other software packages such as programming language editors, called
programming
tools
, help programmers write programs by providing program creation and editing
capabilities.


Language Translator Programs


Computer programs consist of sets of instr
uctions written in programming languages that
must be translated by a
language translator

into the computer’s own machine language
before they can be processed, or executed, by the CPU. Programming language
translator programs are known by a variety of na
mes.




Assembler

-

Translates the symbolic instruction codes of programs written in an
assembler language into machine language instructions.



Compiler
-

Translates (compiles) high
-
level language statements (
source
programs
) to machine language programs.



Int
erpreter
-

Translates and executes each program statement one at a time, instead
of first producing a complete machine language program, like compilers and
assemblers do.


Programming Tools
:


A graphical programming interface and a variety of built
-
in capa
bilities or add
-
on
packages enhances many language translator programs. Language translators provide
editing and diagnostic capabilities to identify programming errors or bugs. Many
language translator programs now include powerful graphics
-
oriented
prog
ramming
editors

and
debuggers
. These programs help programmers identify and minimize errors
while they are programming. The goal of such programs is to decrease the drudgery of
programming while increasing the efficiency and productivity of programmers.


Other programming tools include:



Diagramming packages



Code generators



Libraries of reusable objects and program code



Prototyping tools










HOME

WORK/

一、

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS



1.

What major trends are occurring in software? What capabil
ities do you expect to
see in future software packages?

2.

How do the different roles of system software and application software affect you
CASE

STUDIE
S


as a business end user? How do you see this changing in the future?

3.

Refer to the Real World Case on Intuit, Inc
. in the chapter. What consumer or
business software products that you use are most in need of customer
-
driven
alternatives or revisions? Explain your choices.

4.

Why is an operating system necessary? That is, why can’t an end user just load
an applicat
ion program in a computer and start computing?

5.

Should a Web browser be integrated into an operating system? Why or why not?

6.

Refer to the Real World Case on Air Products, Farmers Group, and Others in the
chapter. How might the enterprise software al
ternatives discussed in this case
relate to the software challenges of small businesses?

7.

Are software suites, Web browsers, and groupware merging together? What are
the implications for a business and its end users?

8.

How are the HTML and Java progra
mming languages affecting business
applications on the Web?

9.

Do you think Windows 2000 and Linux will surpass Unix and Netware as
operating systems for network and Web servers? Why or why not?

10.

Which application software packages are the most important for
a business end
user to know how to use? Explain the reasons for your choices.


二、

APPLICATION EXERCISES


1.

ABC Department Stores: Software Selection


ABC Department stores would like to acquire software to do the following tasks.
Identify what software packages they need.

2.

Evaluating Software Packages


a.

Briefly describe the advantages and disadvantages of one of the packages you
have used so far.

b
.

How would such a package help you in a present or future job situation?

c.

How would you improve the package you used?


三、

Real World Case

Studies


Case
1
:

Sap makes push into smaller business market

Case 2:
Peer
-
to
-
Peer (P2P) computing and your business

Ca
se
3
:
Making XML work in business

Case
4
: Wielding influence