The Microbial World Lecture 13

messengerrushBiotechnology

Feb 21, 2013 (4 years and 7 months ago)

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LACTOCOCCUS

LACTIS


WISCONSIN’S STATE

MICROBE

Wisconsin

s largest industry is

1.
agriculture

2.
tourism

3.
manufacturing

4.
biotechnology

Agriculture is Wisconsin's largest industry at an
estimated $51.5 billion.

What proportion of agriculture in Wisconsin is driven

by the dairy industry?

1.
80%

2.
40%

3.
20%

4.
10%

5.
5%

40%
……

Dairying is the largest segment,
representing $20.6 billion in Wisconsin's economy
-

larger than both manufacturing and tourism.

Which of these Wisconsin industries employ the use of

microbes?

1. Agriculture

2. Biotechnology

3. Brewing

4. Cheese making

5. Tourism

All these Wisconsin industries involve the use of

microbes.

Agriculture

Biotechnology

Brewing

Cheese making

Tourism


Farmers depend on microbes for soil fertility.

Agriculture

Farmers use microbes

including
Lactococcus


for silage fermentation.

Wisconsin leads the

Nation in corn silage

production.

Agriculture

Biotechnology

Biotechnology is the use of microbes and other types of cells to produce useful substances in medicine,
food science, agriculture and other human activities.
Lactococcus

is used in several aspects of
biotechnology, e.g. the production of cheese starter cultures, food preservation, production of lantobiotics
and development of vaccines.

Brewing

Brewing, like breadmaking, uses a yeast,
Saccharomyces cerevisiae
, for the conversion
of sugars to alcohol and/or carbon dioxide. Ethanol production from corn also empolys
this microbe.

Cheesemaking

accounts for $18.5 billion per year


in Wisconsin

s economy.

A Traveler's Guide to
America's Dairyland




Wisconsin
--
land of clean air, lush
rolling hills and sparkling limestone
-
filtered water
--
is known for its world
-
class cheeses. As you travel through
the state and sample the best our
craftsmen and women have to offer,
you'll get a true taste of the rich
traditions that for well over 160 years
have shaped Wisconsin's ethnic and
culinary landscape.



Tourists attracted by a microbial activity
-

cheesemaking

Tourism

Which microbes are utilized in the manufacture

cheese, butter, sour cream, yogurt and other

fermented dairy products?

1.
Streptococcus

2.
Lactobacillus

3.
Lactococcus

4.
Propionibacter

5.
Penicillium

Microbes in the manufacture of dairy products

All are utilized, depending on the desired outcome!

Streptococcus

-

Italian cheese

Lactobacillus

-

Swiss cheese, yogurt

Lactococcus

-

Cheddar, Colby, sour cream, cottage
cheese, cultured butter

Propionibacter

-

Swiss cheese

Penicillium

-

Roquefort, Blue, Camembert

Microbes involved in manufacture of fermented dairy products

All cheese images
courtesy of
Wisconsin Cheese
Mart

Know Your State Symbols

What is the Wisconsin state animal?

What is the Wisconsin state beverage?

What is the Wisconsin state microbe?

What is the Wisconsin state microbe?

Lactococcus lactis

LACTOCOCCUS

LACTIS


WISCONSIN’S STATE

MICROBE


Dairy Facts And Figures

Lactococcus lactis
ssp
lactis

Image copyright Profood International
, Inc.

Dairy facts and figures


There are 12,872 licensed dairy herds in Wisconsin.

There are 1,260,000 dairy cows in the State.

Annual milk production per cow in Wisconsin is 18,240 lbs
.

Total milk production in Wisconsin is 24.5 billion pounds per year.

Total cheese production in Wisconsin in 2008 was 2.5 billion lbs. (25.9 percent of the U.S Total).


25.6% of cheese produced in Wisconsin is the Cheddar variety
.

626,558,000 lbs. of Cheddar cheese were manufactured in Wisconsin in 2007.

145,295,000 lbs. of Colby and Jack cheeses were produced in Wisconsin in 2007.

There are 124 cheese plants in Wisconsin.

Per capita cheese consumption in the U.S (2007) was 32.7 lbs.

52.5 percent of all milk in the U.S is made into cheese or butter.

Over 90 percent of Wisconsin
-
produced milk is made into cheese or butter
.

One pound of butter requires 21.2 lbs. whole milk.

One pound of whole milk cheese requires 10.0 lbs. of milk
.

One pound of cottage cheese requires 6.25 lbs. skim milk.

Over 90 percent of Wisconsin cheese is sold outside of the State.


Dairy agriculture and cheese production create more than 80,000 jobs in the State and pump 21.5 billion
dollars into the economy.

All cheese images courtesy of
Wisconsin Cheese Mart


Never underestimate the power of the microbe


-

L. Pasteur


Other Applications and uses for
Lactococcus


Nisin


Starter Cultures


Vaccine Delivery


Genomic applications

Nisin



Nisin is antibiotic
-
like substance produced by
Lactococcus
lactis
. Nisin has antimicobial activity against a wide variety of
Gram
-
positive bacteria, including food
-
borne pathogens such
as
Listeria, Staphylococcus

and
Clostridium
.

Nisin molecule and
Lactococcus lactis

image copyright Profood International, Inc. http://www.profoodinternational.com/nisin
-
profood.html

Starter Cultures


Starter cultures have crucial roles to play during all phases of
the cheese making and maturation process.

http://www.eatwisconsincheese.com

Starter cultures, consisting of bacterial cultures,
including
Lactococcus lactis
, are added to start the
cheesemaking process.
As the culture grows in the
milk, it converts lactose to lactic acid. This ensures the
correct pH for coagulation and influences the final
moisture content, texture and flavor of the product.

Lactococcus

and Vaccine Delivery


Lactococcus

can be genetically engineered to produce
proteins from pathogenic species on their cell surfaces.


This includes human pathogens such as
Streptococcus
pyogenes, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus
influenzae, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Bordetella pertussis

and
Neisseria meningitidis
, among others.

Buccato, S., et al. 2006. Use of
Lactococcus lactis

Expressing Pili from Group B
Streptococcus as a Broad
-
Coverage
Vaccine against Streptococcal Disease
.
The Journal of Infectious Diseases 2006. 194:331
-
340.


Hanniffy, S.B., et al. 2007. Mucosal Delivery of a
Pneumococcal Vaccine

Using
Lactococcus lactis

Affords
Protection against Respiratory Infection
. The
Journal of Infectious Diseases 2007. 195:185
-
93.

Lee, M.H., et al. 2001. Expression of
Helicobacter pylori

urease subunit B gene in
Lactococcus
lactis
MG1363 and its
use as a vaccine delivery system against
H. pylori

infection

in mice. Vaccine 2001. 19:3927
-
3931.


Ribeiro, L.A., et al. 2002. Production and Targeting of the
Brucella abortus

Antigen L7/L12 in
Lactococcus lactis
: a First Step towards Food
-
Grade
Live Vaccines against
Brucellosis
. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 2002. 68:910
-
916.


Xin, K.Q., et al. 2003 Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of orally administered recombinant
Lactococcus lactis

expressing surface
-
bound HIV Env
. Blood 2003. 10:223
-
228.


Robinson, K., et al. 2004. Mucosal and cellular immune responses elicited by recombinant
strains of
Lactococcus lactis
expressing tetanus toxin fragment C
. Infection and
Immunity 2004. 72: 2753
-
2756.


Bermudez
-
Humaran, L.G., et al. 2005. A Novel Mucosal Vaccine Based on Live Lactococci
Expressing E7 Antigen and IL
-
12 Induces Systemic and Mucosal Immune Responses and
Protects Mice against Human Papilloma Virus

Type 16
-
Induced Tumors. The
Journal of immunology 2005. 175:7297
-
7302.


Ramasamay, R. et al. 2006.
Immunogenicity of a malaria parasite antigen

displayed
by
Lactococcus lactis

in oral immunisations. Vaccine 2006. 24:3900
-
3908.


Lactococcus

and Vaccine Delivery

The
Lactococcus

Genome


Understanding and manipulating the
Lactococcus lactis

genome will allow improvement of flavor, texture, and
preservation of 10 million tons of cheese produced annually,
and facilitate current and future work that aims to exploit
Lactococcus lactis

for a variety of medical and health
maintenance applications.

Links


Steps in Making Cheese

http://www.eatwisconsincheese.com/wisconsin/how_cheese_is_made.aspx


History of Wisconsin Cheese

http://www.eatwisconsincheese.com/wisconsin/history_of_wisconsin_cheese.aspx


http://nationalhistoriccheesemakingcenter.org/Cheese
-
Making
-
Gallery.aspx



Request a "Traveler's Guide to America's Dairyland"

http://www.eatwisconsincheese.com/wisconsin/travelers_guide.aspx



Request a copy of the

Wisconsin Cheese Variety Guide


http://www.eatwisconsincheese.com/cheese/requestguide.aspx


Wisconsin Dairy Statistics

http://www.wisdairy.com/otherdairyproductinfo/dairystatistics.aspx


Buy Cheese

Wisconsin Cheese Mart

http://www.wisconsincheesemart.com


Cheese Videos

http://www.wisconsincheesemart.com/cheese
-
videos
-
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